胡也佛

胡也佛(1908—1980)本名国华,后改名为丁文、若佛,字大空,号谷华,自署十卉庐主,浙江余姚人。上海新华艺术专业毕业,曾任上海商务印书局编辑、国民书局经理。工书画,学宗仇十洲,擅作仕女,间写宋元一路山水,隽逸过人,他的工笔仕女却很快风靡上海滩。他的人物学的是明代仇十洲笔法,终于以一手“铁线游丝”的绝活而独领风骚。

  • 中文名胡也佛
  • 外文名Hu ye fo
  • 别名丁文、若佛,字大空,号谷华
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族
  • 祖籍浙江
  • 出生地余姚坎敦
  • 出生日期1908
  • 逝世日期1980
  • 职业书画家,编辑,少校副官
  • 毕业院校上海新华艺术专科学校
  • 主要成就春宫绘画集大成者,美术界一绝
  • 代表作品《金瓶梅册页》,《胡也佛的女人们》,《云烟依旧图》
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胡也佛:民国春宫绘画第一人,一套金瓶梅以黄金为价,张大千都自愧不如

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提起中国四大奇书之首的《金瓶梅》,想必大家都知道。《金瓶梅》是我国文学史上最伟大的小说之一,古典小说的分水岭——中国文学史上第一部由文人独立创作的长篇小说名著。而民国有位...
生平简介

 胡也佛1908年生于浙江余姚坎敦(现划归慈溪市)。10岁时出嗣给叔父,但没过多久,叔父去世了。叔母是个知书达礼,颇有眼光和魅力的女子。她变卖田产,用自家的17间临街房子创办义学,自任校长。胡也佛14岁时,叔母亲自将他送到宁波一所中学读书。两年后,叔母病逝。中学毕业后,18岁的胡也佛入上海美专学画,后转入上海新华艺术专科学校西画系。为了学画,他卖掉了叔父母留下的一点家产,并为白俄老师在法国总会画壁画贴补生活,但还是无法维持生活,最后一学期不得已中途辍学,蒙校方赠给毕业文凭,算作应届毕业生。

1927年,19岁的胡也佛考入南京国民政府总政治部,担任上尉宣传员。翌年任蔡公时的少校副官。因觉得自己喜欢艺术,不适合从政,于1929年辞去公职,后进入上海商务印书馆美术编辑部任高级职员,与潘思同、张令涛主编《儿童画报》。此时开始启用胡若佛笔名。1933年25岁入商务印书馆从事绘画工作。抗战前(25—29岁) 商务印书馆停办《儿童画报》,与张令涛一起被辞退。从此走上了坎坷的生活道路,先后经营过照相馆、糖果食品店、儿童读物书店、连环画出版社。均开业不到一年便相继亏损倒闭。抗战初期,胡也佛还在世界舆地学社绘制地图挂图。同时,以胡也佛的笔名开始在他的“大空堂”里创作国画。1939年(31岁)其仕女画、人物画在国画界享有盛名。抗战胜利前夕(37岁)为画好仕女,苦练线条。练正圆、椭圆、弧线。
解放后(41岁以后)与张令涛合作,创作了大量连环画。1951年,胡也佛入上海灯塔出版社,专职绘连环画。1952年公私合营后,转入新美术图画书店。1956年,入上海人民美术出版社,从事国画编辑。一度改名胡丁文。1958年(50岁)及以后参与筹建“朵云轩”,并负责木版水印总设计。进入朵云轩水印木刻社任构描组长。从此接触大量古画真迹,绘画进入了新境界。在创作中,贯穿“眼高手低发展到眼高手不低”的思想。对一山、一石、一 草、一木等均要求一丝不苟,绘人物时更是要求细腻。书法练习也从不停止,主要临摹宋徽宗“瘦金体”及唐代“怀素自叙帖”。1968年(60岁)从朵云轩退休后仍坚持每日作画、练字的习惯。以临石涛的山水为主。“文革”期间(58—68岁) 被定为“地主”成份,属“黑五类”。
“文革”后(68岁以后)成份改还为“自由职业者”。因患肺癌而手臂颤抖,使许多作品无法亲笔落款,故只留印章为记。1980年(72岁)因肺癌在上海逝世。
美术创作

 胡也佛在抗战期间迫于生计,不得已以卖画为生。在兵荒马乱的岁月,画画与其它手艺人一样,能勉强维持全家温饱,已是一种奢望。胡也佛初以临摹为主,山水、花鸟、虫草、人物都画,但缺少创意,市面冷清。正在窘迫之际,有个汪姓画商却看中胡也佛的山水画,长期订购他的山水中堂。胡也佛的山水学的是北宋马远、夏圭的风格,属精工细活,一天一幅六尺中堂,基本上每天从早晨四点画到晚上十点才能完成。他自嘲自己的生活为“鸟叫到鬼叫”,工作之艰辛,可想而知。他的妻子染上肺痨,这在当时算作绝症,其医药费、营养费开销极大。胡也佛恨自己不是一个医生,他认为如果自己是医生,既可给家里人医病,也可以在任何时候都不会饿死。这个世道,画得最好,也值不了几个钱。所以他不准子女学画,学画没出息,学医才能养家糊口。

胡也佛的山水行情并不走俏,但他的工笔仕女却很快风靡上海滩。他的人物学的是明代仇十洲笔法,终于以一手“铁线游丝”的绝活而独领风骚。据说,胡也佛为了画好仕女,苦练线条。他练线条的方法是画各种各样的圆:正圆、椭圆、弧线,不但要求一气呵成,而且笔笔均匀有力。因此,胡也佛的线条功夫,至今仍是海内一绝。2000年,香港佳士德拍卖会上,胡也佛的八开《金瓶梅册页》拍出27万港币。香港著名作家董桥随即弄到一幅胡也佛的《金瓶梅》工笔春宫,“精致得惊人”,于是猜想胡也佛盛年时“也画了许多卖钱的春画”,接着又写了《胡也佛的女人们》一文,称胡也佛“一生所画的仕女最出名,都说是仇十洲第二,张大千自认画不出胡也佛笔下仕女的那股媚韵”。还有人称《云烟依旧图》是胡也佛最为典型的作品,“画面气息高古,设色妍丽,构图缜密,刻划细致,云烟苍茫,表现了画家体察万物、与自然亲和的宇宙观和人文观,也是最为典型的文人画作。作为海派中被忽视的大师级画家,胡也佛的此幅精品,定会得到藏家的极力追捧。”
市场现状

 随着胡也佛作品的走俏,市面上鱼龙混杂,赝品渐多。香港佳士德拍卖行曾有其8幅赝品拍卖,起拍价为150万港币。据胡南洲称,胡也佛真迹极少,估计国内最多不超过10幅。胡也佛与宁波籍画家张令涛长期合作,人称“黄金搭档”。他俩以熟练流畅的传统技法,精心刻画的人物造型,华丽多彩的画面,独树一帜的画风,在中国连环画创作史上享有重要地位。胡也佛与张令涛既是老友,又同住一幢楼里,合作十余年,情同手足,成为一对全能又多产的连环画家。特别是古装人物画,信手拈来,神情兼备。帝王将相,才子佳人,妖魔神灵,市井平民,他们无所不能。一般是张起稿,胡勾线。综观这一时期上海人民美术出版社出版的古典系列套书,几乎都有他俩的作品:《西游记》中的《怒打假国丈》,《西汉演义》中的《暗渡陈仓》、《追韩信》,《三国演义》中的《三国归晋》,《红楼梦》中的《宝玉初会黛玉》、《王熙凤》、《黛玉葬花》、《刘姥姥救巧姐》、《刘姥姥进大观园》,《东周列国故事》中的《宋襄公》、《楚汉相争》、《韩信拜师》、《自称帝王》。在津美版几十册的《聊斋》系列中,胡也佛与张令涛合作的《辛十四娘》、《小谢》、《娇娜》是公认画得最好的作品之一。他俩的代表作还有朝花版的《红楼二尤》、《女娲补天》、津美版《双生赶船》、人美版的《杨家将》(其中五册)等,其它还有《班超》、《梁红玉击鼓讨金》、《夏完淳》等。胡也佛绘冀美版的《盘丝洞》、《蔡文姬》,用笔特别洒脱。他还画过大量古典题材的连环画封面,这些都成为连藏界精品中的精品了。

English Introduction

 brief account of the author's life

Hu Yefo was born in Zhejiang in 1908 at Yuyao (now classified as Cixi city). When he was 10, he gave his uncle to his uncle, but it was not long before his uncle died.  Aunt is an educated woman, a vision and charm. She sold the farm, with 17 street house founded their own semantics, since the president. Hu Yefo at the age of 14, since the mother uncle sent him to Ningbo to study in a middle school. Two years later, aunt died. After graduating from high school, 18 year old Hu Yefo in Shanghai Academy of fine arts painting, then transferred to Shanghai Xinhua art school xihuaxi. In order to study painting, he sold a house uncle left by parents and teachers in France, Belarus will supplement the mural life, but was unable to sustain life, the last semester had dropped out of school, Mongolia to diploma, as graduates.
In 1927, President Hu Yefo admitted to the Nanjing national government political department at the age of 19, served as captain propagandist. The Gongshi major adjutant Ren cai. Feel love for art, for politics, on 1929 to resign, after entering the commercial press of Shanghai art department as a senior clerk, and Pan Sitong Zhang Lingtao, editor of "children's pictorial". The opening of Hu Ruofo. In 1933 25 of the revenue in the painting work. Before the Anti Japanese War (25 - 29) of the closed "children's pictorial", together with Zhang Lingtao was dismissed. Since then, he has been on a rough road of life, and has been engaged in a photographic Museum, a candy food store, a bookstore of children's books, and a comic book press. In less than a year, they lost their losses. At the beginning of the war, the world is still Yefo Hu geographers society map chart. At the same time, began to Yefo Hu writing painting in his "big empty hall". 1939 (31 years old) the paintings, figure paintings in the prestigious Chinese painting circles. Victory on the eve of the war (37 years old) to draw good ladies, hard line. Lian Zhengyuan, ellipse, arc.
After liberation (after 41 years old), he worked with Zhang Lingtao to create a large number of comic books. In 1951, Hu Yefo in Shanghai, beacon press, professional painting comics. After the joint venture between public and private companies in 1952, it was transferred to the new art picture bookstore. In 1956, he entered the Shanghai people's fine arts publishing house, which was engaged in Chinese painting editors. Once renamed Hu Dingwen. 1958 (50 years old) and later participated in the preparation of "duoyunxuan", and is responsible for the overall design of woodblock printing. Enter the duoyunxuan woodblock social responsibility structure description leader. From contact with a large number of authentic paintings, painting into a new realm. In the creation, through the "business development to master the idea of eye is not low". Are a mountain, a strict in demands of stone, grass, wood, painted figures is more exquisite. Never stop practicing calligraphy, mainly copying Huizong shoujincharacter and Tang Huai autobiography". 1968 (60 years old) from duoyunxuan after retirement still adhere to a daily habit of painting and calligraphy. In the famous landscape. During the "Cultural Revolution" (58 - 68) was designated as the "landlord" ingredients, "five".
After the "Cultural Revolution" (after the age of 68) the composition was changed to "freelancer". Died of lung cancer and arm trembling, so many works can not only keep the handwritten inscription, seal for the record. 1980 (72 years old) died of lung cancer in Shanghai.
Art creation
Hu Yefo during the war forced livelihoods, not to sell the painting for a living. In Binghuangmaluan years, painting and other craft, can barely maintain the family food and clothing, is a luxury. Hu Yefo early to the main copy, landscapes, flowers and birds, Cordyceps, figure painting, but the lack of creativity, the market deserted. Is there a distress on the occasion, Wang's art is Chinese landscape painting Yefo Hu, ordered his landscape long nave. Hu Yefo landscape is the Northern Song Dynasty Ma Yuan and Xia GUI style, Seiko is deliberately, one day a six foot nave, basically every day from ten points to finish at four in the morning to the evening. He mocked his own life as "the bird called to the ghost," the hard work of his work. His wife contracted tuberculosis, which was regarded as incurable disease, medical expenses, nutrition expenses greatly. Hu Yefo hate myself is not a doctor, he thinks that if he is a doctor, can give the family physician, also can not starve to death at any time. This life, best painting, also not worth some money. So he allowed the children to study painting, painting milksop, medicine to feed their families.
Hu Yefo landscape market is not popular, but his meticulous ladies but quickly became popular in Shanghai. His figure is the Ming Dynasty. All strokes, finally to a "unique and leading wire spring". It is said that Hu Yefo in order to draw a good lady, hard line. He is the coach lines draw various circles: circle, ellipse, arc, not only one, but Bibi is uniform and powerful. Therefore, Hu Yefo lines of Kung Fu, is still not at home. In 2000, Christie's Hongkong auction, Hu Yefo opened the eight "Golden Lotus album" shoot 270 thousand Hong Kong dollars. Hongkong famous writer Dong Qiao immediately get a picture of the "Golden Lotus" Hu Yefo meticulous erotic, exquisite stunning ", and" Hu Yefo prime conjecture also drew many bestselling pictures of spring ", and then wrote" Hu Yefo women "one article," said Hu Yefo ladies life painting the most famous is that all second enemies, Zhang Daqian thinks that he cannot draw Hu Yefo pen ladies that Mei yun". Others say "Yunyan still map" is the most typical works of Hu Yefo, "picture of ancient flavor, beautiful colors, careful composition, detailed characterization, Yunyan Cangmang, performance artist, and observe all things natural affinity of the universe
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