爱德华·利尔Edward Lear

爱德华·利尔Edward Lear英国风景画家。1832年出版《鹦鹉图像》彩画册。1837年开始漫游欧亚非许多国家,在旅途中作了大量的铅笔和水彩画稿,回国后绘制成精美的水彩画及大型油画。出版过3本鸟兽画册、7册附插图的旅行记,包括《一个风景画家在希腊和阿尔巴尼亚的旅行日记》(1851)。亦是一位幽默作家,因其荒唐诗,尤其以反映异化和忧郁的五行打油诗著称,如《荒唐书·“乱七八糟”》(1846)、《猫头鹰和猫咪》(1871)等。

  • 中文名爱德华·利尔
  • 外文名Edward Lear
  • 性别
  • 国籍英国
  • 出生地伦敦
  • 出生日期1812年5月12日
  • 逝世日期1888年1月29日
  • 职业艺术家,插画家、作家、诗人
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中文介绍

传记

早期

 

李尔的威廉Marstrand

李尔出生于一个中产阶级家庭霍洛威学院北伦敦,倒数第二个21岁的孩子(和最小)的安克拉克Skerrett耶利米李尔王。[3]他提出的大姐,也叫安,他21年高级。由于家庭的财政有限,李尔王和他的妹妹被要求离开家,住在一起当他四岁的时候。安宠爱爱德华和继续作为他的母亲,直到她死亡,当他几乎是50岁。[4]

李尔遭受终身的健康问题。他从六岁时遭遇频繁的癫大发作癫痫发作,支气管炎,哮喘,在以后的生活中,部分失明。李尔经验丰富的他第一次发作在海格特公墓附近的一个公平的和他的父亲。如果他害怕和尴尬。李尔感到终身内疚和羞愧的癫痫状态。成年日记表明,他总是感觉到癫痫的发作时间把自己从公众的视野。李尔王是七岁时他开始表现出抑郁的迹象,可能是因为他童年的不稳定。他患有严重的时期忧郁症他被称为“病态”。[5]

艺术家

 

马察达死海,1858年爱德华。李尔

李尔已经画“面包和奶酪”的时候他是16岁,很快发展成为一个严重的“鸟类起草人”采用的动物学会然后从1832年到1836年的伯爵德比,他一直在一个私人动物园,被大厅李尔的第一个出版,发表在他19岁时,是鹦鹉科家族的插图,或鹦鹉在1830年。[6]最大的鸟类他同时代的画家之一,他的贡献约翰·古尔德的作品,并与自然相媲美约翰·詹姆斯·奥杜邦.

其他旅行期间,他参观了希腊和埃及在1848 - 49,并参观了印度和锡兰在1873 - 75。旅行时他创作了大量的彩色图纸在一种独特的风格,他后来在他的工作室石油和转换水彩画绘画,以及印他的书。[7]他的景观风格往往显示视图与强烈的阳光,强烈对比的颜色。

在1878年和1883年之间李尔度过了夏天蒙特Generoso,一座山之间的边界瑞士广州的提契诺和意大利的区域伦巴第他的油画从蒙特Generoso伦巴第平原是在阿什莫尔博物馆在英语牛津城.[8][9]

终其一生他继续画严重。他有一个终身的抱负来说明坦尼森的诗,在他生命的最后一个卷少量插图发表。

说明在意大利旅行(1842 - 46)

 

寺庙的金星,罗马

 

画的Celano

1842年李尔开始一段旅程意大利半岛,旅行拉齐奥,罗马,阿布鲁佐,莫利塞,阿普利亚,卡拉布利亚,西西里个人笔记,和图纸一起,李尔聚集他的印象在意大利的生活方式,民间传统,和美丽的古迹。李尔王是特别感兴趣阿布鲁佐他在1843年访问,通过Marsica(Avezzano CelanoAlba Fucens的高原,Trasacco)和五英里赛(因为卡斯特尔di Sangro和Alfedena),老羊的牧人。

李尔画了一个草图的中世纪村庄再Sirente山,并描述了中世纪的村庄Celano,城堡的Piccolomini主导进入湖泊的广阔的平原,这是抽几年后,促进农业发展。卡斯特尔di Sangro,李尔描述冬天宁静的山和美丽的教堂。

作曲家和音乐家

李尔的手风琴、长笛和吉他,但主要是钢琴。他创作音乐对于许多浪漫和维多利亚时代的诗歌,但大多是许多音乐设置丁尼生的诗。他出版了四个设置在1853年,1859年五,三个1860年。李尔王是唯一的音乐设置丁尼生的批准。李尔王也为他胡说八道的许多歌曲创作音乐,包括“猫头鹰和猫”,但只有两个分数的幸存下来,音乐为“Yonghy-Bonghy-Bo的求爱”和“鹈鹕合唱。“虽然他从不玩专业,他执行自己的废话歌曲和设置别人的诗歌在无数的社交聚会,有时添加自己的歌词(与这首歌“神经家庭”),有时用童谣取代严重的歌词。[10]

的关系

李尔王最狂热而痛苦的友谊富兰克林Lushington有关。他遇到了年轻的律师在1849年马耳他,然后和他参观了希腊南部。李尔王无疑产生了同性恋者对他的热情Lushington没有回报。尽管他们仍朋友近四十年,直到李尔的死亡,他们对彼此的感情的差异不断折磨李尔王。的确,李尔的男性陪伴的尝试没有成功;李尔王的感情似乎注定的强度的关系。[11]

最接近他的婚姻是两个提议,两个相同的小他46岁的女人,不接受。同伴他而不是依赖朋友和记者,特别是,在晚年,阿尔巴尼亚Souliotegiorgi厨师,个忠实的朋友,李尔抱怨,完全不令人满意的厨师。[12]另一个值得信赖的同伴在圣雷莫是他的猫,自由/开源软件,1886年去世,葬仪式在一个花园别墅丁尼生。

圣雷莫和死亡

李尔广泛终其一生,最终定居在旅行圣雷莫在他心爱的地中海沿岸,在1870年代,在别墅,他叫“别墅丁尼生。”

李尔王被引入自己有着悠久的笔名:“先生Abebika kratoponoko Prizzikalo Kattefello Ablegorabalus Ableborinto phashyph”或“Chakonoton Cozovex西Fossi还是Sini Tomentilla Coronilla Polentilla羽毛球拍和羽毛球德里德里转储”的基础上Aldiborontiphoskyphorniostikos.[13]

 

在圣雷莫李尔的坟墓

经过长时间的他的健康状况下降,李尔王在1888年去世,他的别墅心脏病,他遭受了至少自1870年以来。李尔的葬礼是一个悲伤,孤独的事件博士的妻子Hassall李尔的医生,李尔的许多终身的朋友没有一个能够出席。[14]

李尔在圣雷莫Foce埋在公墓。在他的墓碑上镌刻这些线是Tomohrit山(在阿尔巴尼亚)一口油井为el瑞爱德华。李尔,丁尼生的诗在希腊旅行:

一切都公平。
等这样的一支铅笔,一支钢笔。
你的影子往遥远的男人,
我读过,觉得我在那里。[15]

纪念他去世的标志是在英国的皇家邮政邮票在1988年和一个展览皇家艺术学院李尔的出生地地区现在标有鲍曼马厩的斑块,伊斯灵顿,在伦敦,和他的2012年诞辰庆祝各种各样的事件,在世界各地场馆展览和讲座包括国际猫头鹰和猫在他出生周年纪念日。[16]

作者

 

爱德华。李尔草图,标注日期为1864年5月15日帕迪利-的集合。

 

爱德华。李尔Howatke,1867

1846年,李尔出版一本书的废话,一卷五行打油诗,经历了三个版本,并帮助推广的形式和风格文学意义1871年,他发表无意义的歌曲、故事、植物学和字母,其中包括他最著名的无厘头的歌,猫头鹰和猫,他为孩子们写了他的赞助人13 Derby伯爵爱德华·斯坦许多其他的作品。

李尔的无意义的书非常受欢迎的在他有生之年,但谣言发达,“爱德华。李尔”只是一个假名,和书的真正作者李尔王是一人专用的作品,他的赞助人Derby伯爵。启动子的谣言作为证据的事实,两人都叫爱德华,这是一个“李尔王”回文构词法“伯爵”。[17]

English Introduction

Biography

Early yearsLear was born into a middle-class family at Holloway, North London, the penultimate of twenty-one children (and youngest to survive) of Ann Clark Skerrett and Jeremiah Lear.[3] He was raised by his eldest sister, also named Ann, 21 years his senior. Owing to the family's limited finances, Lear and his sister were required to leave the family home and live together when he was aged four. Ann doted on Edward and continued to act as a mother for him until her death, when he was almost 50 years of age.[4]

Lear suffered from lifelong health afflictions. From the age of six he suffered frequent grand mal epileptic seizures, and bronchitis, asthma, and during later life, partial blindness. Lear experienced his first seizure at a fair near Highgate with his father. The event scared and embarrassed him. Lear felt lifelong guilt and shame for his epileptic condition. His adult diaries indicate that he always sensed the onset of a seizure in time to remove himself from public view. When Lear was about seven years old he began to show signs of depression, possibly due to the instability of his childhood. He suffered from periods of severe melancholia which he referred to as "the Morbids."[5]

Artist

Lear was already drawing "for bread and cheese" by the time he was aged 16 and soon developed into a serious "ornithological draughtsman" employed by the Zoological Societyand then from 1832 to 1836 by the Earl of Derby, who kept a private menagerie at his estate, Knowsley Hall. Lear's first publication, published when he was 19 years old, wasIllustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots in 1830.[6] One of the greatest ornithological artists of his era, he contributed to John Gould's works and was compared favourably with the naturalist John James Audubon.

Among other travels, he visited Greece and Egypt during 1848–49, and toured India andCeylon during 1873–75. While travelling he produced large quantities of coloured washdrawings in a distinctive style, which he converted later in his studio into oil and watercolour paintings, as well as prints for his books.[7] His landscape style often shows views with strong sunlight, with intense contrasts of colour.

Between 1878 and 1883 Lear spent his summers on Monte Generoso, a mountain on the border between the Swiss canton of Ticinoand the Italian region of Lombardy. His oil painting The Plains of Lombardy from Monte Generoso is in the Ashmolean Museum in the English city of Oxford.[8][9]

Throughout his life he continued to paint seriously. He had a lifelong ambition to illustrate Tennyson's poems; near the end of his life a volume with a small number of illustrations was published.

Illustrated Excursions in Italy (1842-46)

In 1842 Lear began a journey into the Italian peninsula, travelling through the Lazio, Rome,Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. In personal notes, together with drawings, Lear gathered his impressions on the Italian way of life, folk traditions, and the beauty of the ancient monuments. Of particular interest in Lear was the Abruzzo, which he visited in 1843, through the Marsica (Celano, Avezzano, Alba Fucens, Trasacco) and the plateau of Cinque Miglia (Castel di Sangro and Alfedena), by an old sheep track of the shepherds.

Lear drew a sketch of the medieval village of Albe with Mount Sirente, and described the medieval village of Celano, with the castle of Piccolomini dominating the vast plain of Lago Fucino, which was drained a few years later to promote agricultural development. At Castel di Sangro, Lear described the winter stillness of the mountains and the beautiful basilica.

Composer and Musician

Lear played the accordion, flute, and guitar, but primarily the piano. He composed music for many Romantic and Victorian poems, but was known mostly for his many musical settings of Tennyson's poetry. He published four settings in 1853, five in 1859, and three in 1860. Lear's were the only musical settings that Tennyson approved of. Lear also composed music for many of his nonsense songs, including "The Owl and the Pussy-cat," but only two of the scores have survived, the music for "The Courtship of the Yonghy-Bonghy-Bò" and "The Pelican Chorus." While he never played professionally, he did perform his own nonsense songs and his settings of others' poetry at countless social gatherings, sometimes adding his own lyrics (as with the song "The Nervous Family"), and sometimes replacing serious lyrics with nursery rhymes.[10]

Relationships

Lear's most fervent and painful friendship involved Franklin Lushington. He met the young barrister in Malta in 1849 and then toured southern Greece with him. Lear developed an undoubtedly homosexual passion for him that Lushington did not reciprocate. Although they remained friends for almost forty years, until Lear's death, the disparity of their feelings for one another constantly tormented Lear. Indeed, none of Lear's attempts at male companionship were successful; the very intensity of Lear's affections seemingly doomed the relationships.[11]

The closest he came to marriage was two proposals, both to the same woman 46 years his junior, which were not accepted. For companions he relied instead on friends and correspondents, and especially, during later life, on his Albanian Souliote chef, Giorgis, a faithful friend and, as Lear complained, a thoroughly unsatisfactory chef.[12] Another trusted companion in San Remo was his cat, Foss, who died in 1886 and was buried with some ceremony in a garden at Villa Tennyson.

San Remo and death

Lear travelled widely througout his life and eventually settled in San Remo, on his beloved Mediterranean coast, in the 1870s, at a villa he named "Villa Tennyson."

Lear was known to introduce himself with a long pseudonym: "Mr Abebika kratoponoko Prizzikalo Kattefello Ablegorabalus Ableborinto phashyph" or "Chakonoton the Cozovex Dossi Fossi Sini Tomentilla Coronilla Polentilla Battledore & Shuttlecock Derry down Derry Dumps" which he based on Aldiborontiphoskyphorniostikos.[13]

After a long decline in his health, Lear died at his villa in 1888 of heart disease, from which he had suffered since at least 1870. Lear's funeral was said to be a sad, lonely affair by the wife of Dr. Hassall, Lear's physician, none of Lear's many lifelong friends being able to attend.[14]

Lear is buried in the Cemetery Foce in San Remo. On his headstone are inscribed these lines about Mount Tomohrit (in Albania) from Tennyson's poem To E.L. [Edward Lear], On His Travels in Greece:

                              all things fair.
With such a pencil, such a pen.
You shadow forth to distant men,
I read and felt that I was there.[15]

The centenary of his death was marked in Britain with a set of Royal Mail stamps in 1988 and an exhibition at the Royal Academy. Lear's birthplace area is now marked with a plaque at Bowman's Mews, Islington, in London, and his bicentenary during 2012 was celebrated with a variety of events, exhibitions and lectures in venues across the world including an International Owl and Pussycat Day on his birth anniversary.[16]

Author

In 1846 Lear published A Book of Nonsense, a volume of limericks that went through three editions and helped popularize the form and the genre of literary nonsense. In 1871 he published Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany and Alphabets, which included his most famous nonsense song, The Owl and the Pussycat, which he wrote for the children of his patron Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. Many other works followed.

Lear's nonsense books were quite popular during his lifetime, but a rumor developed that "Edward Lear" was merely a pseudonym, and the books' true author was the man to whom Lear had dedicated the works, his patron the Earl of Derby. Promoters of this rumor offered as evidence the facts that both men were named Edward, and that "Lear" is an anagram of "Earl."[17]

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