李唐

 李唐(1066—1150),南宋画家。字晞古,河阳三城(今河南孟县)人。初以卖画为生,宋徽宗赵佶时入画院。南渡后以成忠郎衔任画院待诏。擅长山水、人物。变荆浩、范宽之法,苍劲古朴,气势雄壮,开南宋水墨苍劲、浑厚一派先河。晚年去繁就简,用笔峭劲,创“大斧劈”皴,所画石质坚硬,立体感强,画水尤得势,有盘涡动荡之趣。兼工人物,初师李公麟,后衣褶变为方折劲硬,自成风格。并以画牛著称。与刘松年、马远、夏圭并称“南宋四大家”。存世作品有《万壑松风图》《清溪渔隐图》《烟寺松风》《采薇图》等。

 
  • 中文名李唐
  • 性别
  • 国籍南宋
  • 出生地河阳三城(今河南孟县)
  • 出生日期1066年
  • 逝世日期1150年
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《万壑松风图》《清溪渔隐图》《烟寺松风》《采薇图》
  • 字号晞古
人物简介

 李唐原供奉宋徽宗的画院,精于山水画和人物画,1127年金兵攻陷汴京,李唐颠沛流离,逃往临安(今杭州),以卖画度日。南宋恢复画院後,李唐经人举荐,进入画院,授成忠郎职务。

 

他画的山水画对南宋画院有极大的影响,是南宋山水新画风的标志。兼工人物,初似李公麟,后衣褶变为方折劲硬,并以画牛著称。李唐的画风为刘松年马远夏圭萧照等师法,在南宋一代传流很广,对后世影响很大。存世作品有《万壑松风》、《清溪渔隐》、《长夏江寺》、《采薇》等图。《采薇图》,绢本,淡设色,纵27.2厘米,横90.5厘米。现藏北京故宫博物院。画商末伯夷、叔齐不食周粟,避于首阳山采薇(俗名野豌豆),最后饿死的故事。借以颂扬民族气节,间接地表达了他反对民族投降屈服的立场,有的题跋也指出此画是“为南渡降臣发”。

 

画面采用截取式构图,图绘半山之腰,苍藤、古松之阴,伯夷与叔齐采摘薇蕨,其间正在休息对话的情景。两位主人公画得笔墨劲秀,衣纹简劲爽利,神态生动,殷殷凄凄,若声出绢素。树石笔墨粗简,墨色湿润,已开马远夏圭法门。画中石壁上有“河阳李唐画伯夷、叔齐”题款两行。画后有元人宋杞、明人翁允文、项元汴,清人永瑆、翁方纲、阮元、吴荣光等题记。

人物作品

 临李唐古山水

李唐(款)蹦薇图镜心

李唐飞天四屏

李唐观音镜心

李唐无量寿佛镜心

李唐观音

李唐观音镜心

仿李唐山水图手卷设色纸本

李唐佛教故事(二件)镜心

李唐(传)汉王遵巡河图立轴

李唐飞天对屏镜心

仿李唐山水立轴设色绢本

仿李唐立轴设色绢本

李唐乡间道上的女孩

李唐人物立轴设色绢本

李唐飞天(二幅)镜心

李唐海天旭日图手卷

李唐(款)松林同语图立轴

李唐牧牛图镜心

李唐松下高逸图镜心

李唐行书七言联对联

李唐观音镜心

李唐观音镜心

李唐竹石翠鸟镜心

李唐荷花蜻蜓镜心

李唐(款)溪山仙逸图手卷

谢临风仿李唐立轴

李唐祈祷

李唐麻姑献寿图镜心

代表作品

 《采薇图》卷,宋,李唐作,绢本,水墨淡设色,纵27.2cm,横90.5cm。 

这是一幅历史题材的绘画作品,是以殷末伯夷、叔齐“不食周粟”的故事为题而画的。司马迁所著之《史记》中即有“伯夷列传”,伯夷和叔齐是殷的诸侯孤竹君(国在今河北卢龙南)的两个儿子,孤竹君立其三子叔齐为继承人。孤竹君死后,叔齐要把继承权让给哥哥伯夷,伯夷不肯接受,说这是父命,不可违背,最后逃跑了。叔齐见状也离家出走。兄弟二人出走后先后投奔了西伯姬昌(即周文王),不久姬昌死,儿子姬发(即周武王)要出兵讨伐纣王。伯夷、叔齐拦住姬发的马头谏阻,认为臣子造反讨伐君王是大逆不道的。武王伐纣取得胜利后,伯夷、叔齐深以为耻,表示决心不吃从周朝土地上长出来的粮食,于是逃隐至首阳山(在山西永济县境),采食野菜充饥度日,最后双双饿死在山里,临死前还作了一首采薇歌:“登彼西山兮,采其薇矣!以暴易暴兮,不知其非矣!神农虞夏忽焉没兮,我安适归矣?于嗟徂兮,命之衰矣!”表示了坚决不屈服的志向。

 

李唐所画的《采薇图》,即着力刻划了这两个古代宁死不愿意失去气节的人物。图中描绘伯夷、叔齐对坐在悬崖峭壁间的一块坡地上,伯夷双手抱膝,目光炯然,显得坚定沉着;叔齐则上身前倾,表示愿意相随。伯夷、叔齐均面容清癯,身体瘦弱,肉体上由于生活在野外和以野菜充饥而受到极大的折磨,但是在精神上却丝毫没有被困苦压倒。作者着墨不多,就把伯夷、叔齐在特定环境下的神态描绘得淋漓尽致,达到了很高的水平。

 

李唐采用这个历史故事来表彰保持气节的人,谴责投降变节的行为,在当时南宋与金国对峙的时候,可谓是“借古讽今”,用心良苦。

Introduction to the artist

 Li Tangyuan worshipped Huizong of Song Dynasty. He was good at landscape painting and figure painting. In 1127, the Jinbing captured Bianjing, and Li Tang fled to Linan (now Hangzhou) to sell his paintings. After the restoration of the painting academy in the Southern Song Dynasty, Li and Tang Jingren recommended him to enter the painting academy and confer the post of Zhonglang.

His landscape paintings had a great influence on the Southern Song Academy of Painting, which was the symbol of the new style of landscape painting in the Southern Song Dynasty. Part-time characters, resembling Li Gonglin at first, are known for their hard and square folds in their back clothes. Li Tang's style of painting is Liu Songnian, Ma Yuan, Xia Gui, Xiao Zhao and other teachers, spread widely in the Southern Song Dynasty, and has a great impact on future generations. Existing works include Wangu Songfeng, Qingxi Yuyin, Changxia Jiangsi and Caiwei. "Pick Wei Tu", silk, light color, vertical 27.2 cm, horizontal 90.5 cm. Now Tibet Beijing Palace Museum. Painters Mao Boyi and Shuqi did not eat Zhou Su, avoided picking Wei (commonly known as wild pea) in Shouyang Mountain, and finally starved to death. By praising national integrity, he indirectly expressed his opposition to national surrender and submission. Some inscriptions and postscripts also pointed out that the painting was "for the surrender of a minister to the south".

The picture uses intercept composition to draw the waist of the hill, the Yin of the cane and the ancient pine, and Boyi and Shuqi picking the fern, during which they are having a rest and dialogue. The two protagonists painted with vigorous brush and ink, simple and crisp clothes, vivid manner, Yin Yin and mournful, if the voice of silk. Shushi pen and ink is simple and moist. It has opened Ma Yuan and Xiagui Famen. There are two lines of inscription "Boyi and Shuqi in Heyang Li-Tang paintings" on the stone wall. After the painting, there are inscriptions of Song Qi, Weng Yunwen of Ming Dynasty, Xiang Yuanbian, Yongbao of Qing Dynasty, Weng Fanggang, Ruan Yuan and Wu Rongguang.

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