潘玉良

潘玉良(1895—1977年),中国著名女画家、雕塑家。1921年考得官费赴法留学,先后进了里昂中法大学和国立美专,与徐悲鸿同学,1923年又进入巴黎国立美术学院。潘玉良的作品陈列于罗马美术展览会,曾获意大利政府美术奖金。1929年,潘玉良归国后,曾任上海美专及上海艺大西洋画系主任,后任中央大学艺术系教授。1937年旅居巴黎,曾任巴黎中国艺术会会长,多次参加法、英、德、日及瑞士等国画展。曾为张大千雕塑头像,又作王济远像等。潘女士为东方考入意大利罗马皇家画院之第一人。

  • 中文名潘玉良
  • 别名杨秀清
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍中国江苏
  • 出生地扬州
  • 出生日期1895年
  • 逝世日期1977年
  • 职业画家、雕塑家
  • 毕业院校上海美术专科学校
  • 代表作品《格鲁赛头像》
艺术年表

1895年 潘玉良原名陈秀清,生于6月14日,江苏扬州人。后改姓名为张玉良。
1913年 被潘赞化纳为妾,改姓潘。
1917年 在上海开始从洪野学画。
1918年 潘玉良考取入海美术专门学校,从王济远、朱屺瞻学画。
1921年 潘玉良考取入国里昂“中法大学”。后又考入里昂国立美术专门学校,从德卡教授学画。
1923年 考取巴黎国立美术学院,从达仰、西蒙学画。
1925年考入意大利罗马国立美术学院,从康洛马蒂学画。
作油画《白菊》,在南京市教育局展览会展出。
1926年始习雕刻。
作油画《水果》、《罗马残迹》等。凡意大利国家美术展,其作品每必选入。
1927年作油画《酒仙》、《黑女》、《威尼斯》、《罗那丁》等。
习作油画《裸体》获意大利国际美术展览会金奖五仟意币。
1928年回国后,年底举办第一次个人画展。
作油画《自画像》和《清晨》等。
1929年任上海美术专门学校西画系主任。
参加“全国首届美展”,被誉为“中国西洋画家中第一流人物”。
1930年兼任新华艺专、中央大学(中央大学1949年更名为南京大学)教授、导师,执教往来于宁沪。
于上海创办“艺苑绘画研究所”。
在日本东京与王化联合举办画展。
作油画《春》、《白荡湖》等。
1931年专任南京中央大学(中央大学1949年更名为南京大学)艺术系教授。
作油画《我的家庭》、《倦马》等。
发起“中国美术会”。
协助蔡元培先生组织“中国美术学会”。
1932年作油画《虎丘塔》、《大中桥畔》、《采葡萄》、《两女生》、《牛场》、《通济门外》等。
1933年作油画《习作》、《芍药》等。
1934年捐赠玉雕佛像与支援绥远军民抗日的“义展”。田汉撰文高度评价。
潘玉良发表讲话,谴责一些人在抗日时期“远离现实”“话多画少”。
上海中华书局出版《潘玉良油画集》。
因鼻疾开刀,留下后遗症。
1935年《潘玉良画集》再版。
假期,游遍祖国名山大川,“游踪所至,尽入画库”。
1936年在南京期间,先后举办过四次个人画展。在最后一次画展中,作品有《陈独秀肖像》。
为今虞琴社作《严天池像》(严氏为明代琴宗),誉为“艺林盛事”。
1937年为参加巴黎的万国艺术博览会和筹办个人画展,再度赴欧。
1938年参加“沙龙”展览。
作《自画像》,自题诗云:“边塞峡江三更月,扬子江头万里心”。
1939年参加法国国家美术大宫举办的第53届“正式画展”,出品有《艺术家肖像》等。
作《自画像》。
参加“独立派沙龙”展览。
1940年参加第51届“独立派沙龙”画展,作品有《少女肖像》等。
巴黎沦陷,栖居郊区,教读鬻画为生,并捐款救国。
作《屠杀》以揭露法西斯罪行。
1941年作《处画像》、《裸女》等。
1942年进一步研究彩
1977年,这位旅居法国的一代画家逝世于巴黎。 遗作和遗物,已运回中国合肥市。
2012年10月,成为SAT考试阅读部分主角。讲述与丈夫潘赞化的故事

传奇画家

潘玉良是我国旅法最早最著名的女画家,曾两次远渡重洋,在巴黎从事艺术活动达50多个春秋。她的油画作品融合中西,色彩线条互相依存,用笔俊逸洒脱,气韵生动,赋色浓艳,雍容华贵,别有趣味。她一生之中留下2000多件艺术作品,也留下了许许多多,可歌可泣的传奇故事。
传奇身世
潘玉良,原名杨秀清,又名张玉良。1895年出生于江苏扬州。她出生那年,父亲病故,8岁时母亲又撒手人寰。13岁时她被赌棍的舅父骗到芜湖,卖给了妓院当烧火丫头。
在妓院4年之中,因拒绝接客,逃跑10次,毁容上吊数回,幸亏遇到芜湖盐督潘赞化多次相救,并且替玉良赎身,跳出火炕。
潘赞化,早年毕业于日本东京早稻田大学,是同盟会会员。1913年和张玉良结成伉俪,张改姓潘,证婚人是陈独秀。
婚后夫妇二人住在上海,潘玉良求知欲和上进心很强,潘赞化特请了一位老师教玉良读书,玉良天性对色彩敏感,喜欢画画。1918年考入上海美术专科学校后,玉良十分珍惜这次难得的机会,勤奋刻苦,成绩优异,经常受到教师和校长刘海粟的激励。潘玉良自己说:“不止一次地从梦中笑醒。”因此,玉良也受到一些人的妒恨,一时间流言蜚语,漫天飞舞。
潘赞化不为世俗偏见所动支持玉良。最终潘玉良以优异的成绩完成学业。1921年留法勤工俭学兴起,潘玉良考取留法深造,从此远渡重洋,同行的还有苏雪林、林宝权、罗振英、杨润余等13名女生,在“法华教育会”安排下,离开上海港口驶向遥远的欧洲。
学成报国
潘玉良先到法国里昂“中法大学”学习法文,两个月后考进里昂国立美术专科学校学习油画,两年后毕业。考取巴黎国立美术学院,师从达仰·西蒙,与徐悲鸿师出同门。1925年参加意大利美术展览获奖章和5000里拉的奖金。
1928年冬季,潘玉良学成归国,受聘于上海美术专科学校任西画系主任。年底举办回国后第一次画展,中华书局还出版了一本《潘玉良画册》,其中《壮士头像》被当时的外交部部长以1000银元收购,轰动一时。抗战期间,潘玉良以极大的热情投身于当时美术界义展义卖活动,发表讲话,谴责一些“知名人士”远离现实话多画少。结果受到一些无耻之徒诽谤攻击“妓女不能玷污象牙之塔”等等谗言污语。玉良不为所动,她以加倍的努力投身艺术创作和社会活动。她创作油画“白菊”,寄托自己对艺术,对爱情的无限忠诚。
重渡西洋
1937年,潘玉良为参加巴黎举办的“万国博览会”和举办自己的画展,再次赴欧,此后就客居巴黎40多年。今年60多岁的旅法画家贺慕群告诉笔者:“侨居巴黎后我和潘玉良常有来往,在艺术上和生活上都曾得到她的指导和帮助。潘玉良生活并不富裕,但是生性豪爽乐于助人。她常留短发,喜喝酒,不拘细节,说话时声音很大,气势不让须眉,颇有男子气度。晚年时住在蒙巴拿斯附近的一条小街,她住在顶楼,住房兼画室,生活清苦,但是勤于作画,有时候一天到晚在家作画,一天都不出来。1954年,法国曾拍过一部记录片《蒙巴拿斯人》,介绍这个地区文化名人,其中就有潘玉良,她是片中唯一的一个东方人。”
潘玉良还参加过法国的51届、55届、56届“法国独立沙龙展”,油画《裸女》参加1946年“秋季沙龙展”、联合国举办的“现代国际艺术展”,并且在美国、英国、意大利、希腊等国巡展。荣获过“法国国家金质奖章”、“巴黎大学多尔烈奖”、“法国艺术家协会鼓励奖”、“比利时布鲁塞尔银奖”等等。玉良除油画之外,创作了雕塑《格鲁赛头像》、《蒙德梭鲁头像》,分别为巴黎尚拿士奇博物馆和法国国立教育学院收藏。
人世沧桑
1960年潘赞化在安徽病逝,玉良悲痛欲绝,遥望蓝天,忧郁成病。此后身体时好时差,随着年岁的增长,体力的衰退,玉良更加思念故土和亲人。1976年她给儿子潘牟信写信:“我一接到家信,就想到我的问题……我想把身体养好了,就回祖国了……”。
在法国,画家是属于自由职业者,要靠卖画维持自己的生活,在巴黎又是高消费的城市,潘玉良为人忠厚诚实,没有代理商代理出售作品,她更不会经营宣传“推销”自己,历年来,卖画极少。尤其是到了晚年,年老体衰,往往入不敷出。只能靠社会补助金维持生计,一个人过着无依无靠的日子。
潘玉良生活的圈子很窄,其中王守义是她极少数的好朋友之一。王守义是早期来法勤工俭学的学生。与潘玉良是先后勤工俭学的同学。王守义为人善良,富有同情心,他在巴黎圣·米歇街开了一间中餐馆,取名叫东方饭店。他工作之余,经常去看望这位清贫的老同学。有时候早上去看望玉良,陪她到公园散步,中午一起到他的餐馆用餐。有一年玉良的画室漏雨,不能作画,也是王守义去买材料修理装修。多少岁月,多少风雨,多少真情,王守义总是默默地接济帮助这位老画家,给她带来一丝温暖。
魂归故里
1964年中法建交,黄镇任首任驻法大使。黄镇早年毕业于上海艺专,他几次去看望潘玉良,同时介绍祖国的发展情况。潘玉良顿生回国看望亲人,从事写生创作之念。她写信给她的儿子,要他办理回国探亲手续,可惜宿愿未了,“文化大革命”烽烟已起。等到运动结束,玉良已是百病缠身,医生不允许她再作长途旅行。她是多么希望在有生之年能把自己的作品运回祖国,给亲人一睹真面目啊!
“边塞峡江三更月,扬子江头万里心。”(玉良诗)。越是暮年,玉良思乡之心越切,尤其到了最后的岁月,自知来日不多。女画家的枕头下面,总是留有一张字条,下面写着:“这是我的家信,如果我死了,烦朋友们将这封信寄给小孙潘忠玉留作纪念。中国,安庆市,郭家桥41号。”
1977年7月22日,潘玉良在病贫交迫之中,默默地离开了人间。
1985年,经过吕霞光等人的努力,在中国驻法使馆的帮助之下,将潘玉良的遗作,共计2000多件,运回潘玉良的故乡安徽省博物馆,筹建“潘玉良纪念馆”。潘玉良的生前愿望,潘玉良的艺术心血结晶,终于魂归故里与祖国人民见面。

艺术特点

潘玉良的油画不论是气度、修养,还是技术,在中国早期女西画家中,无人可比,在男性西画家中,也数上乘水准。她的画风基本以印象派的外光技法为基础,再融合自己的感受才情,作画不妩媚,不纤柔,反而有点“狠”。用笔干脆俐落,用色主观大胆,但又非常漂亮。面对她的画总让人有一种毫不掩饰的情绪,她的豪放性格和艺术追求在她酣畅泼辣的笔触下和色彩里表露无遗,天生一副艺术家气质。
她与别的西画家所不同的是,对各种美术形式都有所涉及,且造诣很深:风景、人物、静物、雕塑、版画、国画,无所不精,传统写实、近代印象派和现代画派乃至于倾向中国风的中西融合……都大胆探索、游刃有余,有出色的表现。其中印象派技术和东方艺术情调是她绘画演变的两大根基,由此及彼形成了她艺术发展的轨迹。
潘玉良是民初女性接受新美术教育成为画家的极少数例子。女性画家限于客观条件,要成功往往比男性困难,必须付出许多牺牲,才能成就事业,潘玉良即是这样的例子。
潘玉良1899处生于扬州。本姓张,由于父母早逝,14岁时卖至青楼,后为潘赞化赎出,纳为如夫人,遂从潘姓。1918年她入刘海粟办的上海美专就读,1921年毕业,是年以官费名义出国留学。先入法国东部里昂美术学院,隔年,再改进巴黎美术学院,进入吕西安。西教授工作室,直到1925年。此年前后,因国内动乱,官费时断,是留学生艰苦的一段。加上巴黎生活不易,于是许多人离开法国,潘玉良则选择到意大利继续进修。她于1925年入罗马国立艺术学院,随科学诺马尔迪教授学习,先攻油画,后兼事雕塑,两方面都达到相当的造诣。
潘玉良在意大利时,逢上海艺专刘海粟访罗马,遂聘她回国任教,结束八年留欧生活。这是她在欧洲生活的第一阶段。1929年,潘玉良回国,先在上海美专任教,于到南京中央大学艺术系,与徐悲鸿分别主持中大画室。她原有献身国内美术教育的心,但早年不幸的出身,使她难以在保守的中国社会中立足。1937年,她终于再离开住了八年的中国,重返巴黎,此后一住四十年,直到去世。
1939年,她再到法国时,正值欧战前夕,局势紧张,许多留法习画者正纷纷离去。战争期中,不仅生活不安定,绘画工具的材料也十分缺乏,一般的画展活动也不能如期进行,直到1944年八月巴黎解放,社会才慢慢回复正常。她积极投入创作,每年定期参加在巴黎的一些团体展,如法国艺术家沙龙、独立沙龙、秋季沙龙等活动。1948年10月,她与刚从上海来巴黎不久的赵无极以及其他两位中国画家举行过联展。认识潘玉良的朋友说,她个性很强,有三不女士的称号,一生坚持不入外国国籍,不恋爱,不和任何画商签定合同,努力做一个独立的人。这样的想法,前两者对她似乎不难,但第三项就颇影响她在巴黎艺术坛的利益,特别是战后,艺术家与画廊的合作更形密切,拒绝与画商合作,成功的机会就减少。
潘玉良虽不与一般画商合作,但仍有赏识她才华的法国文化界人士,邀请她在巴黎塞努希博物馆举行展览。她一生最大的荣誉是1959年9月巴黎大学赠与她奖章,授奖典礼在该校举行,主席致词时,盛赞她在艺术上的成就,说二十年前,她的作品就进入秋季沙龙,1953年至1959年两次巡过个人展,使她在日本、比利时、英国、德国、希腊、卢森堡、意大利、都获得成功。她的画富有雕塑感,很有创造性;她的雕塑有绘画的风味。
潘玉良一生作油画、水黑画、版画、雕塑、素描、速写多达四千多件,巴黎市政府收藏有她的作品,其中数件经常陈列于塞努希博物馆。心系祖国的潘玉良于1977年客死异乡。在中国艺坛屡遭排挤,却在异国穷四十年之力而大放光芒,为穷人争气,为祖国争光。其学生王守意遵其遗嘱,将她作品和遗物运回大陆。着旗袍入殓。

人物评价

西方评论家对潘玉良的评价,以法国东方美术研究家应赛夫为其画展特刊所讲的一段话为代表:“她的作品合中西画之长,又赋予自己的个性色彩。她的素描具有中国书法的笔致,以生动的线条来形容实体的柔和与自在,这是潘夫人独创的风格。她的油画含有中国传统水墨画技法,用清雅的色调点染画面,色彩的深浅疏密与线体互相依存,很自然地显露出远近明暗、虚实、气韵生动…她用中国书法的笔法来描绘万物,对现代艺术已作出丰富的贡献。”
潘玉良的作品现藏于安徽省博物馆、法国赛努希博物馆、巴黎现代美术博物馆、法国国立教育学院、台北市立美术馆及私人收藏家手中。这位真正具现了最能吃苦、有恒心和不示弱的艺术家,其惊人的毅力及勤奋的治学精神,实足成为了后人的典范。
在目前的拍卖市场上,潘玉良作品的最高价出现在2005佳士得秋季拍卖会上,其在1949年创作的《自画像》以1021.8万元的价格成交。在这幅画里,潘玉良酒酣耳热,敞衣袒胸,醉意淋漓,形象正如人们描述的那样:喜好喝酒,不拘细节,气势不让须眉,颇有男子气度。显示了其希望突破世俗封建束缚的愿望。裸体女性是潘玉良画作中经常表现的一面,这主要显示其一心向往自由创作,力争女性自主意识。同时,我们也可以在画作中看到其女性独有的细腻柔美。她的油画《有扇子静物》,曾经在上海拍出过66万元。静物主体仍是黄金比率的三角构图,但布纹桌面和背景的切割上却具有野兽派激情块然的影子,然而在色彩上却又回归印象派较为柔和沉淀的暖色基调,而八分折扇的视觉效果显着地提点出潘玉良深植内心的中国情思与文化血缘。
 

English Introduction

Pan Yuliang, formerly known as 1895, was born in Yangzhou, Jiangsu in June 14th. After changing the name of Zhang Yuliang.
In 1913 by the pan Zhanhua as concubines, surname pan.
From the beginning of 1917 under Hong Ye painting in Shanghai.
In 1918, Pan Yuliang admitted to the College of fine arts, from Wang Jiyuan, Zhu Qizhan painting.
In 1921 Pan Yuliang admitted into the French university in lyon". After he was admitted to the National de Lyon art school, Professor of painting from decca.
1923 admitted to the national Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, up from the back, the West Mongolian painting.
Italy in 1925 was admitted to the national Academy of Fine Arts in Rome, from the Kang Loma pedicle painting.
Oil painting "white chrysanthemum", in Nanjing City Bureau of education exhibition.
1926 learning sculpture.
As the "fruit", "Rome oil painting" remnant etc.. Where the Italy national art exhibition, the work required in each.
1927 oil painting "," black girl "brewmaster", "Venice", "Luo Ding that" etc..
Oil painting "nude" writing for the Italy International Art Exhibition Award five Qianyi coins.
After returning home in 1928, held the end of the first personal exhibition.
For oil painting "self portrait" and "morning".
In 1929, the director of Oil Painting Department of Shanghai fine arts school.
In "the first national art exhibition", known as "the first Western painter in figure China".
In 1930, Centre College (concurrently Xinhua Art School of Centre College in 1949 renamed the Nanjing University) Professor, tutor, coach from jiangsu.
In Shanghai, the founder of "Yiyuan painting research institute".
Joint exhibition held in Tokyo, Japan and wang.
For oil painting "spring", "white swing Lake" and so on.
Centre College in Nanjing (1949 1931 full-time Centre College was renamed Nanjing University professor of art).
For painting "my family", "tired horse" etc..
China Art association".
Assist Mr. Cai Yuanpei to organize "Chinese art society".
1932 oil painting "Huqiu tower", "bridge", "pan", "two girls pick grapes", "cattle" and "Tongji" door etc..
1933 oil painting "practice", "Peony" etc..
1934 donation Jade Buddha and support the Anti Japanese military and civilian Suiyuan "righteousness exhibition". Tian Han wrote highly evaluation.
Pan Yuliang delivered a speech condemning some people in the Anti Japanese period away from reality, the words less painting".
Shanghai Zhonghua published "Pan Yuliang painting collection".
Having surgery for nasal disease sequelae.
"Pan Yuliang album" 1935 edition.
Holiday, travel all over the country to travel, well-known mountains and rivers, "as in paintings".
During 1936 in Nanjing, has held four personal exhibitions. In the last exhibition, the works have "portrait of Chen Duxiu".
As "Yan Tianchi as Jinyu Qin society" (Yan Ming Dynasty Qin Zong), known as "Yilin event".
In 1937 at the Paris International Art Exposition and organizing personal exhibitions in Europe again.
1938 "salon" exhibition.
As a "self portrait", since the title poem: "the frontier of Xiajiang three months, Yangtze River head Wanli heart".
In 1939 the French National Art Palace hosted the fifty-third session of the "official exhibition", "produced a portrait of the artist".
As "self portrait".
Attend "independent Salon" exhibition.
1940 to participate in the fifty-first independent Salon Exhibition, works are portraits of girls, etc..
The fall of Paris, dwelling suburbs, Yu taught to read the painting for a living and saving donations.
Slaughter to expose fascist crimes.
At the 1941 "portrait", "nude" etc..
Further study in 1942
In 1977, the French resident generation artist died in Paris. This was brought back to China and relics of Hefei city.
October 2012, become part of the SAT exam reading protagonist. Tell the story with her husband pan Zanhua

Pan Yuliang is the first female artist I travel by the most famous, was two times over the sea, engaged in artistic activities in Paris for more than and 50 years. Her paintings of the fusion of Chinese and western, color lines depend on each other, his pen clear, vivid, rich color, Yong Ronghuagui, do not have fun. Her life left more than 2 thousand pieces of art works, but also left many legends, capable of evoking praises and tears.
Legendary life experience
Pan Yuliang, formerly known as Yang Xiuqing, also known as the president of the United States, also known as the. 1895 born in Jiangsu, Yangzhou. When she was born, his father died, the mother died at the age of 8. At the age of 13 she was a gambler uncle over to Wuhu, sold to brothels when a girl.
In a brothel in 4 years, for refusing to pick up, escape 10 times, hanging back thanks to disfigurement, Wuhu salt pan Du Zanhua repeatedly to the rescue, and for his ransom, jump out of bed.
Pan Zanhua graduated from the Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan, is a member of the alliance. 1913 and Zhang Yuliang formed a wife, a surname pan, a witness is Chen Duxiu.
After a couple of two people living in Shanghai, Pan Yuliang and the desire to do better is very strong, pan Zanhua please a teacher to teach his reading, his nature is sensitive to color, love. In 1918 admitted to the Shanghai art college, Suzanne cherish this rare opportunity, hard work, excellent grades, often by teachers and principals Liu Haisu incentive. Pan Yuliang himself said, "laugh more than once from a dream." Therefore, Suzanne also by some people envy, a time tattle and prate flying all over the sky.
Pan Zanhua not prejudice that support his. Eventually Pan Yuliang finished his studies with honors. The rise in 1921 in France, Pan Yuliang admitted to study in France, from across the ocean, accompanied by Lin Baoquan, Luo Zhenying, Su Xuelin, Yang Runyu and other 13 girls, in "law education" arrangement, leaving Shanghai port for distant europe.
Come to serve the country
Pan Yuliang first went to France Lyon "Sino French university" to learn French, two months after entering the National Academy of Fine Arts in Lyon To study oil painting, two years after graduation. Admitted to the national Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, under the tutelage of Yang Simon, and Xu Beihong have the same teacher. In 1925 the Italy art exhibition won medals and 5000 lire bonus.
In the winter of 1928, Pan Yuliang returned, employed in Shanghai Art College as director of the Department of Western painting. At the end of the year held the first exhibition after returning home, Zhonghua Book Company published a book "Pan Yuliang book", the "Heroes head" was acquired by the then foreign minister to 1000 yuan, create a great sensation. During the war, Pan Yuliang with great enthusiasm to join the art charity exhibition, speeches, denounced "celebrities" away from reality draw less. The results have some shameless slander against the prostitute can't stain ivory tower "and so on calumny language pollution. Suzanne unmoved, she engaged in artistic creation and social activities to redouble their efforts to. She creates oil painting "white chrysanthemum", reposing oneself to art, infinite loyalty to love.
Heavy ferry
In 1937, Pan Yuliang in Paris organized by the "Expo" and held his art exhibition, again to Europe, after 40 years of living in Paris. The more than and 60 year old painter in France He Muqun told reporters: "living in Paris after Pan Yuliang and I often have contacts, have her guidance and help in art and life. Pan Yuliang's life is not rich, but the forthright nature is willing to help others. She used to have short hair, like to drink, not be punctilious, speak loud, momentum does not allow a man, a man of tolerance. In his later years living in a street by Parnas nearby, she lived in the attic, housing and studio, living hard, but sometimes all day at home in the painting, painting, not a day out. In 1954, France had filmed a documentary "Montparnasse", introduces the region cultural celebrities, including Pan Yuliang, she is a unique Oriental film."
Pan Yuliang also participated in the 51 session of the 55 session of the French, and the 56 session of the "French independence Salon" painting "nude" in 1946 "autumn Salon Exhibition", the United Nations held a "modern" and "International Art Exhibition", and in the United States, Britain, Italy, Greece and other countries. Won the French national gold medal "," University of Paris Duoerlie Award "," French Artists Association Award "," Belgian Brussels Award "and so on. In addition to Yuliang apart from paintings, creating a sculpture "Grousset head", "Mond Soru head", respectively Paris is Nashiqi Museum and National Educational Institute of france.
Human events are as uncertain as the weather
1960 pan Zanhua died in Anhui, his grief, looking at the blue sky, depression. Then the body when the time difference, along with the growth of age, physical decline, his more homesick and loved ones. In 1976, her son Pan Mouxin wrote: "I received a letter from home, think of my problems...... I want to keep the body well, back to the motherland......".In France, the painter belongs to the freedom of occupation, rely on selling paintings to maintain their own lives, in Paris is the high consumption of the city, Pan Yuliang is honest honest, no agent to sell her works, not business publicity to "sell" their, over the years, rarely sell paintings. Especially to old age, old, often make ends meet. Can only rely on social grants to maintain their livelihood, one day a helpless.
Pan Yuliang has a narrow circle of life, of which Wang Shouyi is one of her few good friends. Wang Shouyi's early work study students. And Pan Yuliang is the first logistics work study students. Wang Shouyi is kind, compassionate, he opened a restaurant in Paris Saint Michel street, named Oriental hotel. His work, often to visit the poor old classmates. Sometimes go to see his morning, to accompany her to the park for a walk, to his restaurant at noon. One year his studio is not leaking, painting, Wang Shouyi to buy decoration material repair. How many years, how much wind and rain, how much truth, Wang Shouyi always quietly to help the old painter, brought her a warm.
The Returned
In 1964, France established diplomatic relations, served as the first ambassador Huang zhen. Huang Zhen graduated from Shanghai art school, he several times to visit Pan Yuliang, also introduced the development of the motherland. Pan Yuliang has to return home to visit relatives, in the sketch creation thought. She wrote to her son, he returned to handle the formalities, but not long, the "Cultural Revolution" beacon is. Wait until the end of the movement, his is sick, the doctor did not allow her to make a long journey. How she wished his work back to the motherland in the rest of life, to see relatives really look like!
"The frontier of Xiajiang three more months, the Yangtze River head Wanli heart." (Yu Liangshi). The old age, his homesickness heart cut more, especially in the last years, knowing not tomorrow. The female painter pillow, always have a note that reads: "this is my home, if I die, trouble friends to send this to a small sun Pan Zhongyu as a souvenir. China, Anqing City, No. 41 kwok."
In July 22, 1977, Pan Yuliang disease and cold poor, quietly left the earth.
In 1985, after Lv Xiaguang's efforts, under the China Embassy in France will help Pan Yuliang's legacy, a total of more than 2 thousand pieces, shipped back to the hometown of Pan Yuliang, Anhui Provincial Museum, set up the "Pan Yuliang Memorial hall". Pan Yuliang's wishes, the brainchild of Pan Yuliang art, finally coming home and the people of the motherland.

Pan Yuliang's painting, whether tolerance, cultivation, or technology, in the early Chinese female painters, unmatched in men, Western home, but also the number of high standards. Her style is basic to the optical techniques Impressionist based fusion feel painting talent, not charming, not qianrou, but a bit ruthless". A simply and well executed, with subjective color bold, but very beautiful. In the face of her paintings always let people have a undisguised emotions, her bold personality and artistic pursuit revealed in her hearty bold strokes and colors, was an artistic temperament.
She and other Western family is different, are involved in a variety of art forms, and deep attainments: landscapes, figures, objects, sculpture, printmaking, painting, nothing is fine, the traditional realism, modern Impressionist and modern painting and even the tendency of integration of Chinese and western wind Chinese...... The bold exploration, with outstanding performance. The Impressionist technique and Oriental art atmosphere is two foundations of her painting evolution, from here she formed the artistic development path.
Pan Yuliang is the female to accept the new art education has become a very small example of a painter. Female painter is limited to objective conditions, to success is often more difficult than men, must pay a lot of sacrifice in order to achieve career, Pan Yuliang is such an example.
Pan Yuliang was born in Yangzhou 1899. The Zhang, because parents died young, at the age of 14 is sold to the brothel, after pan Zanhua redeemed into, such as lady, then from the pan. In 1918 she run into Liu Haisu Shanghai Academy of fine arts school, graduating in 1921, is the year to study abroad on behalf of government. The first in eastern France at Academy of Fine Arts, Academy of Fine Arts in Paris next year, and then improved, into Lucien. Professor West studio until 1925. This year, because of domestic unrest, government break, is a hard student. Plus Paris life is not easy, so many people leave France, Pan Yuliang chose to continue to study in Italy. She in Rome National Art College in 1925, with science professor Nomar Di learning initiative, painting, and sculpture after things have reached two, a considerable accomplishment.
Pan Yuliang in Italy, on the Shanghai College of Liu Haisu's visit to Rome, she was hired to teach eight years of studying in Europe, the end of life. This is the first stage of her life in Europe. In 1929, Pan Yuliang returned home, first taught at the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts in Nanjing, to the Art Department of Centre College, and Xu Beihong presided over in the studio. Her original dedication to the hearts of domestic art education, but unfortunately the early years of origin, making it difficult to stand in the conservative Chinese society. In 1937, she finally left China for eight years, returned to Paris, after a stay of the past forty years, until the death.
1939, when she went to France, when the eve of the war in Europe, the tense situation, many left law artists are leaving. During the war, not only unstable life, painting tools are also very lack of materials, the general exhibition activities can not be carried out as scheduled, until the liberation of Paris in August 1944, the community has slowly returned to normal. She actively involved in the creation of regular annual participation in some of the group exhibition in Paris, such as the French artists salon, independent salon, autumn salon and other activities. In October 1948, she had just come from Shanghai and Paris near Zhao Wuji and the other two Chinese painters held exhibition. Know Pan Yuliang's friend said, she is very strong personality, there are three lady's title, life adhere to foreign nationality, not love, and any painting business contract, try to be an independent person. The first two of this idea, she didn't seem difficult, but the third was her altar in Paris art interests, especially after the war, artists and galleries for closer cooperation, refused to cooperate with the dealers, the chances of success will be reduced.
Although Pan Yuliang does not work with the general drawing business, but there are still appreciated her talent French cultural community, invited her to hold an exhibition at the Paris Museum of Senus. Her greatest honor is the University of Paris in September 1959 gave her a medal, the award ceremony was held in the school, the chairman of the speech, she praised the achievements in art, said twenty years ago, her work is in the autumn salon, 1953 to 1959 two tour of the personal exhibition, making her success in Japan, Belgium, UK, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, are obtained. Her paintings are full of sculpture and creative; her sculptures have the flavor of painting.
Pan Yuliang life painting, painting, printmaking, sculpture, black water, sketch up to more than 4 thousand, the Paris municipal government has a collection of her works, which often display the number of Yusainuxi museum. The heart of the motherland in 1977 Pan Yuliang kesiyixiang. Out of the Chinese art repeatedly, but poor in a foreign force forty years and shine for the poor, to win glory for the motherland. The students obey Wang Shouyi wills, her works and relics back to the mainland. A cheongsam encoffined.

Evaluation on Pan Yuliang's western critics in France, Oriental art research should speak for the special exhibition of seif's words: "as the representative of her work in hcapc long, given their individuality. Her Chinese sketch has calligraphy writing style with vivid lines to describe the entity of the soft and comfortable, this is Mrs. pan unique style. Her paintings contain Chinese traditional ink painting techniques, with elegant colors dyed picture, color depth and density line body depend on each other, it is natural to show the distance and shade, actual, vivid... She used Chinese calligraphy brushwork to depict the creation of modern art has made a rich contribution."
Pan Yuliang's works are hidden in the Anhui Provincial Museum, Saynus Museum, Paris Museum of modern art, the French National Institute of education, Taipei Fine Arts Museum and private collectors. The true is most able to endure hardship, perseverance and weakness of the artist, the amazing perseverance and hard work spirit, all become descendants of the model.
In the current auction market, the price of Pan Yuliang's works appeared in 2005 Christie's autumn auction in 1949, the creation of "self portrait" traded price of 10 million 218 thousand yuan. In this picture, with Pan Yuliang, open clothing topless, deep image, as they described it as like drinking, not be punctilious, momentum does not allow a man, a man of tolerance. Shows its desire to break through the secular feudal shackles. Nude women are often shown in Pan Yuliang's paintings, which mainly shows her yearning for free creation and striving for women's independent consciousness. At the same time, we can also see the female unique delicate soft in paintings. Her paintings are "still life" fan, once in Shanghai, sold 660 thousand yuan. Triangular composition is main body of the golden ratio still, but cutting on the background of the desktop and wove it has Fauvism passion block natural shadow, however in color, but the softer precipitation regression of Impressionism and the eight warm tone, folding the visual effect significantly out of some China emotion and culture deeply rooted in the heart and blood of Pan Yu.

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