吴冠中

 吴冠中(1919—2010),江苏宜兴人,当代著名画家、油画家、美术教育家。油画代表作有《长江三峡》、《北国风光》、《小鸟天堂》、《黄山松》、《鲁迅的故乡》等。个人文集有《吴冠中谈艺集》《吴冠中散文选》《美丑缘》等十余种 。

  • 中文名吴冠中
  • 外文名wu guan zhong
  • 别名
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍江苏省宜兴县
  • 出生地江苏省宜兴县
  • 出生日期1919年
  • 逝世日期2010年6月25日
  • 职业画家、油画家、美术教育家
  • 毕业院校巴黎国立高级美术学校
  • 主要成就法国文艺最高勋位
  • 代表作品《长江三峡》;《鲁迅的故乡》;《春雪》《长城》
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杭州农村回迁房惊呆网友:简直住进吴冠中的画里

jinhong 02-09 浏览

吴冠中笔下的旧时江南,白屋连绵成片,黛瓦参差错落,曾经是寻常巷陌,多年后却是很多人记忆中永远回不去的故乡。 吴冠中画作 然而春节前,随着gad建筑设计总监孟凡浩在微博上晒出一组富阳东梓...
人物生平

吴冠中在50~70年代,致力于风景油画创作,并进行油画民族化的探
索。他力图把欧洲油画描绘自然的直观生动性、油画色彩的丰富细腻性与中国传统艺术精神、审美理想融合到一起。
从70年代起,吴冠中渐渐兼事中国画创作。他力图运用中国传统材料工具表现现代精神,并探求中国画的革新。
1919年8月29日(阴历闰七月初五)出生于江苏省宜兴县闸口乡一个农民家庭。
1926年,就读吴氏小学。1930年,入宜兴县县立鹅山小学学习。
1931年,小学毕业,考入无锡师范学校。
1934年,完成三年师范初中,入读浙江大学代办的工业学校电机科。
1935年,投考国立杭州艺术专科学校。
1936年,入国立杭州艺专习西画,兼学中国画及水彩画。
1937年,抗日战争爆发,校长林风眠率领全校师生,与人民一起撤离杭州。
1938年,艺专附中结业,升入本科学油画,师事常书鸿及关良。同时亦学习中国画。
1940年,转学中国画,成了潘天寿的学生,临摹了不少历代绘画精品。
1941年,仍迷恋油画色彩,转回油画系。
1942年,毕业于国立杭州艺术专科学校。任国立重庆大学助教。
1943年,于四川重庆沙坪坝青年宫举办第一次个人画展。
1946年,考取全国公费留学绘画第一名,赴法国留学。
1947年,就读于巴黎国立高等美术学校苏弗尔皮教授工作室进修油画。
1948年,作品参加巴黎春季沙龙展和秋季沙龙展。
1950年,留学归国,任教于中央美术学院1953年,任清华大学建筑系副教授
1956年,任教于北京艺术学院
1964年,任教于中央工艺美术学院
1970年,“文革”期间被下放到河北农村劳动
1973年,调回北京参加宾馆画创作
1978年,中央工艺美术学院主办“吴冠中作品展”
1979年,当选中国美术家协会常务理事
1987年,香港艺术中心主办“吴冠中回顾展”
1991年,法国文化部授予其法国文艺最高勋位
1992年,大英博物馆打破了只展出古代文物的惯例,首次为在世画家吴冠中举办“吴冠中——二十世纪的中国画家”展览,并郑重收藏了吴冠中的巨幅彩墨新作《小鸟天堂》
1993年,法国巴黎塞纽奇博物馆举办“走向世界——吴冠中油画水墨速写展”,并颁发给他“巴黎市金勋章”
1994年,当选为全国政协常委
1999年,国家文化部主办“吴冠中画展”2000年,入选法兰西学院艺术院通讯院士,是首位获此殊荣的中国籍艺术家,这也是法兰西学院成立近二百年来第一位亚洲人获得这一职位
2006年12月26日,香港中文大学授予吴冠中教授“荣誉文学博士”衔
2007年8月,湖南美术出版社出版《吴冠中全集》
2010年6月25日晚23时57分于北京医院病逝享年91岁。

艺术之路

从无锡师范初中部毕业后,吴冠中考入浙江大学代办省立高级工业职业学校。1936年转入杭州艺术专科学校,从李超士、常书鸿及潘天寿等学习中、西绘画。1942年毕业,任国立重庆大学助教。1946年考取公费赴法国留学。1947~1950年在巴黎高等美术学校J苏弗尔皮教授工作室进修油画;同时在A洛特工作室学习,并在卢佛尔美术史学校学习美术史,各项成绩优异。
吴冠中1950年秋返国。先后任教于中央美术学院、清华大学建筑系、北京艺术学院、中央工艺美术学院。现任中央工艺美术学院教授、中国美术家协会常务理事,全国政协委员等职。
吴冠中在50~70年代,致力于油画风景创作,并进行油画民族化的探索。他力图把欧洲油画描绘自然的直观生动性、油画色彩的丰富细腻性与中国传统艺术精神、审美理想融合到一起。他擅长表现江南水乡景色,如初春的新绿、薄薄的雾霭、水边村舍、黑瓦白墙,和谐、清新的色调,宁静、淡美的境界,使画面产生一种抒情诗般的感染力。
从70年代起,吴冠中渐渐兼事中国画创作。他力图运用中国传统材料工具表现现代精神,并探求中国画的革新。他的水墨画构思新颖,章法别致,善于将诗情画意通过点、线、面的交织而表现出来。他喜欢简括对象,以半抽象的形态表现大自然音乐般的律动和相应的心理感受。既富东方传统意趣,又具时代特征,令观者耳目一新。
作为美术教育家,吴冠中注重学生艺术个性的培育。作为善思考的艺术家,他又勤于著述,立论独特,而且文字生动流畅。其中关于抽象美、形式美、形式决定内容、生活与艺术要如风筝不断线等观点,曾引起美术界的争论。

作品成就

吴冠中的油画代表作有《长江三峡》、《鲁迅的故乡》等。中国画代表作有《春雪》及《狮子林》、《长城》等。出版有《吴冠中画集》、《吴冠中画选》、《吴冠中油画写生》、《吴冠中国画选辑》(1~4)及《东寻西找集》、《风筝不断线》、《天南地北》、《谁家粉本》、《吴冠中素描、色彩画选》、《吴冠中中国画选一辑》、《吴冠中散文选》等。
吴冠中是20世纪现代中国绘画的代表画家之一。他为中国现代绘画做出了很大的贡献。长期以来,他不懈地探索东西方绘画两种艺术语言的不同美学观念,坚韧不拔地实践着“油画民族化”、“中国画现代化”的创作理念,形成了鲜明的艺术特色。他执著地守望着“在祖国、在故乡、在家园、在自己心底”的真切情感,表达了民族和大众的审美需求。吴冠中的作品具有很高的文化品格,从20世纪80年代开始,他的艺术观念和绘画创作就适应历史发展和时代的需要,推动了中国现代绘画观念的演变和发展。
吴冠中在美术创作和美术教育上取得了巨大成就,致力于油画民族化和中国画现代化的探索,在海内外享有很高声誉。多次在中国美术馆和全国十余个主要城市举办个人画展,并先后在新加坡国家博物馆、香港艺术中心、美国旧金山中华文化中心、伯明翰博物馆、堪萨斯大学艺术馆、纽约州圣约翰博物馆及底特律博物馆、大英博物馆、巴黎市立塞纽奇博物馆等举办画展。已出版个人画集50余种、个人文集有《吴冠中谈艺集》、《吴冠中散文选》、《美丑缘》、《生命的风景》、《吴冠中文集》等十余种。

生活轶事

淡泊与专注
在吴冠中先生眼里,艺术市场受到人际关系、利益包装、经济沉浮等
 人们无法回避的因素影响。庄子曾谓“凡外重者内拙”。吴冠中则如是说:艺术是自然形成的,时代一定会有真诚的挽留和无情的淘汰。艺术市场是一面镜子。但上帝只会关照一心去创作的画家,而不是光照镜子的人。智者所见略同。
关于“笔墨”
吴冠中:这个观点太陈旧了。我的意思是第一不能离开画面,脱离了画面,单独的线条、颜色都是零。笔墨不是程式化的东西。
一以贯之
1991年9月,吴冠中整理家中藏画时,将不满意的几百幅作品全部毁掉,此番被海外人士称为“烧豪华房子”的毁画行动,目的只有一个:保留让明天的行家挑不出毛病的画!不久,笔者便亲身领略了吴冠中的认真劲儿。1993年初,人民日报海外版、解放军报与香港东方艺术中心联合举办“东方杯”国际水墨画大赛,邀请吴冠中评委会主任。评奖的当天上午,七十多岁的吴先生准时来到人民日报社,穿一身休闲的西服,脚着运动鞋。
第一轮,淘汰不佳的作品。礼堂四壁挂满画作,有的只能放在地上。粗劣不堪的作品自然遭淘汰,但形式不错的也会有同样的命运。每每见到模仿评委画风的作品,评委们都会会心一笑:拿下!所有模仿作品一概落选。模仿妨碍艺术家的真情流露。担任评委会主任的吴冠中给大赛的题词是:“自家真情,勿效东施。”
第二轮,评一、二、三等奖及优秀奖。吴先生认真地审视每一幅作品,远看近观,有时屈膝下蹲审视作品,不时在小本子上认真记录,整整忙碌了一整天。
1993年11月,74岁的吴冠中状告两家拍卖公司拍卖假冒他名义的伪作《毛泽东炮打司令部》侵权,要求对方停止侵害、消除影响、公开赔礼道歉,同时赔偿经济损失。最终,吴冠中胜诉。“骗得了今天的人,骗不了明天的人,”吴冠中告诫人们说。
吴先生曾经形象地概括了处理出入关系的诀窍。他曾这样为青年画家指点迷津:“你一定要穿着大师的拖鞋走一走,然后把拖鞋扔了,在穿和脱的过程中,你就会找到自己。我就是这么走过来的。”
吴冠中曾在文章中写道:“从艺以来,如猎人生涯,深山追虎豹,弯弓射大雕。不获猎物则如丧家之犬,心魂失尽依托。在猎取中,亦即创造中,耗尽生命,但生命之花年年璀璨,人虽瘦,心胸是肥硕壮实的。”自评新作道:“反刍之草,沧桑味苦,却更接近人生真味。思往事,往往更概括,更突出了某处眉眼,画面随之而呈现简约,强调创痛,呈现无奈——人生之曲,不凭音色悦耳,当亦有未老、将老或老之知音。”吴先生曾说过“一切艺术不止于音乐,而进于诗,诗更蕴人情”。他还说过:“我说过这话,齐白石可以没有,多一个少一个也无所谓,但是鲁迅不一样,我是单从社会功能上说的,他们的影响不一样。齐白石画得很好,我也很喜欢,但是一个民族,一个国家需要鲁迅。少一个鲁迅,中国的脊梁要软得多。”

English Introduction

Wu Guanzhong in 50 ~ 70s, is committed to the creation of landscape painting, and the exploration of the nationalization of oil painting
Cable. He tried to paint the European oil painting natural intuitive vivid, rich and delicate oil painting color and the spirit of traditional Chinese art, the aesthetic ideal of integration.
From 70s onwards, Wu Guanzhong gradually and things Chinese painting creation. He tried to use Chinese traditional materials tools to show the modern spirit, and to explore the innovation of Chinese painting.
August 29, 1919 (lunar calendar July the beginning of the five leap gate in Jiangsu province) was born in a peasant family in Yixing county.
In 1926, Wu attended primary school. In 1930, studying in Yixing County goose Hill Primary school.
In 1931, graduated from primary school, was admitted to the Wuxi normal school.
1934, completed three years of normal junior high school, enrolled in the school of science and technology, Zhejiang University, the Department of electrical engineering.
In 1935, for Hangzhou national art school.
In 1936, the Hangzhou National College of art and China studied western painting painting and watercolor painting.
1937, the outbreak of the war of resistance against Japan, President Lin Fengmian led the school teachers and students, and the people together to evacuate Hangzhou.
In 1938, his high school graduation, to the science of painting, Chang Shuhong Peterman and Guan liang. At the same time also learn Chinese painting.
In 1940, China transfer painting, became a pupil of Pan Tianshou's, a lot of copying painting boutique.
1941, still infatuated with the color of oil painting, the reversal of the Department of oil painting.
In 1942, graduated from the national Hangzhou art academy. Chongqing University assistant professor.
1943, in Chongqing, Shapingba Youth Palace held the first solo exhibition in Sichuan.
In 1946, a national scholarship to study abroad painting first, went to France to study abroad.
In 1947, at the Paris National College of Fine Arts Professor Su's skin study painting studio.
In 1948, works to participate in the Paris spring salon show and autumn salon exhibition.
1950, returned from abroad, to teach in 1953, China Central Academy of Fine Arts, as an associate professor of Architecture Department of Tsinghua University
In 1956, he taught at the Beijing Academy of Arts
In 1964, taught at the central technology Academy of Fine Arts
1970, the cultural revolution period was under the Hebei rural labor
In 1973, moved to Beijing to attend the hotel drawing
In 1978, the central process of Academy of Fine Arts, sponsored by Wu Guanzhong works exhibition"
In 1979, he was elected executive director of China Artists Association
In 1987, the Hongkong Art Center hosted the Wu Guanzhong retrospective exhibition"
In 1991, the French Ministry of culture awarded the highest order of French Literature
In 1992, British Museum broke the ancient cultural relics displayed only for the first time in practice, the painter Wu Guanzhong held "Wu Guanzhong - China painter" exhibition in twentieth Century, and made a collection of Wu Guanzhong's huge new "Bird Paradise" color
In 1993, the French Paris Sainiuqi Museum "to the world - Wu Guanzhong painting ink sketch show", and awarded him the gold medal "in Paris city"
1994, was elected to the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee
In 1999, the Ministry of culture organized by the "Wu Guanzhong Art Exhibition" in 2000, selected the College France art academician, was the first award of the Chinese artists, this is the College France nearly two hundred years since the establishment of the first Asian to get this job
In December 26, 2006, Chinese University Hong Kong awarded professor Wu Guanzhong "honorary doctorate of literature" title
In August 2007, the Hunan Fine Arts Publishing House published "the complete works of Wu Guanzhong"
The evening of June 25, 2010 at 23:57 in the Beijing Hospital died at the age of 91.

From Wuxi normal junior high school after graduation, Wu Guanzhong was admitted to the Zhejiang University for provincial industrial high school occupation. 1936 transferred to the Hangzhou Academy of art, from Li, Chang Shuhong and Pan Tianshou and other learning, the West painting. 1942 graduated from the Chongqing University as assistant. In 1946 admitted to the public to study in france. From 1947 to 1950 in Paris Higher School of Fine Arts Professor Su J. The studio also studied oil painting skin; learning in A. Lott studio, the study of art history and art history, Lu in the school, the results are excellent.
Wu Guanzhong returned to the autumn of 1950. Has taught at China Central Academy of Fine Arts, Tsinghua University, Department of architecture, the Beijing Institute of the arts, the central process of Academy of Fine Arts. He is currently the executive director of the Chinese Artists Association and the National Committee of the CPPCC National Committee and other members of the Chinese Artists Association.
Wu Guanzhong in 50 ~ 70s, is committed to the creation of oil painting landscape, and the exploration of the nationalization of oil painting. He tried to paint the European oil painting natural intuitive vivid, rich and delicate oil painting color and the spirit of traditional Chinese art, the aesthetic ideal of integration. He is good at the performance of Jiangnan scenery, such as early spring green, thin mist, waterside cottage, black tiles and white walls, harmonious, fresh color, quiet, light and beautiful realm, infection of the picture has a lyrical.
From 70s onwards, Wu Guanzhong gradually and things Chinese painting creation. He tried to use Chinese traditional materials tools to show the modern spirit, and to explore the innovation of Chinese painting. His painting art novel, unique, good will by a quality suggestive of poetry or painting point line surface interwoven show. He is in love, rhythm and corresponding psychological feelings in semi abstract form of musical nature. Both the rich traditional oriental charm, and the characteristics of the times, so that the audience find everything fresh and new.
As an art educator, Wu Guanzhong pays attention to the cultivation of students' artistic personality. As a thoughtful artist, he was diligent in writing, and the text argument is unique, vivid and smooth. In the view of abstract beauty, form beauty, form decision content, life and art, such as kite's constant line, it has caused the controversy of art circles.

Wu Guanzhong's oil painting represents "the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River", "Lu Xun's hometown" and so on. Chinese painting representative of "spring snow" and "Lion", "the Great Wall" etc.. The publication of "Wu Guanzhong album", "Wu Guanzhong", "Wu Guanzhong paintings", "Wu Guanzhong oil painting Chinese painting collection" (1 ~ 4) and "find the west looking east", "the kite line", "", "who fly far apart from each other," Wu Guanzhong "the sketch, color paintings," "Wu Guanzhong", a series of China paintings "Wu Guanzhong prose" etc..
Wu Guanzhong is one of the representatives of modern Chinese painting in twentieth Century. He made a great contribution to Chinese modern painting. For a long time, his tireless efforts to explore the different aesthetic concept of Western painting art in two languages, firm and indomitable to practice the "nationalization of oil painting", "painting China modernization" creation concept, formed a distinctive artistic characteristics. He dedicated to keep watch in the motherland, in the hometown, in their homes, in their heart, the real feelings, expressing the national and the public's aesthetic needs. Wu Guanzhong's works have very high cultural character, from the beginning of 1980s, his artistic ideas and painting will need to adapt to the development of history and the times, to promote the evolution and development of the modern concept of painting China.
Wu Guanzhong has made great achievements in art creation and art education, devoted to the exploration of oil painting nationalization and modernization of Chinese painting, and enjoys a high reputation both at home and abroad. Many held a personal exhibition in Chinese gallery and national ten main city, and has held exhibitions in National Museum of Singapore, Hongkong Art Center, San Francisco cultural center, the Bermingham Museum, the University of Kansas Art Museum, New York Museum and Saint John Museum of Detroit, British Museum, Paris Municipal Museum Sainiuqi. Has published more than 50 kinds of personal collections, personal essays have "Wu Guanzhong art", "Wu Guanzhong", "beautiful prose", "edge of the scenery of life", "Wu Guanzhong anthology" a dozen.

Indifferent and attention
In MR Wu Guanzhong's eyes, by the interpersonal relationship, the art market benefits package, the economic ups and downs etc.
People can not avoid the impact of factors. Chuang-tzu once said "all in a person". Wu Guanzhong said: art is a natural form of the times, there must be sincere retention and ruthless elimination. The art market is a mirror. But God only takes care of the artist, not the man who is in the mirror. The 5.
About "pen and ink"
Wu Guanzhong: This is a very old idea. I mean the first can not leave the picture, from the picture, the separate lines, colors are zero. Pen and ink is not a formula.
One principle runs through it all
In September 1991, Wu Guanzhong arranged home paintings, hundreds of works will not be satisfied with all destroyed, overwhelmed overseas people known as the "burning luxury house" destroyed in action, only one purpose: to let the experts keep tomorrow not fault picture! Before long, the author has a taste of Wu Guanzhong's serious strength. At the beginning of 1993, people's Daily Overseas Edition, people's Liberation Army and the Hongkong Oriental Art Center jointly organized the "Oriental Cup" international painting contest, director Wu Guanzhong invited the jury. On that morning, more than and 70 year old Mr. Wu came to the people's daily, wearing a casual suit, foot athletic shoes.
The first round, the elimination of poor works. The hall walls covered with paintings, some can only be placed on the ground. The poor works of nature was eliminated, but the form of good will have the same fate. I saw the judges imitation style works, the judges will take a smile! All the works are not imitation. To imitate the true feelings of the artist. The inscription Wu Guanzhong served as director of the jury for the contest is: "their own true feelings, not her."
The second round, the one or two, three and other awards and outstanding award. Mr. Wu to examine each works carefully, far see a knee squat, sometimes look at work, from time to time in a small book carefully recorded, for a busy day.
In November 1993, 74 year old Wu Guanzhong sued two auction companies auction counterfeit his name "Mao Zedong" pretending to bombard the headquarters of infringement, ask to stop infringement, eliminate the effect, make a public apology, and compensation for economic losses. In the end, Wu Guanzhong won. "The man who has cheated today, will not deceive tomorrow," Wu Guanzhong told people.
Mr. Wu has outlined the image to deal with the know-how of the relationship. He was so young painter Ariadne: "you must wear master slippers to walk, and then put the slippers away, in the process of wearing and taking off, you will find yourself. That's how I came here."
Wu Guanzhong once wrote: "Congyi, such as hunter career, the mountains after leopards, bow shoot eagles. Without prey such as homeless, lost heart on. In the hunt, which is created, exhausted life, but the flowers of life by bright, although thin, is a strong minded." Self comment on the new road: "the grass of the grass, the vicissitudes of life taste bitter, but more close to the real life. Think of the past, often more general, more prominent somewhere facial features, it has a simple picture, emphasizing the pain and helplessness -- life presents music, not by sound sweet, when there are not old, old or old friends." Mr. Wu said, "all art more than music to poetry, poems in". He also said: "I have said this, Qi Baishi can not, a little more than one also does not matter, but Lu Xun is not the same, I am a single from the social function, they are not the same effect. Qi Baishi draws well, I also like, but a nation, a country needs Lu Xun. A little Lu Xun, Chinese would not be stronger."

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