倪瓒

倪瓒(1301-1374),元末明初画家、诗人。初名珽,字泰宇,后字元镇,号云林子、荆蛮民、幻霞子等。江苏无锡人。倪瓒家富,博学好古,四方名士常至其门。元顺帝至正初忽散尽家财,浪迹太湖一带。倪瓒擅画山水、墨竹,师法董源,受赵孟頫影响。早年画风清润,晚年变法,平淡天真。疏林坡岸,幽秀旷逸,笔简意远,惜墨如金。以侧锋干笔作皴,名为“折带皴”。墨竹偃仰有姿,寥寥数笔,逸气横生。书法从隶入,有晋人风度,亦擅诗文。与黄公望、王蒙、吴镇合称"元四家"。存世作品有《渔庄秋霁图》《六君子图》《容膝斋图》等。著有《清閟阁集》。

  • 中文名倪瓒
  • 别名荆蛮民、净名居士、朱阳馆主、沧浪漫士、曲全叟、海岳居士
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏无锡人
  • 出生日期1301年
  • 逝世日期1374年
  • 信仰道教
  • 职业元末明初画家、诗人
  • 主要成就开创了水墨山水的一代画风,"元代四大家"之一
  • 代表作品《松林亭子图》《渔庄秋霁图》《怪石丛篁图》《容膝斋图》
  • 所属年代元代
  • 泰宇,后字元镇
  • 云林子、荆蛮民、幻霞子等
最新新闻
倪瓒:比书法更高贵的,是人格的干净

fantiantian 05-03 浏览

天地间不见一个英雄,不见一个豪杰。

——倪瓒...
人物生平

其祖父为本乡大地主,富甲一方,赀雄乡里。父早丧,弟兄三人,同父异母长兄倪昭奎(字文光),是当时道教的上层人物,曾“宣受常州路道录”、“提点杭州路开元宫事”、“赐号元素神应崇道法师,为主持提点”、又“特赐真人号,为玄中文洁真白真人。”二哥(同胞)倪子瑛。在元代,道教的上层人物地位很高,有种种特权,既无劳役租税之苦,又无官场倾轧之累,反而有额外的生财之道。
       倪瓒从小得长兄抚养,生活极为舒适,无忧无虑,倪昭奎又为他请来同乡“真人”王仁辅为家庭教师。倪瓒受到这样的家庭影响和教育,养成了他不同寻常的生活态度,清高孤傲,洁身自好,不问政治,不愿管理生产,自称“懒(嬾)瓒”,亦号“倪迂”,常年浸习于诗文诗画之中,和儒家的入世理想迥异其趣,故而一生末仕。 性好洁,服巾日洗数次,屋前后树木也常洗拭。家中藏书数千卷,亲手勘定。
      青少年时期的倪瓒虽然家境富裕,生活优裕,但未染上纨绔子弟习气,对自身的学习修养,抓得挺紧。家中有一座三层的藏书楼“清閟阁”,内藏经、史、子、集、佛经、道籍千余卷。倪瓒每日在楼上读书作诗,除精心研读典籍外,对佛道书籍也多有涉猎。“清閟阁”内还藏有历朝书法名画,时间较远的有三国锺繇的《荐季直表》,较近的有宋代米芾的《海岳庵图》等。倪瓒对这些名作朝夕把玩,心摹手追,尤其对董源的《潇湘图》、李成的《茂林远岫图》、荆浩的《秋山图》,潜心临摹,揣摹其神韵气质。同时,他常外出游览,见到有价值的景和物随手描绘,他精细地观察自然界种种现象,认真地写生,归后往往画卷盈笥。倪瓒一方面注意继承传统技法,博采各家所长,勤奋的学习,为他后来在绘画上的创新打下了坚实的基础。
        元泰定五年(1328),长兄倪昭奎突然病故。继之,母邵氏和老师王仁辅相继去世,使倪瓒悲伤不己。他原来依靠其长兄享受的特权,随之沦丧殆尽,倪瓒变成了一般的儒户,家庭经济日渐窘困,他怀着忧伤的情绪, 自作述怀诗,详述当时自己痛苦的环境。
       元天历三年(1330)到至正十一年(1351)的20年内,是倪瓒绘画创作的成熟期。这时期,倪瓒广泛交际,友人多为和尚、道士或诗人、画家。他作的诗作多半也是和这类人酬唱之作。他的至交张伯雨是有名的道士,倪瓒曾为其精心绘制了《梧竹秀石图》。另一位他所推崇的名画家黄公望亦是当时新道教全真教中名人,道学深邃,比他年长32岁。黄公望曾花10年时间,替倪瓒画《江山胜揽图》卷,长二丈五尺余,是黄氏浅绛山水中的杰作之一,画卷题款为至正戊子(1348);那时倪瓒48岁。此时,他开始信仰道教(全真教),养成了孤僻猖介的性格,超脱尘世逃避现实的思想,这种思想也反映到他的画上,作品呈现出苍凉古朴、静穆萧疏的意向。
       从元至正十三年(1353)到他去世的20年里,倪瓒漫游太湖四周。他行踪飘泊无定,足迹遍及江阴、宜兴、常州、吴江、湖州、嘉兴、松江一带,以诗画自娱。这时期,也是倪瓒绘画的鼎盛期。他对太湖清幽秀丽的山光水色,细心观察,领会其特点,加以集中、提炼、概括,创造了新的构图形式,新的笔墨技法,因而逐步形成新的艺术风格。作品个性鲜明,笔墨奇峭简拔,近景一脉土坡,傍植树木三五株,茅屋草亭一两座,中间上方空白以示淼淼的湖波、明朗的天宇,远处淡淡的山脉,画面静谧恬淡,境界旷远, 此种格调,前所未有。这一阶段,倪瓒创作了《松林亭子图》(1354)、《渔庄秋霁图》(1355)、《怪石丛篁图》(1360)、《汀树遥岑图》(1363)、《江上秋色图》(1368)、《虞山林壑图》(1371)等许多力作给后来的明清绘画以巨大的影响,成为元四大画家之一。
       元至正二十三年(1363)九月十八日(10月25日),其妻蒋氏病死,倪瓒受到很大的打击。长子早丧,次子不孝,生活越觉孤苦无依,内心烦恼苦闷,无所适从。明初,朱元璋曾召倪瓒进京供职,他坚辞不赴。明洪武五年(1372)五月二十七日(6月28日)作《题彦真屋》诗云: “只傍清水不染尘”,表示不愿做官。他在画上题诗书款只写甲子纪年,不用洪武纪年。
明洪武七年(1374),倪瓒在江阴长泾借寓姻戚邹氏家,中秋之夜,他身染脾疾,便到契友名医夏颧家就医,夏筑停云轩以居之。倪瓒一病不起,于阴历十一月十一日(12月14日)死于夏府,享年74岁。他的遗体埋葬在江阴习里,后改葬在无锡芙蓉山麓的祖坟,周南老撰墓志铭。

个人成就

绘画
       倪瓒擅山水、竹石、枯木等,其中山水画中采用了典型的技法——折带皴,是元代南宗山水画的代表画家,其作品以纸本水墨为主。其山水师法董源、荆浩、关仝、李成,加以发展,画法疏简,格调天真幽淡。作品多画太湖一带山水,构图平远,景物极简,多作疏林坡岸,浅水遥岑。用笔变中锋为侧锋,折带皴画山石,枯笔干墨,淡雅松秀,意境荒寒空寂,风格萧散超逸,简中寓繁,小中见大,外落寞而内蕴激情。他也善画墨竹,风格“遒逸”,瘦劲开张。画中题咏很多。他的画由于简练,多年来伪作甚多,但不容易仿出其萧条淡泊的气质。在倪瓒的画论中,他主张抒发主观感情,认为绘画应表现作者“胸中逸气”,不求形似(“仆之所谓画者,不过逸笔草草,不求形似,聊以自娱耳”)。画史将他与黄公望吴镇王蒙并称元四家。明清时代受到董其昌等人推崇,常将他置于其他三人之上。明何良俊云:“云林书师大令,无-点尘土。”王冕《送杨义甫访云林》说,倪瓒“牙签曜日书充屋,彩笔凌烟画满楼”。
       倪瓒是影响后世最大的元代画家,他简约、疏淡的山水画风是明清大师们追逐的对象,如董其昌石涛等巨匠均引其为鼻祖,石涛的书法题画,从精神到体式皆是以倪瓒为法的。倪瓒亦是一个以复古为旗帜,而追求艺术个性化的书法家,他与张雨杨维桢一样,既属于这个时代,又不属于这个时代,这就是艺术对时代的超越性价值。
       明代江南人以有无收藏他的画而分雅俗,其绘画实践和理论观点,对明清画坛有很大影响,至今仍被评为“中国古代十大画家之一”,英国大不列颠百科全书将他列为世界文化名人。
       画作有:《江岸望山图》《竹树野石图》《溪山图》《六君子图》《水竹居图》《松林亭子图》《狮子林图》卷、《西林禅室图》《幽涧 寒松图》《秋林山色图》《春雨新篁图》《小山竹树图》《容膝斋图》《修竹图》《紫兰山房图》《梧竹秀石图》《新雁题诗图》等。有《水竹居图》《容膝斋图》《渔庄秋霁图》《虞山林壑图》《幽涧寒松图》《秋亭嘉树图》《怪石丛篁图》《竹枝图》《溪山仙馆》《霜林湍石》等传世。
       书法
       倪瓒工书法,擅楷书,他的书法作为在野的高人韵士,参禅学道,浪迹天涯 ,以一注冰雪之韵,写出了他简远萧疏,枯淡清逸的特有风格。徐渭云:“瓒书从隶入,辄在钟繇《荐季直表》中夺舍投胎,古而媚,密而疏。” 倪瓒真正做到了既“隐”且“逸”,其书既遒劲、精美,又率意、简逸,无怪乎后人多称其为“倪高士”。文征明、董其昌都曾高度赞美过他的书法。文征明评曰:“倪先生人品高轶,其翰札奕奕有晋宋风气 。”董其昌评曰: “古淡天真,米痴(即米芾)后一人而已。”倪瓒与格守帖学的书法比较,完全是两种迥然不同的风格,不免遭人非议。如项穆指责倪瓒“下笔之际,苦涩寒酸。纵加以老彭之年,终无佳境也”。而近代书家李瑞清认为:“倪迂书冷逸荒率,不失晋人矩 ,有林下风, 如诗中之有渊明(陶渊明),然非肉食者所解也。”倪瓒传世作品有《三印帖》、《月初发舟帖》、《客居诗帖》、《寄陈惟寅诗卷》、《与率度札》、《与良常诗翰》、《与慎独二简》、《杂诗帖》等多种。
       诗词
       倪瓒生活于战乱的环境中,想逃避现实,放弃田园产业,过着漫游生活。“照夜风灯人独宿,打窗江雨鹤相依”,就是他生活的写照。不过他也不可能完全脱离现实,他在《寄顾仲瑛》诗中说:“民生惴惴疮痍甚,旅泛依依道路长。”尤其是至正十五年(1355),他竟以欠交官租被关进牢狱,他在《素衣诗》中说:“彼苛者虎,胡恤尔氓。”表明了他的批判态度。不过倪瓒对现实常常采取消极姿态。他有一首散曲〔折桂令〕说:“天地间不见一个英雄,不见一个豪杰。”他不隐也不仕,漂泊江湖,别人都不了解他,他也不想被人了解。倪瓒的诗造语自然秀拔,清隽淡雅,不雕琢,散文也一样。 著有《清閟阁集》15卷。

人物轶事

元代山水画家倪云林爱洁成癖。他的香厕是一座空中楼阁,用香木搭好格子,下面填土,中间铺着洁白的鹅毛,“便下,则鹅毛起覆之,不闻有秽气也。”洁癖在性问题上都比较谨慎。洁癖和孤高,使这个男人不仅激怒了敌人,也丧失了朋友,作为报复,关于他的死因有多种版本,一说临终前患痢疾,“秽不可近”,又说是被朱元璋扔进粪坑淹死的。
       他的文房四宝有两个佣人专门负责经营,随时擦洗。院里的梧桐树,也要命人每日早晚挑水揩洗干净。一日,他的一个好朋友来访,夜宿家中。因怕朋友不干净,一夜之间,竟亲起视察三四次。忽听朋友咳嗽一声,于是担心得一宿未眠。及至天亮,便命佣人寻找朋友吐的痰在哪里。佣人找遍每个角落也没见痰的痕迹,又怕挨骂,只好找了一片树叶,稍微有点脏的痕迹,送到他面前,说就在这里。他斜睨了一眼,便厌恶地闭上眼睛,捂住鼻子,叫佣人送到三里外丢掉。
“吴王”张士诚之弟张士信,一次差人拿了画绢请他作画,并送了很多金钱。倪瓒大怒曰:“倪瓒不能为王门画师!”并撕绢退钱。不料,一日泛舟太湖,正遇到张士信,被痛打了一顿,倪瓒当时却噤口不出一声。事后有人问他,他答道:“一出声便俗”。倪瓒曾作一诗以述其怀“白眼视俗物,清言屈时英,富贵乌足道,所思垂令名。”
       因他太爱干净,所以少近女色。但有一次,他忽然看中了一姓赵的歌姬,于是带回别墅留宿。但又怕她不清洁,先叫她好好洗个澡,洗毕上床,用手从头摸到脚,边摸边闻,始终觉得哪里不干净,要她再洗,洗了再摸再闻,还不放心,又洗。洗来洗去,天已亮了,只好做罢。后来他因故入狱,到吃饭的时候,却让狱卒把碗举到眉毛那样高,狱卒问他为什么,他说:“怕你的唾沫喷到饭里。”狱卒大怒,把他锁到马桶旁边,后经人求情方得释放。
       倪瓒有个清秘阁,旁人不让进。还有一匹白马,爱护备至。有一次他母亲病了,他求葛仙翁看病,葛仙翁要求用白马来接。那天正下着雨,倪瓒是孝子,只好同意。雨中的白马弄的一塌糊涂。到了倪家,葛仙翁要求上清秘阁看看。倪瓒只好同意。葛仙翁在清秘阁乱翻一气,到处吐痰。倪瓒终身不再进清秘阁。
       倪本身也是古怪之人,当他寄住在邹家的时候,邹先生有个女婿叫金宣伯,这天来拜访他。倪瓒闻知金宣伯是个读书人,连鞋子也没穿好就出来迎接。可当见到他说话长相都很粗鲁后,竟然很是愤怒,打了他一巴掌。金宣伯又是惭愧又是忿怒,也不见邹先生就走了。邹先生出来后,很是责怪他。倪瓒说:“金宣伯面目可憎,言语无味,我把他骂走了!”
       倪瓒好饮茶,特制“清泉白石茶”,赵行恕慕名而来,倪用此等好茶来招待他。赵行恕却觉得此茶不怎样。倪生气道:“吾以子为王孙,故出此品,乃略不知风味,真俗物也。”遂与之绝交。

作品选摘


【绝句】
松陵第四桥前水,风急犹须贮一瓢。
敲火煮茶歌白苎,怒涛翻雪小停桡。
【北里】
舍北舍南来往少,自无人觅野夫家。
鸠鸣桑上还催种,人语烟中始焙茶。
池水云笼芳草气,井床露净碧桐花。
练衣挂石生幽梦,睡起行吟到日斜。
【烟雨中过石湖三首】
烟雨山前度石湖,一奁秋影玉平铺。
何须更剪松江水,好染空青作画图。
姑苏城外短长桥,烟雨空蒙又晚潮。
载酒曾经此行乐,醉乘江月卧吹箫。
愁不能醒已白头,沧江波上狎轻鸥。
鸥情与老初无染,一叶轻躯总是愁。
【题郑所南兰】
秋风兰惠比为茅,南国凄凉气已消。
只有所南心不改,泪泉和墨写离骚。
【荒村】
踽踽荒村客,悠悠远道情。竹梧秋雨碧,荷芰晚波明。
穴鼠能人拱,池鹅类鹤鸣。萧条阮遥集,几屐了余生?
【对酒】
题诗石壁上,把酒长松间。远水白云度,晴天孤鹤还。
虚亭映苔竹,聊此息跻攀。坐久日已夕,春鸟声关关。

【双调·折桂令】拟张鸣善
草茫茫秦汉陵阙,世代兴亡,却便似月影圆缺。山人家堆案图书,当窗松桂,满地薇蕨。
侯门深何须刺谒,白云自可怡悦。到如今世事难说。天地间不见一个英雄,不见一个豪杰。
【越调·小桃红】
陆庄风景又萧条,堪叹还堪笑。世事茫茫更谁料,访鱼樵。后庭玉树当时调,可怜商女,不知亡国,吹向紫鸾箫。
一江秋水淡寒烟,水影明如练。眼底离愁数行雁,雪晴天。绿苹红蓼参差见,吴歌荡桨,一声哀怨,惊起白鸥眠。
五湖烟水未归身,天地双篷鬓。白酒新篘会邻近,主酬宾。百年世事兴亡运,青山数家,渔舟一叶,聊且避风尘。
【黄钟·人月圆】
伤心莫问前朝事,重上越王台。鹧鸪啼处,东风草绿,残照花开。怅然孤啸,青山故国,乔木苍苔。当时明月,依依素影,何处飞来?
惊回一枕当年梦,渔唱起南津。画屏云嶂,池塘春草,无限销魂。旧家应在,梧桐覆井,杨柳藏门。闲身空老,孤篷听雨,灯火江村。

人物评价

倪瓒的绘画开创了水墨山水的一代画风,与黄公望吴镇王蒙并称"元代四大家"。画法疏简,格调天真幽淡,以淡泊取胜。作品多画太湖一带山水,构图多取平远之景,善画枯木平远、竹石茅舍,景物极简。其画多以干笔皴擦,笔墨极简,所谓"有意无意,若淡若疏",形成荒疏萧条一派。在元四家中,倪瓒在士大夫的心目中享誉极高。明何良俊云:"云林书师大令,无-点尘土。"明代江南人以有无收藏他的画而分雅俗。其绘画实践和理论观点,对明清数百年画坛有很大影响。被评为"中国古代十大画家"之一,英国大不列颠百科全书将他列为世界文化名人。
       倪瓒性情清高孤傲,个性迂癖,不事俗务,一生没做过官。明人搜辑的《云林遗事》中说,一次他留客住宿,夜里听到咳嗽声,次日一早就命入仔细寻觅,有无痰迹。仆人找不到,假说痰吐在窗外梧桐树叶上,他就叫赶快把叶剪下,丢在离家很远的地方。倪瓒还有一传说:"吴王"张士诚之弟张士信,一次差人拿了画绢请他作画,并送了很多金钱。倪瓒大怒,撕绢退钱。不料,一日泛舟太湖,正遇到张,被痛打了一顿,倪瓒当时却噤口不出一声。事后有人问他,他答道:"一出声便俗"。倪瓒曾作一诗以述其怀:"白眼视俗物,清言屈时英,富贵乌足道,所思垂令名。"

English is introduced

Ni Zan (1301-1374), the late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty painter, poet. Early name 珽, the word Tai Yu, after the town of characters, No. Yunlin Zi, Jing Man, Goksai and so on. Jiangsu Wuxi people. Ni Zan family wealth, learned ancient, the Quartet celebrities often to the door. Yuanshi to the beginning of the early emperor suddenly cleared away wealth, traces of Taihu Lake area. Ni Zan good at landscape, ink bamboo, teacher Dong Yuan, by Zhao Mengfu influence. Early style Qingrun, old age reform, plain naive. Sparse forest slope, Youxiu Kuang Yi, pen simple far, cherish such as gold. To front side dry pen Crack, called "fold with Cun." Yan Zhu Yang Yan has a pose, a few pen, Yat air. Calligraphy from the scribe, there Jin style, but also good at poetry. And Huang Gongwang, Wang Meng, Wu Zhen collectively known as "Yuan four." Surviving works "fishing village autumn map", "six gentleman figure" "capacity knee" and so on. Author of "Qing Court Pavilion".

Biography

The grandfather of the rural landlords, a wealthy, rich male village. Father of early mourning, three brothers, half-brother Ni Zhaokui (word light), was the Taoist upper class, was "declared by Changzhou Road Record", "mention Hangzhou Road Kaiyuan Palace", " The number of elements of God should worship Road Master, to preside over the point, "and" special thanks to the real number, as the mysterious Chinese Wenjie true white. "Brother (compatriot) Ni Zi Ying. In the Yuan Dynasty, Taoist upper class status is very high, there are all kinds of privileges, neither the pain of labor tax, and no bureaucratic tires of tired, but there are additional ways of making money.
       Ni Zan childhood support from a small brother, life is very comfortable, carefree, Ni Zhaokui and invited his fellow "real" Wang Renfu as a tutor. Ni Zan by such family influence and education, to develop his unusual attitude towards life, aloof aloof, clean body, do not ask politics, do not want to manage production, claiming to be "lazy (lazy) Zan", also "Ni" Perennial diaspora in poetry and painting, and Confucian ideal of WTO accession of its different interests, therefore the end of life. Good clean, towels on washing clothes several times, the house before and after the trees are often washed swab. Home collection of thousands of volumes, personally assigned.
      Adolescent Ni-chan, although well-off family, well-off life, but not dyed dandy habits, self-cultivation, grasping very tight. At home there is a three-storey library, "Qing-Ge", the possession of classics, history, son, set, Buddhist, Taoist more than a thousand volumes. Ni-chan daily in the upstairs to study poetry, in addition to careful study of books, the Buddhist books are also covered. There are also paintings of calligraphy in the Qing dynasty. There are three periods of Chung-yu's "straight season" in the Qing Dynasty, and the "Haiyuehan Picture" of the Song Dynasty Mi Fu. Ni Zan play on these masterpieces day and night, heart copy hand chasing, especially for Dong Yuan's "Xiaoxiang map", Li Cheng's "Maolin Yuanxiu map", Jing Hao's "Akiyama map", with great concentration copy, hides the charm of its charm. At the same time, he often went out to visit, to see the value of King and readily depicted, he carefully observed all kinds of phenomena in nature, carefully painting, return after the picture is often surplus. Ni Zan on the one hand pay attention to the inheritance of traditional techniques, absorbing each director, diligent study for his later in painting innovation laid a solid foundation.
        Yuan Thai set for five years (1328), brother Ni Zhaokui suddenly died. Following that, Shaw and teacher Wang Renfu died, so Ni Zan sad not. He had to rely on the privileges enjoyed by his eldest brother, followed by the loss of exhausted, Ni Zan into a general Confucian households, the family economy increasingly embarrassed, with his sad mood, self-described Huai poetry, detailing their painful environment .
       The three years (1330) to the positive eleven years (1351) within 20 years, Ni Zan painting creation maturity. During this period, Ni Zan extensive communication, many friends as monks, priests or poets, painters. Most of his poems are also made for such people. His to pay Zhang Boyu is a famous priest, Ni Zan has carefully drawn its "Wu Zhu Xiu stone map." Another famous painter, Huang Gongwang, whom he admired, was also a celebrity in the Taoist Quanzhen religion at the time. He was 32 years older than him. Huang Gongwang spent 10 years, for Ni Zan painting "Jiangshan wins chart" volume, length of twenty feet five feet, is Huang's shallow landscape of one of the masterpieces, scrolls for the righteous child (1348); that When Ni Zan 48 years old. At this point, he began to believe in Taoism (Quan Zhenjiao), to develop a withdrawn wild-mediated character, detached from the earth to escape the reality of thinking, this idea is also reflected in his paintings, works showing desolate quaint, quiet Xiao Shu intention .
       From yuan to positive thirteen years (1353) to his death in 20 years, Ni Zan roaming around Taihu Lake. His whereabouts wandering no fixed, footprints throughout Jiangyin, Yixing, Changzhou, Wujiang, Huzhou, Jiaxing, Songjiang area, to poetry and painting from the entertainment. This period, Ni Zan painting is the peak period. His beautiful scenery of Taihu Lake, carefully observe and understand its characteristics, to be concentrated, refined, summarized, creating a new form of composition, the new ink techniques, which gradually formed a new artistic style. Works of distinctive character, pencil sharp Qiaobo, close to a pulse of soil slope, near the trees planted three or five, hut grass Pavilion one or two, the middle of the top of the blank to show the Miao Miao Lake wave, clear sky, distant hills , The picture tranquil tranquil, state Kuang Yuan, this style, unprecedented. At this stage, Ni Zan created "Songlin pavilion map" (1354), "Fisheries Qiu Ji map" (1355), "strange rock Cong Huang" (1360), "Ting tree remote Cen map" (1363) (1368), "Yu Shan Lin He Tu" (1371) and many other masterpieces to the subsequent Ming and Qing painting with a huge impact, becoming one of the four major painters.
       Yuan positive twenty-three years (1363) September 18 (October 25), his wife died of illness, Ni Zan suffered a great blow. The eldest son of the early funeral, the second son of filial piety, the more the feeling of life lonely, depressed inner troubled, at a loss. At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang had called Ni Zan to serve in Beijing, he insisted on not going. Ming Hongwu five years (1372) on May 27 (June 28) for the "problem Yan real house" poem: "only near the water does not dye dust", that does not want to be an official. In his painting on the poetry section of the book only to write Jiaji years, not Hongwu year.
Ming Hongwu seven years (1374), Ni Zan in Jiangyin long Jing by marriage home Zou's home, Mid-Autumn Festival night, he was infected with spleen disease, then to the Friends of the famous doctor summer zygomatic home medical treatment, Ni Zan, a disease can not afford, in the lunar calendar November 11 (December 14) died in summer house, at the age of 74 years. His body buried in Jiangyin Xi, the later buried in Wuxi Furong foothills of the ancestral graves, Zhou Nan old epitaph.

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