文森特·梵高(凡高)Vincent van Gogh

       文森特·梵高Gogh, Vincent van1853年03月30日-1890年07月29日荷兰后印象派画家,出生于新教牧师家庭。他早期只以灰暗色系进行创作,直到他看到了当时在巴黎很流行的日本浮世绘以及在当地遇见了印象派与新印象派,他将他们的鲜艳色彩与画风试着融入在自己的画作中,之后便创造了他独特的个人画风。在他去世之后,他的作品《星夜》、《向日葵》与《麦田乌鸦》等,已跻身于全球最著名最珍贵的艺术作品的行列。

人物关系
  • 中文名文森特·梵高
  • 外文名Vincent van Gogh
  • 性别
  • 国籍荷兰
  • 出生地荷兰
  • 出生日期1853年03月30日
  • 逝世日期1890年07月29日
  • 职业后印象派画家
  • 代表作品《星夜》、《向日葵》与《麦田乌鸦》
最新新闻
梵高的《星夜》究竟是受谁启发

fantiantian 04-23 浏览

梵高与英国”展览正在伦敦泰特美术馆(Tate Britain)展出,汇集了45幅荷兰画家梵高(Vincent van Gogh)的油画与部分英国画家作品,其中包括著名画作《向日葵》、《罗纳河上的星夜》、《自画像...
生活

文森特·威廉梵高1853年3月30日生于Groot-Zundert,在天主教为主的省份北布拉班特省在荷兰南部。[16]他是现存最古老的孩子特奥梵高,一个部长荷兰归正教会,安娜科妮莉亚Carbentus。梵高是他祖父的名字,和一个弟弟在他出生之前胎死腹中整整一年。[注2]文森特·梵高家族是一个共同的名字:他的祖父,文森特(1789 - 1874),他收到的神学学位莱顿大学在1811年,有六个儿子,三个人成为艺术品经销商。这文森特可能被命名自己的舅老爷,雕塑家(1729 - 1802)。[18]

梵高的母亲来自一个富裕的家庭海牙,[19]和他的父亲是一位牧师的小儿子。[20]两个遇到了安娜的妹妹时,科妮莉亚,已婚特奥的哥哥文森特(分)。梵高的父母在1851年5月结婚,搬到Zundert。[21]他的弟弟西奥出生于1857年5月1日。还有一个哥哥,天哪,和三个姐妹:伊丽莎白,安娜,和Willemina(被称为“会”)。在晚年,梵高只有Willemina保持联系和西奥。[22]梵高的母亲是一个刚性和宗教女人强调家庭的重要性的幽闭恐怖症,她周围的人。[23]特奥的薪水是温和的,但教会为家庭提供一个房子,一个侍女,两个厨师,一个园丁,一辆马车和马,安娜灌输给孩子们有责任维护家族的社会地位高。[24]


梵高是一个严重的和周到的孩子。[25]他被他的母亲在家接受教育和家庭女教师,并在1860年被送到乡村学校。1864年,他被放置在一个寄宿学校Zevenbergen,[26]他觉得被遗弃,竞选回家。相反,1866年,他的父母把他送到中学蒂尔堡,他却很不快乐。[27]他对艺术的兴趣开始在年轻的时候;鼓励画作为一个孩子,他的母亲,[28]他早期的绘画表达,[26]但不要方法开发的强度在他的后期作品。[29]Constantijn c . Huysmans曾在巴黎一个成功的艺术家,在蒂尔堡教学生。他的哲学是拒绝技术支持捕捉事物的印象,尤其是自然或共同的对象。梵高的深刻不满似乎已经盖过了教训,收效甚微。[30]1868年3月,他突然回家。后来他写道,他的青春是“严峻的和寒冷的,无菌。”[31]


1869年7月,梵高的叔叔为他分了一个位置在艺术品经销商Goupil & Cie在海牙。[32]1873年完成训练后,他被调到Goupil伦敦分行,在南安普顿17街,住宿海克福特路87号,斯托克.[33]这是梵高的快乐时光,他是成功的在工作,20岁是年收入超过他的父亲。西奥的妻子后来说,这是他一生中最好的一年。他开始迷恋他的女房东的女儿,Eugenie阿来,但拒绝承认自己的感情后,她被秘密订婚前房客。他变得更加孤立,和宗教狂热。他的父亲和叔叔安排1875年转会到巴黎,在那里他成为对公司商品化的程度等问题的艺术,和一年后被解雇。[34]


梵高1876年4月回到英国,作为一个代课老师在一个小无薪工作寄宿学校在姨侄。当经营者搬到艾尔沃斯与他在米德尔塞克斯,梵高。[35][36]这种安排并不成功,他成为一个卫理公会部长的助理。[37]他的父母已经同时移动Etten;[38]1876年,他在圣诞节回家了六个月,在一家书店工作多德雷赫特。他不幸的在位置和时间涂鸦或者从圣经段落翻译成英语,法语和德语。[39]他沉浸在宗教方面,和越来越虔诚的僧侣。[40]根据他对床的时候,保卢斯·格尔利茨,梵高吃节衣缩食,避免肉。[41]


支持梵高的宗教信仰,他想成为一个牧师,1877年,家人把他送到他的叔叔约翰内斯·斯特里克在阿姆斯特丹,一位受人尊敬的神学家,。[42]梵高准备阿姆斯特丹大学的神学入学考试;[43]他考试不及格,离开了他叔叔的房子在1878年7月。他承诺,但也失败了,三个月的课程新教教会学校在Laken布鲁塞尔附近。[44]


1879年1月梵高传教职务了Petit-Wasmes[注3]在煤矿区讲道在比利时。来支持他的贫穷的集会,他放弃了舒适的住宿在一个面包店一个无家可归的人,并搬到了一个小棚屋,他睡在稻草。[46]他的肮脏的生活条件并未使他教会当局,驳回了他的“破坏祭司的尊严”。然后他走了75公里(47英里)到布鲁塞尔,[47]短暂返回Cuesmes在讲道,但给了来自他的父母回家Etten的压力。他呆在那里直到在1880年3月,[注4]使他父母担心和沮丧。有特定的梵高和他的父亲之间的冲突,他认为承诺他在疯人院Geel.[49][50][注5]


回到Cuesmes 1880年8月,梵高与矿业公司直到10月提出。[52]他成为了他周围的人们和场景感兴趣,并记录在图纸西奥的建议后,他拿起艺术的。他在今年晚些时候前往布鲁塞尔,跟着西奥的建议他学习荷兰艺术家威廉鲁洛夫•说服他,尽管他不喜欢正式的学校的艺术——参加Academie皇家美术。他注册Academie 1880年11月,在那里他学习了解剖和标准的规则造型和的角度来看.[53]


 

Etten、德伦特和海牙

 

梵高1881年4月回到Etten延长留在他的父母。[54]他继续画,经常使用他的邻居作为主题。1881年8月,他最近丧偶的表妹,科妮莉亚Vos-Stricker“凯”,他的妈妈的姐姐的女儿Willemina和约翰内斯·斯特里克,来看他的时候。他非常激动,和她散步。凯比他大七岁,一个八岁的儿子。梵高出人意料的宣布,他喜欢她,跟她求婚了。[55]她拒绝了,“不,不,不”(“nooit所看到,尼莫”)。[56]


凯后返回阿姆斯特丹梵高去海牙出售绘画和会见他的表妹结婚,安东淡紫色。淡紫色是梵高渴望成为一个成功的艺术家。[57]淡紫色邀请他在几个月后返回,并建议他花这时间在工作木炭和彩笔,梵高回到Etten跟从了这个建议。[57]


1881年11月下旬,梵高写了一封信给约翰内斯·斯特里克,他描述西奥作为一个攻击,并通过挂号信寄以确保它到来。[58]几天后他离开阿姆斯特丹。[59]凯也不会见到他,她的父母写道,他的“持久性是恶心。”[60]在绝望中,他在一盏灯的火焰,他的左手说:“让我看看她只要我能保持我的手在火焰。”[60][61]他没有召回事件,但后来认为他的叔叔已经吹出火焰。凯的父亲明确表示,她不应该得到重视,而这两个不会结婚,很大程度上是因为梵高的无力养活自己。[62]


淡紫色带梵高作为一名学,将他介绍给水彩画,梵高曾在之前的下个月要回家过圣诞节。[63]梵高拒绝上教堂,和父亲吵架结果,和离开的同一天海牙。[注6][66]在一个月内梵高和淡紫色了,可能借鉴的可行性石膏.[67]梵高只能雇得起人们从街上模型,淡紫色的似乎不同意。[68]梵高6月遭受了一轮淋病在医院,花了三个星期。[69]不久之后,他第一次涂油,[70]买了西奥的借款。他喜欢这个媒介,从画布和颜料随意传播,刮用刷子和工作。他写道,他惊讶的是,好的结果。[71]


1882年3月淡紫色似乎已经对梵高冷,和停止回复他的信。[72]他学会了梵高的新的国内安排与一个酒鬼妓女,Clasina玛丽亚Hoornik“Sien”(1850 - 1904),和的女儿。[73]梵高遇到Sien末期1882年1月,当她有一个五岁的女儿怀孕了。她曾承担两个孩子去世,但梵高不知道;[74]7月2日,她生下了一个男婴,威廉。[75]当梵高的父亲发现了他们的关系的细节,他对他的儿子施加压力放弃Sien和她的两个孩子。文森特在第一次违抗他,[76]和考虑移动的家庭出城,但在1883年末Sien和孩子们离开了。[77]


传记作家马克Tralbault推测,缺乏资金可能推动Sien回卖淫;家庭变得不那么快乐和梵高和他的艺术发展觉得家庭生活是不可调和的。Sien给她的母亲,她的女儿和婴儿威廉哥哥。[78]威廉记得曾参观过鹿特丹约12时,当一个试图说服Sien嫁给叔叔为了孩子合法化。[79]他认为梵高是他父亲,但他出生的时间让这个不可能的。[80]Sien淹死自己河斯凯尔特河在1904年。[81]


1883年9月梵高搬到德伦特在荷兰北部。去年12月,由孤独,他去陪他的父母已经发布Nuenen、北布拉班特省。[81]


 

新兴的艺术家

 

在Nuenen,梵高专注于绘画和绘图。工作外,很快,他完成了草图绘画的织布工和他们的别墅.[82]1884年8月,玛戈特Begemann却邻居的女儿,十年他的高级,开始加入他的绘画尝试;她坠入爱河,他回报,尽管不那么热情。他们决定结婚,但这个想法受到双方家庭的反对,后玛戈特过量了马钱子碱。时,她得救了梵高立即送她去附近的医院。[75]1885年3月26日,他的父亲死于心脏病发作。[83]


梵高画几组静物画在1885年。[84]两年留在Nuenen期间,他完成了大量的素描和水彩画,和近200油画。他面板主要由地球的音调,尤其是深棕色,没有迹象显示生动的颜色,区分他的后期作品。[85]


有一个商人的兴趣早在1885年,在巴黎[86]和西奥问文森特他绘画展览的准备。[87]梵高1885年5月完成了他的第一个主要工作,《吃土豆的人,一系列“农民角色的研究”,经过几年的工作。[88]当他抱怨西奥并没有作出足够努力卖他的画在巴黎,他哥哥回答说,他们太黑了,不符合当前的明亮的印象主义风格。[85]在8月份首次公开展出他的作品,商店橱窗的油漆经销商帮助他们在海牙。他的一个年轻农民保姆1885年9月怀孕,梵高被指控迫使自己,和乡村牧师禁止教区居民模型。[89]


梵高1885年11月搬到安特卫普,他租了一间小房间油漆经销商的商店街图像(兰格Beeldekensstraat)。[90]他住在贫困和吃不好,宁愿花钱西奥派绘画材料和模型。面包,咖啡和烟草是他的主食的摄入量。1886年2月他写信给弟弟,他只能记得吃六个热餐,因为前面的可能。他的牙齿松动和痛苦。[91]在安特卫普,他运用自己的研究色彩理论花时间在museums-particularly研究的工作彼得·保罗鲁本斯扩大他的调色板包括胭脂,钴蓝色的和鲜绿色。梵高买日本世绘木刻版画在码头区,之后将他们的风格元素融入了他的一些作品的背景。[92]


梵高开始大量饮酒再次,尤其是苦艾酒.[93]他被医生治疗Cavenaile Amadeus在1886年2月和3月,[94]可能为梅毒;[95][注7]他的治疗记录明矾灌溉和坐浴在他的笔记本。[98]尽管他拒绝教学,他的更高层次的入学考试美术学院在安特卫普,1886年1月注册入学绘画和绘画。在2月的大部分时间里,他病了,快被工作压垮,糟糕的饮食和过度吸烟。[99]


 


 


 

巴黎(1886 - 88)

参见:Japonaiserie(梵高)和静物,文森特·梵高的画作(巴黎)

梵高搬到巴黎在1886年3月,他分享西奥拉伐尔街的公寓蒙马特,研究了弗尔南多Cormon的工作室。6月的兄弟更大的平了54Lepic街.[101]在巴黎,文森特朋友和熟人的肖像,静物画、视图的Le冰川锅穴de la Galette,在蒙马特的场景,河曲沿着塞纳河。在1885年安特卫普他浮世绘图案对日本感兴趣,并且用它们来装饰他的工作室的墙壁,在巴黎他收集了数以百计的他们。他试着他的手Japonaiserie,跟踪图从生殖杂志的封面上巴黎Illustre妓女或Oiran(1887)Keisai艾森,然后在一幅生动地放大。[102]


后看到的肖像阿道夫MonticelliGalerie Delareybarette,梵高采用明亮的调色板和大胆的攻击,尤其是在绘画等在Saintes-Maries海景(1888)。[103][104]两年后,文森特和西奥的出版一本关于Monticelli绘画、和文森特Monticelli的买了一些作品添加到他的收藏。[105]


梵高学习弗尔南多Cormon的工作室西奥。[106]他工作在工作室在1886年4月和5月,[107]他经常光顾的澳大利亚艺术家在哪里吗约翰·彼得拉塞尔,[108]和遇到的同学埃米尔·伯纳德,路易Anquetin和Henri de图卢兹——他画的肖像在柔和的。该组织聚集在朱利安Tanguy“父亲”油漆店,[107](这是,在那个时候,唯一的地方保罗塞尚的画作显示)。在1886年,举行了两大展览展示点彩派和Neo-Impressionism第一次,和关注乔治·修和保罗Signac。西奥保持股票在大道蒙马特的印象派油画画廊,但梵高是缓慢承认艺术的新发展。[109]


兄弟之间的冲突出现。在1886年底沃尔发现生活在文森特是“几乎无法忍受”。[107]1887年初,他们在和平,文森特刚搬到那里河曲西北郊区的巴黎,在那里他认识了Signac。他采用点彩派的元素,一个技术,众多的小色点应用于画布上,这样当从远处看到他们创建一个光学的混合色彩。风格强调的能力互补的颜色——包括蓝色和橙色——当并列,形成充满活力的对比。[87][107


而在河曲梵高画公园,餐厅和塞纳河,包括桥梁横跨塞纳河河曲。1887年11月,西奥和文森特和保罗高更刚刚抵达巴黎。[110]到今年年底,文森特•伯纳德一起安排一个展览Anquetin,可能和图卢兹,杜Grand-Bouillon餐厅的小木屋,克利希43大道,蒙马特。在当代,伯纳德写道,在巴黎展览领先于其他的。[111]伯纳德和Anquetin出售他们的第一个画,梵高高更交换。讨论艺术,艺术家,他们的社交场合开始在这个展览,继续和扩大到包括游客,卡米尔毕沙罗和他的儿子吕西安,Signac和修。1888年2月,感觉累坏了生活在巴黎,梵高,他画200多画了两年。他离开前几个小时,在西奥的陪同下,他第一次也是唯一一次访问修在他的工作室。[112]


艺术的突破

阿尔勒(1888 - 89)

参见:黄房子的装饰,在阿尔勒Langlois桥(梵高系列),Saintes-Maries(梵高系列)

病从吸烟者的咳嗽喝和痛苦,1888年2月,梵高在阿尔勒寻求庇护。[14]他似乎已经成立一个想法艺术的殖民地。丹麦艺术家基督教Mourier-Petersen成为了两个月,他的同伴,阿尔勒出现奇异。在一封信中,他形容这是国外:“义勇军,妓院,可爱的小Arlesienne第一次领圣餐,牧师在他的白袈裟,他看起来像一个危险的犀牛,喝苦艾酒的人,似乎我从另一个世界的生物。”[113]


在阿尔勒成为梵高的更多产的时期:他完成了200幅画作,超过100的图纸和水彩画。[114]他是当地的风景迷住了,光;从这一时期他的作品富含黄、深蓝色和淡紫色。他的画作包括产量、麦田和一般农村地区地标性建筑,包括旧磨(1888),一个风景如画的结构与麦田接壤。[115]这是七个画布送到之一阿旺桥1888年10月4日在一个交换与保罗高更,埃米尔·伯纳德,查尔斯·拉伐尔和其他人。[115]


阿尔勒景观的刻画通知荷兰梵高的教养,拼凑的字段和方法显得平坦,缺乏的角度来看,但excel的使用颜色。[116]他的新发现的升值范围和他的工作范围。1888年3月他画风景使用网格”视角框架”;三个作品被显示在一年一度的展览法国des艺人独立。今年4月,他被美国访问艺术家道奇麦克奈特,他是住在附近Fontvieille.[117][118]1888年5月1日,15法郎每个月,他签署了租赁的东翼黄色的房子在2 Lamartine的地方。房间无装备的,无人居住的几个月。[119]


梵高从5月7日酒店卡雷尔咖啡馆de la码头,[120]在与业主,约瑟夫和玛丽基。黄色的房子已经装修才能完全迁入,但他可以用它作为一工作室。[121]他想要一个画廊展示他的作品,并开始一系列的绘画,最终包括在内梵高的椅子(1888),在阿尔勒卧室(1888),夜间咖啡馆(1888),晚上咖啡馆露台(1888年9月),星夜在罗纳河(1888)有十二个向日葵静物:花瓶(1888),所有的目的黄房子的装饰.[122]


梵高与晚上咖啡馆写道,他试着”表达的咖啡馆是一个地方,一个可以毁掉自己,发疯,或者犯罪。”[123]当他参观第一今年6月,轻步兵少尉,他给了教训Paul-Eugene Milliet[124]和画船在海上和村庄.[125]麦克奈特介绍梵高尤金卷比利时画家有时留在Fontvieille,7月,两国互访。[124]


高更的访问(1888)

参见:向日葵(梵高系列)

高更同意访问阿尔勒,1888年梵高希望友谊,实现他的想法的一个艺术家的集体。等待,他画8月向日葵。卷再次访问美国时,梵高画的肖像,以及研究诗人对星空。[126][注8]


在准备高更的来访,梵高在他朋友的建议买了两张床,空间站的邮政主管约瑟夫Roulin,他画肖像。9月17日他花了他的第一个晚上还是简装黄房子。[128]当高更同意与他工作和住在阿尔勒,梵高开始工作黄色的装饰房子,可能最雄心勃勃的努力他承担。[129]他完成了两个椅子绘画:梵高的椅子和高的椅子上。[130]


梵高多请求后,高更10月23日抵达阿尔勒,11月这两个画在一起。高更梵高在他向日葵的画家从内存;梵高画,高更的建议。在这些绘画是“想象力”在Etten记忆的花园.[131](注9)他们的第一个联合户外冒险的Alyscamps,当他们生产的吊坠Les Alyscamps.[132]单一绘画高访问期间完成梵高画向日葵.[133]


梵高和高访问蒙彼利埃1888年12月,在那里他们看到的作品及库尔贝和德拉克洛瓦在法布尔博物馆.[134]他们的关系开始恶化,梵高欣赏高更和他想被视为相等,但高很傲慢,专横跋扈,梵高感到沮丧。他们经常争吵,梵高越来越担心高更要抛弃他,这种情况,梵高被描述为一个“过度紧张,”迅速走向危机点。[135]


1888年12月

参见:医院的阿尔勒

确切的一系列事件导致了梵高的切割他的耳朵是未知的。高更声称,15年后,晚上跟着身体威胁行为的几个实例。[137]他们的关系是复杂的,西奥可能欠高更的钱,谁是可疑的,兄弟是利用他的财务状况。[138]似乎,梵高曾意识到高更计划离开。[138]12月23日,经过几天的雨,两人关在黄色的房子在一起,它们之间有一个论点。[139]高更报道,梵高跟着高离开房子时散步,和“向我冲,一个开放的剃须刀在手里。”[139]这个帐户是未经证实的,[140]虽然高几乎可以肯定缺席的黄房子那天晚上,最有可能在酒店。[139]


高更的争执之后,梵高回到他的房间,在那里,据约翰Rewald,侵犯的声音,他切断了他的左耳剃须刀(完全或部分;帐户不同),(注10)造成严重出血。[141]他包扎伤口,把耳朵包在纸上,把包交给一个女人在一个妓院梵高和高都经常光顾。[141]梵高被一个警察发现无意识的第二天早上,送往医院,[144][145]菲利克斯•雷伊,一个年轻的医生还在训练,治疗他。耳朵被送到医院,但雷伊没有试图重新接上它太多的时间已经过去。[139]


梵高没有回忆的事件,这表明他可能遭受急性精神崩溃,据Naifeh和Smith谁写的一些医院工作人员”已经叫他疯了”。[146]医院诊断为“急性躁狂与普遍精神错乱”,[147]在几天内和当地警察命令,他被放置在医院护理。[148][149]高更立即通知西奥,12月24日曾向他的老朋友求婚安德利锣约翰娜的妹妹。[150]那天晚上,西奥冲到车站登上一晚上火车到阿尔勒。他到了圣诞节,安慰那些似乎semi-lucid文森特,会见了雷伊,在晚上离开阿尔勒返回巴黎之行。[151]


在第一次治疗后的几天里,梵高反复失败要求高,要求一名警察参加案件”好,先生,唤醒这个人小心翼翼,如果他要求我告诉他我已经离开巴黎,看到我对他可能是致命的。”[152]高更逃阿尔勒,永远不会再次见到梵高。他们继续对应,1890年高更提议成立一个工作室在安特卫普。其他游客到医院包括玛丽基诺夫和Roulin。[153]


尽管悲观的诊断,梵高康复并回到了1889年1月7日黄房子。[154]他下个月在医院和家之间,从幻觉和痛苦错觉的中毒。[155]今年3月,警方关闭了他的房子经过30市民请愿书(包括基家族)称他是“le傻人roux”(红头发的疯子);[148]梵高回到医院。保罗Signac 3月访问过他两次;[156]梵高4月进入房间后由雷博士洪水损坏的绘画在他自己的家里。[157]两个月后,他离开了阿尔勒,自愿进入了一个避难精神病院待。在这个时候,他写道,“有时心情难以形容的痛苦,有时时刻时间的面纱和死亡的情况似乎在瞬间撕裂。”[158]


梵高有天赋的他1889年医生菲利克斯•雷伊雷博士的画像。医生不喜欢这幅画,用它来修复一个鸡笼,然后把它给人了。[159]2016年,收藏的肖像普希金美术博物馆,估计价值超过5000万美元。[160]


 

Saint-Remy(1889年5月- 1890年5月)

主要文章:圣保罗教堂避难,Saint-Remy(梵高系列)

梵高进入Saint-Paul-de-Mausole庇护于1889年5月8日,伴随着他的看护,Frederic萨勒斯新教牧师。圣保罗教堂在Saint-Remy前修道院,不到30公里(19英里)从阿尔勒,和由一名前海军医生,讯息Peyron。梵高有两个细胞禁止窗口,其中一个是作为一个工作室。[161]期间,诊所和它的花园成为他的画作的主题。他使医院内部的一些研究,如技工的庇护和Saint-Remy(1889年9月)。他的一些作品从这个时间的特点是漩涡,等在繁星闪烁的夜晚,。他被允许短监督走,导致的画作柏和橄榄树,包括橄榄树在后台Alpilles 1889,1889年柏玉米田与柏(1889),国家道路夜间在普罗旺斯》(1890)。1889年9月,他在阿尔勒产生两个版本的卧室。[162]


有限的访问诊所外的生活导致了短缺的主题。梵高离开工作解释其他艺术家的作品,如小米撒种的,中午下班休息(小米),以及变化自己的早期作品。梵高是我的崇拜者现实主义的朱尔斯布列塔尼人,古斯塔夫·及库尔贝小米,[163]和他相比副本一个音乐家的解释贝多芬.[164]


他的圆(1890)后画一个囚犯雕刻通过古斯塔夫·多尔(1832 - 1883)。Tralbaut表明囚犯的脸在这幅画的中心向观众是梵高自己;[165]Jan Hulsker折扣。[166]


1890年2月和4月之间梵高遭受了一次严重的复发。他“有适合的绝望和幻觉中他不能工作,长之间明确的几个月他也和一样,被极端富有远见的狂喜。”[167]虽然郁闷,无法让自己写,他还能够画,画一个在这段时间里,[168]他后来写道西奥,他做了一些小的油画“从记忆…北方的回忆."[169]其中两个在白雪覆盖的领域挖掘农村的妇女在日落。Hulsker相信这个小群绘画形成许多图纸的核心和研究表描绘风景和人物,梵高在这段时间。他评论这短时间内是唯一一次,梵高的疾病对他的工作有很大的影响。[170]梵高问他的妈妈和他的兄弟送他图纸和粗糙的工作他完成在1880年代早期,这样他就可以从他的老家发出的新绘画草图。[171]属于这一时期老人伤心(“永恒的门”)色彩研究Hulsker描述为“另一个明显的回忆过去的美好时光。”[100][172]他的晚期作品展示艺术家在他能力的高度,根据艺术评论家罗伯特休斯“渴望简洁和优雅”。[113]


艾伯特Aurier称赞他的工作的法国美居酒店1890年1月,称他是“天才”。[173]2月份梵高画五个版本的L 'Arlesienne(基)高更,炭笔素描了艺术家在1888年11月,当她坐。[174](注11)也在今年2月,梵高被邀请Les XX一个社会的前卫的画家在布鲁塞尔,参加他们的年度展览。在开幕晚宴Les XX成员,亨利•德•Groux,侮辱了高的作品。图卢兹要求满意,Signac宣称他将继续争取梵高的荣誉如果Lautrec投降了。De Groux轻微道歉,离开了组织。之后,当梵高的展览展出了艺人独立在巴黎,克劳德·莫奈说,他的工作是最好的。[175]出生后他的侄子,梵高写道:“我马上开始做一幅画,挂在他们的卧室里,树枝的白色的杏花蓝天。”[176]


瓦兹河畔奥维尔(May-July 1890)离住

参见:房子在Auvers,Auvers 30画布大小,Double-squares和广场

梵高1890年5月离开了诊所Saint-Remy移动靠近保罗盖在Auvers-sur-Oise西奥。盖是一个业余画家和对待其他几个艺术家-卡米尔毕沙罗推荐他。梵高的第一印象是,盖“比我伊勒河,在我看来,或者假设一样。”[177]


的巴比桑画派画家查尔斯Daubigny在1861年搬到Auvers,反过来吸引了其他艺术家,包括卡米尔·柯罗和欧诺瑞Daumier。1890年7月,梵高的两幅画完成Daubigny的花园,其中一个可能是他最后的工作。[178]


在Saint-Remy在梵高的最后几周,他的思想回到他的“北方的记忆",[169]和几个约70的油,涂在三天内瓦兹河畔奥维尔,离住让人想起北方的场景。[179]1890年6月,他画了几个他的医生的肖像,包括《加歇医生,他只蚀刻。在每个重点是盖的忧郁的性格。[180]有可能其他作品未完成,包括希尔的茅屋.[178]


7月,梵高写道,他已经成为吸收”在巨大的平原与丘陵,无边无际的大海,精致的黄色的。”[181]他第一次成为迷住了田野,小麦小时候和绿色。7月他描述西奥“大片的小麦在动荡的天空”。[182]他写道,他们代表“悲伤和极端孤独”,而“画布会告诉你我不能说什么的话,那就是,如何健康和精力充沛的我发现农村。”[183]其中乌鸦从1890年7月,是一幅Hulsker讨论是与“忧郁和极端的孤独。”[184]Hulsker标识七油画从Auvers遵循完成其中的乌鸦。[185]


死亡(1890年7月)

主要文章:文森特·梵高的死亡,小客栈Ravoux,文森特·梵高的健康

1890年7月27日,享年37岁的梵高自杀的胸部7毫米Lefaucheux一个织锦左轮手枪.[187][188]没有目击者和30小时事件发生后去世。[159]枪击事件可能发生在麦田中他一直画,或当地的谷仓。[189]子弹偏离了一根肋骨,穿过他的胸膛不做明显的内部器官的损害,可能停在他的脊柱。他走回了小客栈Ravoux,他参加了由两个医生,但是没有一个外科医生现在子弹不能被删除。医生尽他们可能倾向于他,然后独自离开了他在他的房间,他的烟斗吸烟。第二天早上西奥冲到他哥哥的身边,发现他精神抖擞。但在数小时内文森特开始失败,遭受未经治感染造成的伤口。他死于7月29日凌晨。根据西奥,文森特的遗言:“悲伤永远”。[190][191][192][193]


梵高葬7月30日,在瓦兹河畔奥维尔。离住的城市公墓出席了葬礼西奥梵高,安德利锣,查尔斯·拉伐尔,吕西安毕沙罗埃米尔·伯纳德,朱利安Tanguy和保罗·盖,在二十个家庭、朋友和当地人。弟弟生病了,他的健康状况开始在他哥哥的死后进一步下降。弱,无法与文森特的缺席,他于1891年1月25日去世窝Dolder,葬在乌得勒支。[194]在1914年,乔安娜•范Gogh-Bonger西奥的身体掘出并从乌特勒支re-buried文森特在瓦兹河畔奥维尔。离住一起[195]


有很多争论的本质梵高的疾病及其对他的作品的影响,许多回顾性诊断已经被提出。有一个共识,梵高的情景条件与时间之间的正常功能。[196]佩里是第一个建议双相情感障碍在1947年,[197]这支持了精神病学家Hemphill和布卢姆。[198][199]生物化学家威尔弗雷德·阿诺德反驳说,这些症状更一致急性间歇性卟啉病指出,流行的双相情感障碍和创造力之间的联系可能是虚假的。[196]颞叶癫痫之间有抑郁症的发作也被提出。[199]无论诊断,病情可能恶化,营养不良,过度劳累、失眠和酒精。[199]

风格和作品

艺术的发展

梵高画和画水彩画而在学校,但是只有几个例子生存和作者的一些受到了挑战。[200]当他拿起艺术作为一个成年人,他开始在初级水平。1882年初,他的叔叔,Cornelis绿,在阿姆斯特丹著名的当代艺术画廊的老板,要求海牙的图纸。高的作品没有达到预期。绿提供第二个委员会,指定详细的主题,但又对结果感到失望。梵高坚持,他尝试在他的工作室照明使用变量百叶窗,和不同的绘画材料。一年多来他在个位数——高度复杂的研究工作在黑色和白色,(注12)当时获得了他的批评。后,它们被视为他的第一次的杰作。[202]

1882年8月西奥给文森特的钱买材料工作在练习文森特写道,他现在可以“继续绘画新活力”。[203]从1883年初他multi-figure成分。他其中的一些照片,但当他的兄弟说,他们缺乏活力和新鲜,他摧毁了他们,变成了油画。梵高著名海牙国际学校艺术家喜欢WeissenbruchBlommers收到他们的技术建议,以及从画家De烈性黑啤酒Van der Weele海牙,艺术家的学校的第二代。[204]当他搬到Nuenen德伦特的时期之后,他开始几家大型绘画但摧毁了大部分。吃土豆的人及其同伴是唯一幸存。后参观博物馆,梵高是意识到他的许多故障是由于缺乏经验和技术专长,[204]1885年11月,他前往安特卫普,后来巴黎学习和发展他的技能。[205]

西奥批评吃土豆的人的黑暗的调色板,他认为不适合现代风格。[206]梵高的在巴黎期间1886年至1887年,他试图掌握一个新的、更轻的面板。他的父亲的画像Tanguy(1887)与光明的调色板,显示了他的成功,是一个不断发展的个人风格的证据。[207]查尔斯·布兰科论述色彩使他感兴趣的大大,让他与互补的颜色。梵高开始相信色彩的影响超出了描述性的;他说,“色彩本身表达的东西”。[208][209]休斯,梵高色彩视为“心理和道德重量”,作为例证的红色和绿色的咖啡馆,一个工作,他想表达人类的可怕的激情”。[210]黄色意味着最对他来说,因为它象征着情感上的真理。他使用黄色象征着阳光,生活,上帝。[211]

在他的整个职业生涯梵高努力成为一名画家的农村生活和自然,[212]在他的第一个夏天在阿尔勒,他使用他的新面板画风景和传统乡村生活。[213]他相信背后的权力存在自然使他试图捕捉一种权力,或自然在他的艺术的本质,有时通过使用符号。[214]他再现撒种,起初抄袭小米反映出梵高的宗教信仰:撒种的基督播种生活在炎热的太阳。[215]这些主题和主题他回到经常返工和发展。[216]他的画作的花朵充满了象征意义,而不是使用传统的基督徒图解他由自己的,生活是生活在阳光下,工作是生活的寓言。[217]在阿尔勒,画春天开花后获得了信心和学习来捕获阳光,他准备画这撒种。[208]饱和的并列互补的颜色和单一人物景观代表一个独特的和创新的风格。[213]

梵高呆在他所谓的“现实”的幌子,[218],并批评过于程式化的工作。[219]他后来写的抽象星夜已经走得太远,现实已经“在后台消退得太远。”[219]休斯形容它是极度富有远见的狂喜的时刻:恒星在旋转,让人想起葛饰北斋伟大的波天上,运动运动反映的地球上的柏树下,和画家的愿景是“翻译成粗的等离子体油漆。”[167]

在1885年和1890年去世,梵高似乎是构建一个作品,[220]一组反映他个人的愿景,将商业成功。他被布兰科的定义响风格,真正的绘画需要优化使用色彩,视角和笔触。梵高运用“有目的”这个词来画他以为自己掌握了,而不是那些他认为是研究。[221]他画了很多系列的研究;[218]其中大多数是静物画,许多颜色实验执行或者作为礼物送给朋友。[222]阿尔勒的工作作出了显著贡献他的作品:那些他认为最重要的是撒种,晚上咖啡馆,在Etten记忆的花园和星夜。广泛的笔触,演员们独特的观点,颜色、轮廓和设计,这些画作代表他寻求风格。他为这一时期的卧室他最好的作品,因为视角的创新使用。[219]

梵高风格发现革命”在看他的照片,他们的粗糙和故意未完成的质量,[和]他们画的活力。”[223]他的艺术,它强调老百姓,希望一个更美好的世界,预示着20世纪现代主义。[224]

大系列

主要文章:文森特·梵高的作品列表

梵高的风格发展通常是与他生活在不同的地方在欧洲度过的时期。他倾向于让自己沉浸在当地的文化和照明条件,尽管他保持一个高度个人视觉的前景。他缓慢进化作为一个艺术家,他意识到了他的绘画的局限性。他经常回家,也许让自己接触新的视觉刺激,通过曝光他的技能发展。[225]艺术历史学家梅丽莎McQuillan认为这些举措也反映了后来风格上的变化,而梵高用这些举措避免冲突,和作为理想主义的艺术家时的应对机制面临着他当时的现实现状。[226]

肖像

参见:文森特·梵高肖像,绘画的孩子(梵高系列),梵高的家庭在他的艺术

梵高认为肖像他全部作品的一个重要元素。[222]他画像的研究表示,他们“在绘画中唯一,深深打动了我,给了我无限的感觉。”[227]他写信给他的妹妹,他想画肖像,忍受,,他使用颜色来捕获他们的情绪和性格,而不是瞄准照相现实主义。[228]那些最接近梵高大多没有从他的画像,他很少画西奥,Van Rappard或伯纳德他母亲的肖像照片。[229]

肖像画代表梵高最赚钱的机会。一些画像的研究。那些他认为完成绘画主题识别的手里拿着一个对象,比如一本书,和更容易表现出stylisation比他的其他工作。[222]

1888年12月梵高画La催眠曲——一个图,他认为他的向日葵静物画。它有一个有限的调色板,各种各样的笔触和简单的轮廓。[219]这似乎是一个高潮Roulin家族的肖像,他在阿尔勒执行11月和12月之间。他们表现出的风格转变从流体和克制的笔触,甚至表面邮递员的画像的狂热的风格,粗糙表面,广泛的笔触,用调色刀的夫人Roulin与婴儿。[230]

自画像

参见:文森特·梵高的自画像

梵高创建超过43 1885年和1889年之间的自画像。[231](注13)他们通常在系列完成,比如那些画在巴黎1887年中期,和一直持续到他去世前不久。[232]一般肖像被研究,创建了内省时期他不愿与他人混合时,或当他缺乏模型,所以画自己。[222][233]

自画像反映一定程度的审查,休斯,在艺术家“几乎从来不”明显。[234]他们常常马克在他发展的重要时期,例如在1887年代中期巴黎系列中,在那里他成为了影响克劳德·莫奈,保罗塞尚和Signac。[235]与灰色毡帽自画像,沉重的油漆向外扩散到整个画布。这是他的一个最著名的自画像的那个时期,“高度有组织的有节奏的笔触和小说光环来源于Neo-Impressionist曲目是梵高自己所谓的有目的的画布”。[236]

它们包含了广泛的人相的表示。[231]梵高的精神和身体状况通常是明显的;他可能会出现不整洁,不刮胡子或被忽视的胡子,深凹的眼睛,虚弱的下巴,或者失去了牙齿。一些显示他丰满的嘴唇,苦脸或突出的头骨,或磨,警报功能。他的头发可能是一般的红色,或有时灰颜色。[231]

梵高的目光很少针对观众。画像不同强度和色彩,尤其是在那些画在1888年12月,鲜艳的颜色突出他的憔悴苍白的皮肤。[233]一些描绘艺术家有胡须,其他人没有。他可以看到绷带在肖像处决他肢解后耳朵。在只有少数他描述自己是一个画家。[231]那些画在Saint-Remy从右边显示头,他受伤的耳朵边,他画自己反映在镜子。[237][238

参见:向日葵(梵高系列)杏仁花

梵高画一些风景用鲜花,包括玫瑰,紫丁香,虹膜,向日葵他反映了一些兴趣的语言色彩,并在日本世绘.[241]有两种系列的垂死的向日葵。第一次是1887年在巴黎和显示花躺在地上。第二组竣工一年后在阿尔勒,,花束的花瓶定位在晨曦。[242]都是由厚层油漆的表面据伦敦国家美术馆,唤醒了纹理的谷穗。[243]

在这些系列中,梵高不专注于自己平时的兴趣与主观和情感填补他的画作;而两个系列的目的是展示他的技能和工作方法高,[133]关于访问。1888年的画作是稀有的乐观时期期间创建的艺术家。文森特写信给西奥在1888年8月,“我绘画的热情Marseillais吃鱼汤,它不会让你吃惊的问题的时候画大向日葵……如果我执行这个计划会有一打左右的面板。因此整个事情将蓝色和黄色的交响乐。我工作上所有的早晨,从日出。因为花儿枯萎很快,重要的是做整件事情。”[244]

向日葵是画来装饰墙壁的预期高更的来访,和梵高把个人的工作黄家的客房在阿尔勒。高更留下了深刻印象,后来获得了巴黎的两个版本。[133]

高更的离开后,梵高想象两个主要版本的向日葵是翅膀三部曲的摇篮曲,并包含在他的Les XX在布鲁塞尔举行的展览今天本系列的主要部分是他的最著名之一,著名的内涵的颜色黄色和它搭配的黄房子,笔触的表现主义,他们对黑暗的对比背景。[245]

 

参见:橄榄树(梵高系列)

15油画描绘树,他迷上了在阿尔勒。[247]他把生命树,传统上被视为死亡的象征。[214]阿尔柏他开始的系列特色树在远处,作为防风林领域;当他在Saint-Remy带到前台。[248]文森特·西奥在1889年5月写道:“柏仍然困扰着我,我想做一些与他们喜欢我的画布的向日葵”,他接着说“他们是美丽的线条和比例像埃及方尖碑。”[249]

1889年中期,他的妹妹会的要求,梵高画几个较小的版本的麦田与柏.[250]作品的特点是漩涡和人口画厚涂的颜料,和包括星夜,柏主导前景。[247]

从这一时期其他作品包括橄榄树的Alpilles背景(1889年),大约在一封给他的弟弟,梵高写道,“最后我和橄榄,景观”[251]柏(1889),柏(1889 - 90)和两个数字,和路与柏树和明星(1890)。[251]虽然在Saint-Remy庇护,梵高花时间外画树在橄榄园的照片。这些都是呈现错杂,关节炎的自然世界的化身,这是,据休斯,充满了“连续能源领域的自然是一个表现”。[214]

 

果园

参见:开花的果园

开花的果园(也盛开的果园)是第一组的工作完成后梵高1888年2月在阿尔勒的到来。14画是乐观的,快乐的和视觉表现力的蓬勃发展的春天。他们是细致敏感的,无人居住的。他画迅速,虽然他把本系列版本的印象派,强烈的个人风格开始出现在这个时期。开花的树的无常,传递的季节,似乎与他的无常感和信仰在阿尔勒一个新的开始。在春天开花的树中,他发现了“一个主题的世界不可能是更多的日本”。[252]梵高写给西奥1888年4月21日,他10果园和“一个大樱桃树(绘画),我宠坏了”。[253]

在此期间梵高掌握使用光的征服,阴影和绘画的树木,好像他们是光源——几乎以神圣的方式。[252]第二年年初他画另一个小果园,包括阿尔勒,开花的果园.[254]梵高是被法国南部的景观和植被,并经常参观了农场花园附近的阿尔勒。生动的地中海气候他的调色板显著改善。[255]

麦田

参见:麦田(梵高系列)的麦田

梵高绘画多次旅行期间访问阿尔勒周围的景观。他画的收成,麦田和其他农村地区的地标性建筑,包括旧磨(1888);一个很好的例子,一个风景如画的结构毗邻麦田。[115]在不同的点,梵高画视图从他的窗口,海牙,安特卫普和巴黎。这些作品以的麦田系列,描绘了从他的细胞在Saint-Remy庇护。[256]

后期的许多画作忧郁但本质上是乐观的,对梵高的死亡的时间,反映了他渴望回到清醒的精神健康。但他最后的作品反映了他的深化的一些担忧。[257][258]写于1890年7月,从Auvers,梵高说他已经成为吸收”的巨大的平原与丘陵,无边无际的大海,精致的黄色的。”[181]

梵高被田野迷住了5月小麦小时候和绿色。他的麦田Auvers与白宫展示了一个更柔和的黄色和蓝色的调色板,它创建一个田园诗般的和谐的感觉。[259]

1890年7月或10的梵高写信给“大片的小麦在陷入困境的天空”。[260]其中乌鸦展示了艺术家的精神状态在他最后的日子里,Hulsker描述了作为一个“doom-filled画与威胁的天空和不吉的乌鸦。”[184]黑暗调色板和沉重的笔触表达一种威胁的感觉。[261]

声誉

梵高的第一个展览在1880年代末,他的声誉稳步增长在艺术家、艺术批评家、交易商和收藏者。[262]1887年安德烈·安东尼挂着梵高的作品乔治·修保罗Signac,在剧院自由泳在巴黎,一些人被朱利安Tanguy收购。[263]1889年,他在《华尔街日报》描述了工作Le Moderniste Illustre由艾伯特Aurier特点是“火、强度、阳光”。[264]十画在法国des艺人独立,1890年1月在布鲁塞尔。[265]

梵高死后1890年,在布鲁塞尔举行了纪念展览,巴黎、海牙和安特卫普。他的作品所示几个高调的展览,包括六个工作Les XX;1891年在布鲁塞尔回顾展。[265]1892年八度Mirbeau写道,梵高的自杀是一个“对艺术的无限悲伤的损失……即使民众没有拥挤的华丽的葬礼,和穷人文森特•梵高的消亡意味着美丽的火焰的灭绝的天才,去了他的死亡是模糊的和被忽视的生活。”[263]

西奥死于1891年1月,去除文森特最直言不讳和人脉广泛的冠军。[266]西奥的遗孀Johanna van Gogh-Bonger是她二十多岁的荷兰女性不知道她的丈夫或她姐夫和很长时间,突然不得不照顾数百绘画、信件和图纸,以及她年幼的儿子,文森特·威廉梵高[262](注14)高更不倾向于提供帮助在促进梵高的声誉,和约翰娜的弟弟安德利bong似乎也不冷不热的对他的工作。[262]Aurier,梵高的最早的支持者之一,在批评中,死于伤寒1892年,27岁。[268]

埃米尔·伯纳德•1892年组织了一个小个展的梵高的画在巴黎,和朱利安Tanguy展出他的梵高画作和几个从乔安娜•范Gogh-Bonger委托。1894年4月的Durand-Rue画廊在巴黎同意采取10画在寄售梵高的房地产。[268]在1896年,野兽派的画家亨利·马蒂斯,然后一个未知的艺术学生,访问约翰·彼得拉塞尔美女Ile布列塔尼。[269][270]罗素梵高的密友,他介绍了马蒂斯荷兰人的工作,给了他一个梵高绘画。梵高马蒂斯放弃了earth-coloured鲜艳的颜色的调色板。[270][271]

1901年在巴黎举行了一个盛大的梵高回顾Bernheim-Jeune画廊,而兴奋安德烈Derain莫里斯·德Vlaminck,导致了野兽派的出现。[268]重要展览的举行Sonderbund艺术家在1912年科隆军械库艺术博览会1913年,纽约,1914年柏林。[272]Henk Bremmer在教学和谈论梵高,[273]并介绍了海琳米勒梵高的艺术,她成为他的一个狂热的收藏家。[274]早期的人物德国表现主义埃米尔Nolde承认债务高的作品。[275]布雷默协助雅各Baart delaFaille,他的目录分类L菜de文森特·梵高于1928年问世。[276](注15)

梵高的名声达到第一个高峰在奥地利和德国第一次世界大战,[279]得益于1914年在三卷的出版他的信件。[280]书信表达和文学,被描述为同类19世纪最重要的著作之一。[9]这些开始引人注目的神话梵高强烈的和专用的画家,他的艺术和英年早逝。[281]1934年,小说家欧文斯通出版的《梵高的生活生活的渴望基于西奥梵高的信件。这本书和1956年的同名电影进一步增强了他的名声。[282]

1957年弗朗西斯培根基于一系列的油画复制品的梵高的画家Tarascon的道路上,原来的期间被毁第二次世界大战培根的灵感来源于一个图像,他描述为“困扰”,并认为梵高是疏远了局外人,一个位置与他产生了共鸣。培根梵高的艺术理论和引用行写入西欧:“[R]宝莲寺画家不油漆的东西……[T]油漆他们自己感觉。”[283]

梵高的作品世界最昂贵的画那些卖了美元1亿(今天的)包括《加歇博士,[284]约瑟夫Roulin的画像和虹膜。大都会艺术博物馆的版本麦田与柏在1993年以1993美元收购。[285]2015年L 'Allee des Alyscamps卖美国6630万美元的价格在苏富比纽约,超过4000万美元的储备。[286]

梵高博物馆

梵高的侄子和同名文森特•威廉姆•梵高(1890 - 1978)[287]他母亲的死后继承了房地产在1925年。在1950年代初他安排一个完整版的出版的信件提出了四卷和几种语言。然后他开始与荷兰政府补贴谈判基础购买和房子整个集合。[288]西奥的儿子参与规划项目,希望将展示在最好的条件下工作。这个项目始于1963年,建筑师Gerrit里特维德委托设计,1964年他死后黑川纪章大师负责。[289]工作进展在整个1960年代,以1972年为目标的盛大开幕。[287]

梵高博物馆中打开Museumplein1973年在阿姆斯特丹。[290]它变成了第二个最受欢迎的博物馆在荷兰,后博物馆定期每年收到超过150万游客。2015年创纪录的190万;[291]85%的游客来自其他国家。[292]

English Introduction

 Vincent Willem van Gogh was born on 30 March 1853 in Groot-Zundert, in the predominantly Catholic province of North Brabantin the southern Netherlands.[16] He was the oldest surviving child of Theodorus van Gogh, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, and Anna Cornelia Carbentus. Van Gogh was given the name of his grandfather, and of a brother stillborn exactly a year before his birth.[note 2] Vincent was a common name in the Van Gogh family: his grandfather, Vincent (1789–1874), who received a degree in theology at the University of Leiden in 1811, had six sons, three of whom became art dealers. This Vincent may have been named after his own great-uncle, a sculptor (1729–1802).[18]

Van Gogh's mother came from a prosperous family in The Hague,[19] and his father was the youngest son of a minister.[20] The two met when Anna's younger sister, Cornelia, married Theodorus's older brother Vincent (Cent). Van Gogh's parents married in May 1851 and moved to Zundert.[21] His brother Theo was born on 1 May 1857. There was another brother, Cor, and three sisters: Elisabeth, Anna, and Willemina (known as "Wil"). In later life Van Gogh remained in touch only with Willemina and Theo.[22] Van Gogh's mother was a rigid and religious woman who emphasised the importance of family to the point of claustrophobia for those around her.[23] Theodorus's salary was modest, but the Church supplied the family with a house, a maid, two cooks, a gardener, a carriage and horse, and Anna instilled in the children a duty to uphold the family's high social position.[24]

 

Black-and-white formal head shot photo of the artist as a boy in jacket and tie. He has thick curly hair and very pale-coloured eyes with a wary, uneasy expression.

  Vincent c. 1866, about 13 years old

Van Gogh was a serious and thoughtful child.[25] He was taught at home by his mother and a governess, and in 1860 was sent to the village school. In 1864 he was placed in a boarding school at Zevenbergen,[26] where he felt abandoned, and campaigned to come home. Instead, in 1866 his parents sent him to the middle school in Tilburg, where he was deeply unhappy.[27] His interest in art began at a young age; encouraged to draw as a child by his mother,[28] his early drawings are expressive,[26] but do not approach the intensity developed in his later work.[29]Constantijn C. Huysmans, who had been a successful artist in Paris, taught the students at Tilburg. His philosophy was to reject technique in favour of capturing the impressions of things, particularly nature or common objects. Van Gogh's profound unhappiness seems to have overshadowed the lessons, which had little effect.[30] In March 1868, he abruptly returned home. Later he wrote that his youth was "austere and cold, and sterile."[31]

 

In July 1869 Van Gogh's uncle Cent obtained a position for him at the art dealers Goupil & Ciein The Hague.[32] After completing his training in 1873, he was transferred to Goupil's London branch, at 17 Southampton Street, and took lodgings at 87 Hackford Road, Stockwell.[33] This was a happy time for Van Gogh; he was successful at work, and at 20 was earning more than his father. Theo's wife later remarked that this was the best year of his life. He became infatuated with his landlady's daughter, Eugénie Loyer, but was rejected after confessing his feelings; she was secretly engaged to a former lodger. He grew more isolated, and religiously fervent. His father and uncle arranged a transfer to Paris in 1875, where he became resentful of issues such as the degree to which the firm commodified art, and was dismissed a year later.[34]

 

In April 1876 Van Gogh returned to England, taking unpaid work as a supply teacher in a small boarding school in Ramsgate. When the proprietor moved to Isleworth in Middlesex, Van Gogh went with him.[35][36] The arrangement did not work out and he left to become a Methodist minister's assistant.[37] His parents had meanwhile moved to Etten;[38] in 1876 he returned home at Christmas for six months and took work at a bookshop in Dordrecht. He was unhappy in the position and spent his time doodling or translating passages from the Bible into English, French and German.[39] He immersed himself in religion, and became increasingly pious and monastic.[40] According to his flat-mate of the time, Paulus van Görlitz, Van Gogh ate frugally, avoiding meat.[41]

 

To support Van Gogh's religious convictions and his desire to become a pastor, in 1877 the family sent him to stay with his uncle Johannes Stricker, a respected theologian, in Amsterdam.[42] Van Gogh prepared for the University of Amsterdam theology entrance examination;[43] he failed the exam, and left his uncle's house in July 1878. He undertook, but also failed, a three-month course at a Protestant missionary school in Laken, near Brussels.[44]

 

In January 1879 Van Gogh took a post as a missionary at Petit-Wasmes[note 3] in the coal-mining district of Borinage in Belgium. To show support for his impoverished congregation, he gave up his comfortable lodgings at a bakery to a homeless person, and moved to a small hut where he slept on straw.[46] His squalid living conditions did not endear him to church authorities, who dismissed him for "undermining the dignity of the priesthood". He then walked the 75 kilometres (47 mi) to Brussels,[47] returned briefly to Cuesmes in the Borinage, but gave in to pressure from his parents to return home to Etten. He stayed there until around March 1880,[note 4] which caused concern and frustration for his parents. There was particular conflict between Van Gogh and his father, who considered committing him to the lunatic asylum at Geel.[49][50][note 5]

 

Returning to Cuesmes in August 1880, Van Gogh lodged with a miner until October.[52] He became interested in the people and scenes around him, and recorded them in drawings after Theo's suggestion that he take up art in earnest. He travelled to Brussels later in the year, to follow Theo's recommendation that he study with the Dutch artist Willem Roelofs, who persuaded him – in spite of his dislike of formal schools of art – to attend the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. He registered at the Académie in November 1880, where he studied anatomy and the standard rules of modelling andperspective.[53]

 

 

Etten, Drenthe and The Hague

See also: Early works of Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh returned to Etten in April 1881 for an extended stay with his parents.[54] He continued to draw, often using his neighbours as subjects. In August 1881, his recently widowed cousin, Cornelia "Kee" Vos-Stricker, daughter of his mother's older sister Willemina and Johannes Stricker, arrived for a visit. He was thrilled and took long walks with her. Kee was seven years older than him, and had an eight-year-old son. Van Gogh surprised everyone by declaring his love to her and proposing marriage.[55] She refused with the words "No, nay, never" ("nooit, neen, nimmer").[56]

 

After Kee returned to Amsterdam, Van Gogh went to The Hague to sell paintings and to meet with his cousin by marriage, Anton Mauve. Mauve was a successful artist as Van Gogh aspired to be.[57] Mauve invited him to return in a few months, and suggested he spend the intervening time working in charcoal and pastels; Van Gogh went back to Etten and followed this advice.[57]

 

Late in November 1881, Van Gogh wrote a letter to Johannes Stricker, which he described to Theo as an attack, and sent it by registered post to ensure it arrived.[58] Within days he left for Amsterdam.[59] Kee would not meet him, and her parents wrote that his "persistence isdisgusting."[60] In despair, he held his left hand in the flame of a lamp, with the words: "Let me see her for as long as I can keep my hand in the flame."[60][61] He did not recall the event well, but later assumed that his uncle had blown out the flame. Kee's father made it clear that her refusal should be heeded and that the two would not marry, largely because of Van Gogh's inability to support himself.[62]

 

Mauve took Van Gogh on as a student and introduced him to watercolours, which Van Gogh worked on for the next month before going home for Christmas.[63] Van Gogh refused to attend church, quarrelling with his father as a result, and left the same day for The Hague.[note 6][66] Within a month Van Gogh and Mauve fell out, possibly over the viability of drawing from plaster casts.[67] Van Gogh could only afford to hire people from the street as models, a practice of which Mauve seems to have disapproved.[68] In June Van Gogh suffered a bout of gonorrhoea and spent three weeks in hospital.[69] Soon after, he first painted in oils,[70] bought with money borrowed from Theo. He liked the medium, and spread the paint liberally, scraping from the canvas and working back with the brush. He wrote that he was surprised at how good the results were.[71]

 

By March 1882 Mauve appears to have gone cold towards Van Gogh, and stopped replying to his letters.[72] He had learned of Van Gogh's new domestic arrangement with an alcoholic prostitute, Clasina Maria "Sien" Hoornik (1850–1904), and her young daughter.[73] Van Gogh had met Sien towards the end of January 1882, when she had a five-year-old daughter and was pregnant. She had previously borne two children who died, but Van Gogh was unaware of this;[74] on 2 July, she gave birth to a baby boy, Willem.[75] When Van Gogh's father discovered the details of their relationship, he put pressure on his son to abandon Sien and her two children. Vincent at first defied him,[76] and considered moving the family out of the city, but in late 1883 left Sien and the children.[77]

 

The biographer Marc Tralbault speculates that lack of money may have pushed Sien back into prostitution; the home became less happy and Van Gogh may have felt family life was irreconcilable with his artistic development. Sien gave her daughter to her mother, and baby Willem to her brother.[78]Willem remembered visiting Rotterdam when he was about 12, when an uncle tried to persuade Sien to marry in order to legitimise the child.[79] He believed Van Gogh was his father, but the timing of his birth makes this unlikely.[80] Sien drowned herself in the River Scheldt in 1904.[81]

 

In September 1883 Van Gogh moved to Drenthe in the northern Netherlands. In December, driven by loneliness, he went to stay with his parents, who had been posted to Nuenen, North Brabant.[81]

 

 

Emerging artist

Nuenen and Antwerp (1883–86)

See also: Peasant Character Studies (Van Gogh series); Still life paintings by Vincent van Gogh (Netherlands); andDrawings, water-colours and prints by Vincent van Gogh

In Nuenen, Van Gogh focused on painting and drawing. Working outside and very quickly, he completed sketches and paintings of weavers and their cottages.[82] In August 1884, Margot Begemann, a neighbour's daughter and ten years his senior, began joining him on his painting forays; she fell in love, and he reciprocated, though less enthusiastically. They decided to marry, but the idea was opposed by both families, following which Margot took an overdose of strychnine. She was saved when Van Gogh rushed her to a nearby hospital.[75] On 26 March 1885, his father died of a heart attack.[83]

 

Van Gogh painted several groups of still lifes in 1885.[84] During his two-year stay in Nuenen, he completed numerous drawings and watercolours, and nearly 200 oil paintings. His palette consisted mainly of sombre earth tones, particularly dark brown, and showed no sign of the vivid colours that distinguish his later work.[85]

 

There was interest from a dealer in Paris early in 1885,[86] and Theo asked Vincent whether he had paintings ready to exhibit.[87] In May 1885 Van Gogh completed his first major work, The Potato Eaters, and the series of "peasant character studies"; the culmination of several years of work.[88] When he complained that Theo was not making enough effort to sell his paintings in Paris, his brother responded that they were too dark, and were not in keeping with the current bright style of Impressionism.[85] In August his work was publicly exhibited for the first time, in the shop windows of the paint dealer Leurs in The Hague. One of his young peasant sitters became pregnant in September 1885; Van Gogh was accused of forcing himself upon her, and the village priest forbade parishioners to model for him.[89]

 

In November 1885 Van Gogh moved to Antwerp, where he rented a small room above a paint dealer's shop in the rue des Images (Lange Beeldekensstraat).[90] He lived in poverty and ate poorly, preferring to spend the money Theo sent on painting materials and models. Bread, coffee and tobacco were his staple intake. In February 1886 he wrote to Theo that he could only remember eating six hot meals since the previous May. His teeth became loose and painful.[91] In Antwerp he applied himself to the study of colour theory and spent time in museums—particularly studying the work of Peter Paul Rubens – and broadened his palette to include carmine, cobalt blue and emerald green. Van Gogh bought Japanese ukiyo-e woodcuts in the docklands, later incorporating elements of their style into the background of some of his paintings.[92]

 

Van Gogh had begun to drink heavily again, especially absinthe.[93] He was treated by Doctor Amadeus Cavenaile in February and March 1886,[94] possibly for syphilis;[95][note 7] he recorded the treatment of alum irrigation and sitz baths in one of his notebooks.[98] Despite his rejection of academic teaching, he took the higher-level admission exams at the Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp, and in January 1886 matriculated in painting and drawing. For most of February, he was ill and run down by overwork, a poor diet and excessive smoking.[99]

 

 

 

Paris (1886–88)

See also: Japonaiserie (Van Gogh) and Still life paintings by Vincent van Gogh (Paris)

Van Gogh moved to Paris in March 1886 where he shared Theo's rue Laval apartment inMontmartre, and studied at Fernand Cormon's studio. In June the brothers took a larger flat at 54 rue Lepic.[101] In Paris, Vincent painted portraits of friends and acquaintances, still life paintings, views of Le Moulin de la Galette, scenes in Montmartre, Asnières and along the Seine. In 1885 in Antwerp he had become interested in Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock prints, and had used them to decorate the walls of his studio; while in Paris he collected hundreds of them. He tried his hand at Japonaiserie, tracing a figure from a reproduction on the cover of the magazine Paris Illustre, The Courtesan or Oiran (1887), after Keisai Eisen, which he then graphically enlarged in a painting.[102]

 

After seeing the portrait of Adolphe Monticelli at the Galerie Delareybarette, Van Gogh adopted a brighter palette and a bolder attack, particularly in paintings such as hisSeascape at Saintes-Maries (1888).[103][104] Two years later, Vincent and Theo paid for the publication of a book on Monticelli paintings, and Vincent bought some of Monticelli's works to add to his collection.[105]

 

Van Gogh learned about Fernand Cormon's atelier from Theo.[106] He worked at the studio in April and May 1886,[107] where he frequented the circle of the Australian artist John Peter Russell,[108] and met fellow students Émile Bernard, Louis Anquetin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – who painted a portrait of him in pastel. The group congregated at Julien "Père" Tanguy's paint shop,[107] (which was, at that time, the only place where Paul Cézanne's paintings were displayed). In 1886, two large exhibitions were staged there, showingPointillism and Neo-Impressionism for the first time, and bringing attention to Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. Theo kept a stock of Impressionist paintings in his gallery on boulevard Montmartre, but Van Gogh was slow to acknowledge the new developments in art.[109]

 

Conflicts arose between the brothers. At the end of 1886 Theo found living with Vincent to be "almost unbearable".[107] By early 1887, they were again at peace, and Vincent had moved to Asnières, a northwestern suburb of Paris, where he got to know Signac. He adopted elements of Pointillism, a technique in which a multitude of small coloured dots are applied to the canvas so that when seen from a distance they create an optical blend of hues. The style stresses the ability ofcomplementary colours – including blue and orange – to form vibrant contrasts when juxtaposed.[87][107]

 

While in Asnières Van Gogh painted parks, restaurants and the Seine, including Bridges across the Seine at Asnières. In November 1887, Theo and Vincent befriended Paul Gauguin who had just arrived in Paris.[110] Towards the end of the year, Vincent arranged an exhibition alongside Bernard, Anquetin, and probably Toulouse-Lautrec, at the Grand-Bouillon Restaurant du Chalet, 43 avenue de Clichy, Montmartre. In a contemporary account, Bernard wrote that the exhibition was ahead of anything else in Paris.[111] There Bernard and Anquetin sold their first paintings, and Van Gogh exchanged work with Gauguin. Discussions on art, artists, and their social situations started during this exhibition, continued and expanded to include visitors to the show, like Camille Pissarro and his son Lucien, Signac and Seurat. In February 1888, feeling worn out from life in Paris, Van Gogh left, having painted more than 200 paintings during his two years there. Hours before his departure, accompanied by Theo, he paid his first and only visit to Seurat in his studio.[112]

 

Artistic breakthrough

Arles (1888–89)

See also: Décoration for the Yellow House, Langlois Bridge at Arles (Van Gogh series), and Saintes-Maries (Van Gogh series)Ill from drink and suffering from smoker's cough, in February 1888 Van Gogh sought refuge in Arles.[14] He seems to have moved with thoughts of founding an art colony. The Danish artist Christian Mourier-Petersen became his companion for two months, and at first Arles appeared exotic. In a letter, he described it as a foreign country: "TheZouaves, the brothels, the adorable little Arlésienne going to her First Communion, the priest in his surplice, who looks like a dangerous rhinoceros, the people drinking absinthe, all seem to me creatures from another world."[113]

The time in Arles became one of Van Gogh's more prolific periods: he completed 200 paintings, and more than 100 drawings and watercolours.[114] He was enchanted by the local landscape and light; his works from this period are rich in yellow, ultramarineand mauve. His paintings include harvests, wheat fields and general rural landmarks from the area, including The Old Mill (1888), a picturesque structure bordering the wheat fields.[115] This was one of seven canvases sent to Pont-Aven on 4 October 1888 in an exchange of works with Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard, Charles Laval and others.[115]

 

The portrayals of the Arles landscape are informed by Van Gogh's Dutch upbringing; the patchworks of fields and avenues appear flat and lacking perspective, but excel in their use of colour.[116] His new-found appreciation is seen in the range and scope of his work. In March 1888 he painted landscapes using a gridded "perspective frame"; three of the works were shown at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants. In April, he was visited by the American artistDodge MacKnight, who was living nearby at Fontvieille.[117][118] On 1 May 1888, for 15 francs per month, he signed a lease for the eastern wing of the Yellow House at 2 place Lamartine. The rooms were unfurnished and had been uninhabited for months.[119]

 

On 7 May Van Gogh moved from the Hôtel Carrel to the Café de la Gare,[120] having befriended the proprietors, Joseph andMarie Ginoux. The Yellow House had to be furnished before he could fully move in, but he was able to use it as a studio.[121]He wanted a gallery to display his work, and started a series of paintings that eventually included Van Gogh's Chair (1888),Bedroom in Arles (1888), The Night Café (1888), Cafe Terrace at Night (September 1888), Starry Night Over the Rhone (1888), and Still Life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (1888), all intended for the decoration for the Yellow House.[122]

 

Van Gogh wrote that with The Night Café he tried "to express the idea that the café is a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime."[123] When he visited Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in June, he gave lessons to a Zouave second lieutenant – Paul-Eugène Milliet[124] – and painted boats on the sea and the village.[125] MacKnight introduced Van Gogh toEugène Boch, a Belgian painter who sometimes stayed in Fontvieille, and the two exchanged visits in July.[124]

 

   

Gauguin's visit (1888)

See also: Sunflowers (Van Gogh series)

When Gauguin agreed to visit Arles in 1888, Van Gogh hoped for friendship, and the realisation of his idea of an artists' collective. While waiting, in August he paintedSunflowers. When Boch visited again, Van Gogh painted a portrait of him, as well as the study The Poet Against a Starry Sky.[126][note 8]

 

In preparation for Gauguin's visit, Van Gogh bought two beds on advice from his friend, the station's postal supervisor Joseph Roulin, whose portrait he painted. On 17 September he spent his first night in the still sparsely furnished Yellow House.[128]When Gauguin consented to work and live in Arles with him, Van Gogh started to work onThe Décoration for the Yellow House, probably the most ambitious effort he ever undertook.[129] He completed two chair paintings: Van Gogh's Chair and Gauguin's Chair.[130]

 

After much pleading from Van Gogh, Gauguin arrived in Arles on 23 October, and in November the two painted together. Gauguin depicted Van Gogh in his The Painter of Sunflowers; Van Gogh painted pictures from memory, following Gauguin's suggestion. Among these "imaginative" paintings isMemory of the Garden at Etten.[131][note 9] Their first joint outdoor venture was at the Alyscamps, when they produced the pendants Les Alyscamps.[132] The single painting Gauguin completed during his visit was Van Gogh Painting Sunflowers.[133]

 

Van Gogh and Gauguin visited Montpellier in December 1888, where they saw works by Courbet and Delacroix in the Musée Fabre.[134] Their relationship began to deteriorate; Van Gogh admired Gauguin and wanted to be treated as his equal, but Gauguin was arrogant and domineering, which frustrated Van Gogh. They often quarrelled; Van Gogh increasingly feared that Gauguin was going to desert him, and the situation, which Van Gogh described as one of "excessive tension," rapidly headed towards crisis point.[135]

 

 

 

 

 December 1888

 

See also: Hospital in Arles

The exact sequence of events which led to Van Gogh's mutilation of his ear is not known. Gauguin claimed, fifteen years later, that the night followed several instances of physically threatening behaviour.[137] Their relationship was complex, and Theo may have owed money to Gauguin, who was suspicious that the brothers were exploiting him financially.[138] It seems likely that Van Gogh had realised that Gauguin was planning to leave.[138] On 23 December, after days of rain with the two men shut in the Yellow House together, there was an argument between them.[139] Gauguin reported that Van Gogh followed when Gauguin left the house for a walk, and "rushed towards me, an open razor in his hand."[139] This account is uncorroborated,[140] although Gauguin was almost certainly absent from the Yellow House that night, most likely in a hotel.[139]

 

After the altercation with Gauguin, Van Gogh returned to his room, where, according toJohn Rewald, assaulted by voices, he severed his left ear with a razor (either wholly or in part; accounts differ),[note 10] causing severe bleeding.[141] He bandaged the wound, wrapped the ear in paper, and delivered the package to a woman at a brothel Van Gogh and Gauguin both frequented.[141] Van Gogh was found unconscious the next morning by a policeman and taken to hospital,[144][145] where Félix Rey, a young doctor still in training, treated him. The ear was delivered to the hospital, but Rey did not attempt to reattach it as too much time had passed.[139]

 

Van Gogh had no recollection of the event, suggesting that he may have suffered an acute mental breakdown, according to Naifeh and Smith who write that some of the hospital staff "were already calling him insane".[146] The hospital diagnosis was "acute mania with generalised delirium",[147] and within a few days the local police ordered that he be placed in hospital care.[148][149] Gauguin immediately notified Theo, who on 24 December had proposed marriage to his old friend Andries Bonger's sister Johanna.[150] That evening Theo rushed to the station to board a night train to Arles. He arrived on Christmas Day, comforted Vincent who seemed to be semi-lucid, met with Rey, and in the evening left Arles for the return trip to Paris.[151]

 

During the first days of his treatment, Van Gogh repeatedly and unsuccessfully asked for Gauguin, who asked a policeman attending the case to "be kind enough, Monsieur, to awaken this man with great care, and if he asks for me tell him I have left for Paris; the sight of me might prove fatal for him."[152] Gauguin fled Arles, never to see Van Gogh again. They continued to correspond and in 1890 Gauguin proposed they form a studio in Antwerp. Other visitors to the hospital included Marie Ginoux and Roulin.[153]

 

Despite a pessimistic diagnosis, Van Gogh recovered and returned to the Yellow House on 7 January 1889.[154] He spent the following month between hospital and home, suffering from hallucinations and delusions of poisoning.[155] In March, the police closed his house after a petition by 30 townspeople (including the Ginoux family) who described him as "le fou roux" (the redheaded madman);[148] Van Gogh returned to hospital. Paul Signac visited him twice in March;[156] in April Van Gogh moved into rooms owned by Dr Rey after floods damaged paintings in his own home.[157] Two months later, he left Arles and voluntarily entered an asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. Around this time, he wrote, "Sometimes moods of indescribable anguish, sometimes moments when the veil of time and fatality of circumstances seemed to be torn apart for an instant."[158]

 

Van Gogh gifted his 1889 Portrait of Doctor Félix Rey to Dr Rey. The physician was not fond of the painting and used it to repair a chicken coop, then gave it away.[159] In 2016, the portrait was housed at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and estimated to be worth over $50 million.[160]

 

Saint-Rémy (May 1889 – May 1890)

 

Main article: Saint-Paul Asylum, Saint-Rémy (Van Gogh series)

Van Gogh entered the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole asylum on 8 May 1889, accompanied by his carer, Frédéric Salles, a Protestant clergyman. Saint-Paul was a former monastery in Saint-Rémy, less than 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Arles, and was run by a former naval doctor, Théophile Peyron. Van Gogh had two cells with barred windows, one of which was to be used as a studio.[161] During his stay, the clinic and its garden became the main subjects of his paintings. He made several studies of the hospital's interiors, such as Vestibule of the Asylumand Saint-Rémy (September 1889). Some of his works from this time are characterised by swirls, such as The Starry Night. He was allowed short supervised walks, which led to paintings of cypresses and olive trees, including Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background 1889, Cypresses 1889, Cornfield with Cypresses (1889), Country road in Provence by Night(1890). In September 1889 he produced two further versions of Bedroom in Arles.[162]

 

Limited access to life outside the clinic resulted in a shortage of subject matter. Van Gogh was left to work oninterpretations of other artist's paintings, such as Millet's The Sower and Noon – Rest from Work (after Millet), as well as variations on his own earlier work. Van Gogh was an admirer of the Realism of Jules Breton, Gustave Courbet and Millet,[163] and he compared his copies to a musician's interpreting Beethoven.[164]

 

His The Round of the Prisoners (1890) was painted after an engraving by Gustave Doré (1832–1883). Tralbaut suggests that the face of the prisoner in the centre of the painting looking towards the viewer is Van Gogh himself;[165] Jan Hulskerdiscounts this.[166]

 

Between February and April 1890 Van Gogh suffered a severe relapse. He "had fits of despair and hallucination during which he could not work, between long clear months in which he could and did, punctuated by extreme visionary ecstasy."[167]Although depressed and unable to bring himself to write, he was still able to paint and draw a little during this time,[168]and he later wrote to Theo that he had made a few small canvases "from memory ... reminisces of the North."[169] Among these was Two Peasant Women Digging in a Snow-Covered Field at Sunset. Hulsker believes that this small group of paintings formed the nucleus of many drawings and study sheets depicting landscapes and figures that Van Gogh worked on during this time. He comments that this short period was the only time that Van Gogh's illness had a significant effect on his work.[170] Van Gogh asked his mother and his brother to send him drawings and rough work he had done in the early 1880s so he could work on new paintings from his old sketches.[171] Belonging to this period is Sorrowing Old Man ("At Eternity's Gate"), a colour study Hulsker describes as "another unmistakable remembrance of times long past."[100][172] His late paintings show an artist at the height of his abilities, according to the art critic Robert Hughes, "longing for concision and grace".[113]

 

Albert Aurier praised his work in the Mercure de France in January 1890, and described him as "a genius".[173] In February Van Gogh painted five versions of L'Arlésienne (Madame Ginoux), based on a charcoal sketch Gauguin had produced when she sat for both artists in November 1888.[174][note 11] Also in February, Van Gogh was invited by Les XX, a society of avant-gardepainters in Brussels, to participate in their annual exhibition. At the opening dinner a Les XX member, Henry de Groux, insulted Van Gogh's work. Toulouse-Lautrec demanded satisfaction, and Signac declared he would continue to fight for Van Gogh's honour if Lautrec surrendered. De Groux apologised for the slight and left the group. Later, while Van Gogh's exhibit was on display with the Artistes Indépendants in Paris, Claude Monet said that his work was the best in the show.[175] After the birth of his nephew, Van Gogh wrote "I started right away to make a picture for him, to hang in their bedroom, branches of white almond blossom against a blue sky."[176]

 

Auvers-sur-Oise (May–July 1890)

See also: Houses at Auvers, Auvers size 30 canvases, and Double-squares and Squares

In May 1890 Van Gogh left the clinic in Saint-Rémy to move nearer to both Dr Paul Gachetin Auvers-sur-Oise and to Theo. Gachet was an amateur painter and had treated several other artists – Camille Pissarro had recommended him. Van Gogh's first impression was that Gachet was "iller than I am, it seemed to me, or let's say just as much."[177]

 

The Barbizon school painter Charles Daubigny had moved to Auvers in 1861, and in turn drew other artists there, including Camille Corot and Honoré Daumier. In July 1890, Van Gogh completed two paintings of Daubigny's Garden, one of which is likely his final work.[178]

 

During Van Gogh's last weeks at Saint-Rémy, his thoughts returned to his "memories of the North",[169] and several of the approximately 70 oils, painted during as many days in Auvers-sur-Oise, are reminiscent of northern scenes.[179] In June 1890, he painted several portraits of his doctor, including Portrait of Dr Gachet, and his only etching. In each the emphasis is on Gachet's melancholic disposition.[180] There are other paintings which are probably unfinished, including Thatched Cottages by a Hill.[178]

 

In July, Van Gogh wrote that he had become absorbed "in the immense plain against the hills, boundless as the sea, delicate yellow."[181] He had first become captivated by the fields in May, when the wheat was young and green. In July he described to Theo "vast fields of wheat under turbulent skies".[182] He wrote that they represented his "sadness and extreme loneliness", and that the "canvases will tell you what I cannot say in words, that is, how healthy and invigorating I find the countryside."[183] Wheatfield with Crows, from July 1890, is a painting Hulsker discusses as being associated with "melancholy and extreme loneliness."[184] Hulsker identifies seven oil paintings from Auvers that follow the completion ofWheatfield with Crows.[185]

 

 

 

 Death (July 1890)

 

Main articles: Death of Vincent van Gogh, Auberge Ravoux, and Vincent van Gogh's health

On 27 July 1890, aged 37, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a 7mm Lefaucheux à broche revolver.[187][188] There were no witnesses and he died 30 hours after the incident.[159] The shooting may have taken place in the wheat field in which he had been painting, or a local barn.[189] The bullet was deflected by a rib and passed through his chest without doing apparent damage to internal organs – probably stopped by his spine. He was able to walk back to the Auberge Ravoux, where he was attended to by two doctors, but without a surgeon present the bullet could not be removed. The doctors tended to him as best they could, then left him alone in his room, smoking his pipe. The following morning Theo rushed to his brother's side, finding him in good spirits. But within hours Vincent began to fail, suffering from an untreated infection resulting from the wound. He died in the early hours of 29 July. According to Theo, Vincent's last words were: "The sadness will last forever".[190][191][192][193]

 

Van Gogh was buried on 30 July, in the municipal cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise. The funeral was attended by Theo van Gogh,Andries Bonger, Charles Laval, Lucien Pissarro, Émile Bernard, Julien Tanguy and Paul Gachet, among twenty family, friends and locals. Theo had been ill, and his health began to decline further after his brother's death. Weak and unable to come to terms with Vincent's absence, he died on 25 January 1891 at Den Dolder, and was buried in Utrecht.[194] In 1914, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger had Theo's body exhumed and moved from Utrecht to be re-buried alongside Vincent's at Auvers-sur-Oise.[195]

 

There have been numerous debates as to the nature of Van Gogh's illness and its effect on his work, and many retrospective diagnoses have been proposed. There is a consensus that Van Gogh had an episodic condition with periods of normal functioning in between.[196] Perry was the first to suggest bipolar disorder in 1947,[197] and this has been supported by the psychiatrists Hemphill and Blumer.[198][199] Biochemist Wilfred Arnold has countered that the symptoms are more consistent with acute intermittent porphyria, noting that the popular link between bipolar disorder and creativity might be spurious.[196] Temporal lobe epilepsy with bouts of depression in between has also been suggested.[199] Whatever the diagnosis, his condition was likely worsened by malnutrition, overwork, insomnia and alcohol.[199]

 

 

Style and works

Artistic development

Van Gogh drew and painted with watercolours while at school, but only a few examples survive and the authorship of some has been challenged.[200] When he took up art as an adult, he began at an elementary level. In early 1882, his uncle, Cornelis Marinus, owner of a well-known gallery of contemporary art in Amsterdam, asked for drawings of The Hague. Van Gogh's work did not live up to expectations. Marinus offered a second commission, specifying the subject matter in detail, but was again disappointed with the result. Van Gogh persevered; he experimented with lighting in his studio using variable shutters, and with different drawing materials. For more than a year he worked on single figures – highly elaborate studies in black and white,[note 12] which at the time gained him only criticism. Later, they were recognised as his first masterpieces.[202]

 

In August 1882 Theo gave Vincent money to buy materials for working en plein air. Vincent wrote that he could now "go on painting with new vigour".[203] From early 1883 he worked on multi-figure compositions. He had some of them photographed, but when his brother remarked that they lacked liveliness and freshness, he destroyed them and turned to oil painting. Van Gogh turned to well-known Hague School artists like Weissenbruch andBlommers, and received technical advice from them, as well as from painters like De Bock and Van der Weele, both artists of the Hague School's second generation.[204] When he moved to Nuenen after the period in Drenthe he began several large paintings but destroyed most of them. The Potato Eaters and its companion pieces are the only ones to have survived. Following a visit to the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh was aware that many of his faults were due to lack of experience and technical expertise,[204] so in November 1885 he travelled to Antwerp and later Paris to learn and develop his skills.[205]

 

Theo criticised The Potato Eaters for its dark palette, which he thought unsuitable for a modern style.[206] During Van Gogh's stay in Paris between 1886 and 1887, he tried to master a new, lighter palette. His Portrait of Père Tanguy (1887) shows his success with the brighter palette, and is evidence of an evolving personal style.[207] Charles Blanc's treatise on colour interested him greatly, and led him to work with complementary colours. Van Gogh came to believe that the effect of colour went beyond the descriptive; he said that "colour expresses something in itself".[208][209] According to Hughes, Van Gogh perceived colour as having a "psychological and moral weight", as exemplified in the garish reds and greens of The Night Cafe, a work he wanted to "express the terrible passions of humanity".[210] Yellow meant the most to him, because it symbolised emotional truth. He used yellow as a symbol for sunlight, life, and God.[211]

 

Throughout his career Van Gogh strove to be a painter of rural life and nature,[212] and during his first summer in Arles he used his new palette to paint landscapes and traditional rural life.[213] His belief that a power existed behind the natural led him to try to capture a sense of that power, or the essence of nature in his art, sometimes through the use of symbols.[214] His renditions of the sower, at first copied from Jean-François Millet, reflect Van Gogh's religious beliefs: the sower as Christ sowing life beneath the hot sun.[215] These were themes and motifs he returned to often to rework and develop.[216] His paintings of flowers are filled with symbolism, but rather than use traditional Christian iconography he made up his own, where life is lived under the sun and work is an allegory of life.[217]In Arles, having gained confidence after painting spring blossoms and learning to capture bright sunlight, he was ready to paint The Sower.[208] The juxtaposition of saturated complementary colours and the single figure in the landscape represent a unique and innovative style.[213]

 

Van Gogh stayed within what he called the "guise of reality",[218] and was critical of overly stylised works.[219] He wrote afterwards that the abstraction of Starry Night had gone too far and that reality had "receded too far in the background".[219] Hughes describes it as a moment of extreme visionary ecstasy: the stars are in a great whirl, reminiscent of Hokusai's Great Wave, the movement in the heaven above is reflected by the movement of the cypress on the earth below, and the painter's vision is "translated into a thick, emphatic plasma of paint."[167]

 

Between 1885 and his death in 1890, Van Gogh appears to have been building anoeuvre,[220] a collection that reflected his personal vision, and could be commercially successful. He was influenced by Blanc's definition of style, that a true painting required optimal use of colour, perspective and brushstrokes. Van Gogh applied the word "purposeful" to paintings he thought he had mastered, as opposed to those he thought of as studies.[221] He painted many series of studies;[218] most of which were still lifes, many executed as colour experiments or as gifts to friends.[222] The work in Arles contributed considerably to his oeuvre: those he thought the most important from that time were The Sower, Night Cafe, Memory of the Garden in Etten and Starry Night. With their broad brushstrokes, inventive perspectives, colours, contours and designs, these paintings represent the style he sought. He considered The Bedroom his best work of that period, because of the inventive use of perspective.[219]

 

The style Van Gogh found was revolutionary "in the very look of his pictures, their coarseness and deliberately unfinished quality, [and] the vigor with which they were painted."[223] His art, with its emphasis on the common people and a wish for a better world, presages the 20th century and modernism.[224]

 

Major series

Main article: List of works by Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh's stylistic developments are usually linked to the periods he spent living in different places across Europe. He was inclined to immerse himself in local cultures and lighting conditions, although he maintained a highly individual visual outlook throughout. His evolution as an artist was slow, and he was aware of his painterly limitations. He moved home often, perhaps to expose himself to new visual stimuli, and through exposure develop his technical skill.[225] Art historian Melissa McQuillan believes the moves also reflect later stylistic changes, and that Van Gogh used the moves to avoid conflict, and as a coping mechanism for when the idealistic artist was faced with the realities of his then current situation.[226]

 

Portraits

See also: Portraits by Vincent van Gogh, Paintings of Children (Van Gogh series), and Van Gogh's family in his art

Van Gogh considered portraits an important element of his oeuvre.[222] He said of portrait studies that they were "the only thing in painting that moves me deeply and that gives me a sense of the infinite."[227] He wrote to his sister that he wished to paint portraits that would endure, and that he would use colour to capture their emotions and character rather than aiming for photographic realism.[228] Those closest to Van Gogh are mostly absent from his portraits; he rarely painted Theo, Van Rappard or Bernard. The portraits of his mother were from photographs.[229]

 

Portraiture represented Van Gogh's best opportunity of earning money. Some of the portraits are studies. Those he considered finished paintings are identifiable by the subject holding an object, such as a book, and tend to exhibit more stylisation than his other work.[222]

 

In December 1888 Van Gogh painted La Berceuse – a figure that he thought as good as his sunflower still lifes. It has a limited palette, varied brushstrokes and simple contours.[219] It appears to be a culmination of portraits of the Roulin family he executed in Arles between November and December. They show a shift in style from the fluid and restrained brushstrokes and even surface of Portrait of the Postman to the frenetic style, rough surface, broad brushstrokes and use of a palette knife in Madame Roulin with Baby.[230]

 

 

   

Self-portraits

 

See also: Self-portraits by Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh created more than 43 self-portraits between 1885 and 1889.[231][note 13] They were usually completed in series, such as those painted in Paris in mid-1887, and continued until shortly before his death.[232] Generally the portraits were studies, created during introspective periods when he was reluctant to mix with others, or when he lacked models, and so painted himself.[222][233]

 

The self-portraits reflect a degree of self-scrutiny that, according to Hughes, is "seldom if ever" apparent in an artist.[234] Often they mark important periods in his development, for example in the mid-1887 Paris series, where he became influenced by Claude Monet, Paul Cezanneand Signac.[235] In Self-Portrait with Grey Felt Hat, heavy strains of paint spread outwards across the canvas. It is one of his most renowned self-portraits of that period, "with its highly organized rhythmic brushstrokes, and the novel halo derived from the Neo-Impressionist repertoire was what Van Gogh himself called a 'purposeful' canvas".[236]

 

They contain a wide array of physiognomical representations.[231] Van Gogh's mental and physical condition is usually apparent; he may appear unkempt, unshaven or with a neglected beard, with deeply sunken eyes, a weak jaw, or having lost teeth. Some show him with full lips, a long face or prominent skull, or sharpened, alert features. His hair may be the usual red, or at times ash coloured.[231]

 

Van Gogh's gaze is seldom directed at the viewer. The portraits vary in intensity and colour, and in those painted after December 1888 especially, the vivid colours highlight the haggard pallor of his skin.[233] Some depict the artist with a beard, others without. He can be seen with bandages in portraits executed just after he mutilated his ear. In only a few does he depict himself as a painter.[231] Those painted in Saint-Rémy show the head from the right, the side opposite his damaged ear, as he painted himself reflected in his mirror.[237][238]

 

Flowers

See also: Sunflowers (Van Gogh series) and Almond Blossoms

Van Gogh painted several landscapes with flowers, including roses, lilacs, irises, andsunflowers. Some reflect his interests in the language of colour, and also in Japanese ukiyo-e.[241] There are two series of dying sunflowers. The first was painted in Paris in 1887 and shows flowers lying on the ground. The second set was completed a year later in Arles, and is of bouquets in a vase positioned in early morning light.[242] Both are built from thickly layered paintwork, which, according to the London National Gallery, evokes the "texture of the seed-heads".[243]

 

In these series, Van Gogh was not preoccupied by his usual interest in filling his paintings with subjectivity and emotion; rather the two series are intended to display his technical skill and working methods to Gauguin,[133] who was about to visit. The 1888 paintings were created during a rare period of optimism for the artist. Vincent wrote to Theo in August 1888, "I'm painting with the gusto of a Marseillais eating bouillabaisse, which won't surprise you when it's a question of painting large sunflowers ... If I carry out this plan there'll be a dozen or so panels. The whole thing will therefore be a symphony in blue and yellow. I work on it all these mornings, from sunrise. Because the flowers wilt quickly and it's a matter of doing the whole thing in one go."[244]

 

The sunflowers were painted to decorate the walls in anticipation of Gauguin's visit, and Van Gogh placed individual works around the Yellow House's guest room in Arles. Gauguin was deeply impressed and later acquired two of the Paris versions.[133]

 

After Gauguin's departure, Van Gogh imagined the two major versions of the sunflowers as wings of the Berceuse Triptych, and included them in his Les XX in Brussels exhibit. Today the major pieces of the series are among his best known, celebrated for the sickly connotations of the colour yellow and its tie-in with the Yellow House, the expressionism of the brush strokes, and their contrast against often dark backgrounds.[245]

 

 

Cypresses

See also: Olive Trees (Van Gogh series)

Fifteen canvases depict cypresses, a tree he became fascinated with in Arles.[247] He brought life to the trees, which were traditionally seen as emblematic of death.[214] The series of cypresses he began in Arles featured the trees in the distance, as windbreaks in fields; when he was at Saint-Rémy he brought them to the foreground.[248] Vincent wrote to Theo in May 1889: "Cypresses still preoccupy me, I should like to do something with them like my canvases of sunflowers"; he went on to say "They are beautiful in line and proportion like an Egyptian obelisk."[249]

 

In mid-1889, and at his sister Wil's request, Van Gogh painted several smaller versions ofWheat Field with Cypresses.[250] The works are characterised by swirls and densely painted impasto, and include The Starry Night, in which cypresses dominate the foreground.[247]

 

Other works from this period include Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background (1889), about which, in a letter to his brother, Van Gogh wrote, "At last I have a landscape with olives," [251] Cypresses (1889), Cypresses with Two Figures (1889–90), and Road with Cypress and Star (1890).[251] While in the asylum in Saint-Rémy, Van Gogh spent time outside painting pictures of the trees in the olive groves. These are rendered as gnarled and arthritic as if a personification of the natural world, which are, according to Hughes, filled with "a continuous field of energy of which nature is a manifestation".[214]

 

 

Orchards

See also: Flowering Orchards

The Flowering Orchards (also the Orchards in Blossom) are among the first groups of work completed after Van Gogh's arrival in Arles in February 1888. The 14 paintings are optimistic, joyous and visually expressive of the burgeoning spring. They are delicately sensitive and unpopulated. He painted swiftly, and although he brought to this series a version of Impressionism, a strong sense of personal style began to emerge during this period. The transience of the blossoming trees, and the passing of the season, seemed to align with his sense of impermanence and belief in a new beginning in Arles. During the blossoming of the trees that spring, he found "a world of motifs that could not have been more Japanese".[252]Vincent wrote to Theo on 21 April 1888 that he had 10 orchards and "one big [painting] of a cherry tree, which I've spoiled".[253]

 

During this period Van Gogh mastered the use of light by subjugating shadows and painting the trees as if they are the source of light – almost in a sacred manner.[252] Early the following year he painted another smaller group of orchards, including View of Arles, Flowering Orchards.[254] Van Gogh was enthralled by the landscape and vegetation of the south of France, and often visited the farm gardens near Arles. In the vivid light of the Mediterranean climatehis palette significantly brightened.[255]

 

Wheat fields

See also: Wheat Fields (Van Gogh series) and The Wheat Field

Van Gogh made several painting excursions during visits to the landscape around Arles. He made paintings of harvests, wheat fields and other rural landmarks of the area, including The Old Mill (1888); a good example of a picturesque structure bordering the wheat fields beyond.[115] At various points, Van Gogh painted the view from his window – at The Hague, Antwerp, and Paris. These works culminated in The Wheat Field series, which depicted the view from his cells in the asylum at Saint-Rémy.[256]

 

Many of the late paintings are sombre but essentially optimistic and, right up to the time of Van Gogh's death, reflect his desire to return to lucid mental health. Yet some of his final works reflect his deepening concerns.[257][258] Writing in July 1890, from Auvers, Van Gogh said that he had become absorbed "in the immense plain against the hills, boundless as the sea, delicate yellow."[181]

 

Van Gogh was captivated by the fields in May when the wheat was young and green. His Wheatfields at Auvers with White Houseshows a more subdued palette of yellows and blues, which creates a sense of idyllic harmony.[259]

 

On or about 10 July 1890 Van Gogh wrote to Theo of "vast fields of wheat under troubled skies".[260] Wheatfield with Crowsshows the artist's state of mind in his final days; Hulsker describes the work as a "doom-filled painting with threatening skies and ill-omened crows."[184] Its dark palette and heavy brushstrokes convey a sense of menace.[261]

 

Reputation

Main article: Posthumous fame of Vincent van Gogh

After Van Gogh's first exhibitions in the late 1880s, his reputation grew steadily among artists, art critics, dealers and collectors.[262] In 1887 André Antoine hung Van Gogh's alongside works of Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, at the Théâtre Libre in Paris; some were acquired by Julien Tanguy.[263] In 1889 his work was described in the journal Le Moderniste Illustré by Albert Aurier as characterised by "fire, intensity, sunshine".[264] Ten paintings were shown at the Société des Artistes Indépendants, in Brussels in January 1890.[265]

 

In the wake of Van Gogh's death in 1890, memorial exhibitions were held in Brussels, Paris, The Hague and Antwerp. His work was shown in several high-profile exhibitions, including six works at Les XX; in 1891 there was a retrospective exhibition in Brussels.[265] In 1892 Octave Mirbeauwrote that Van Gogh's suicide was an "infinitely sadder loss for art ... even though the populace has not crowded to a magnificent funeral, and poor Vincent van Gogh, whose demise means the extinction of a beautiful flame of genius, has gone to his death as obscure and neglected as he lived."[263]

 

Theo died in January 1891, removing Vincent's most vocal and well-connected champion.[266] Theo's widow Johanna van Gogh-Bonger was a Dutchwoman in her twenties who had not known either her husband or her brother-in law very long and who suddenly had to take care of several hundreds of paintings, letters and drawings, as well as her infant son, Vincent Willem van Gogh.[262][note 14] Gauguin was not inclined to offer assistance in promoting Van Gogh's reputation, and Johanna's brother Andries Bonger also seemed to be lukewarm about his work.[262] Aurier, one of Van Gogh's earliest supporters among the critics, died of typhoid fever in 1892 at the age of twenty-seven.[268]

 

In 1892 Émile Bernard organised a small solo show of Van Gogh's paintings in Paris, and Julien Tanguy exhibited his Van Gogh paintings with several consigned from Johanna van Gogh-Bonger. In April 1894 the Durand-Rue Gallery in Paris agreed to take 10 paintings on consignment from Van Gogh's estate.[268] In 1896, the Fauvist painter Henri Matisse, then an unknown art student, visited John Peter Russell on Belle Île off Brittany.[269][270] Russell had been a close friend of Van Gogh; he introduced Matisse to the Dutchman's work, and gave him a Van Gogh drawing. Influenced by Van Gogh, Matisse abandoned his earth-coloured palette for bright colours.[270][271]

 

In Paris in 1901 a large Van Gogh retrospective was held at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, which excited André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck, and contributed to the emergence of Fauvism.[268]Important group exhibitions took place with the Sonderbund artists in Cologne in 1912, theArmory Show, New York in 1913, and Berlin in 1914.[272] Henk Bremmer was instrumental in teaching and talking about Van Gogh,[273] and introduced Helene Kröller-Müller to Van Gogh's art; she became an avid collector of his work.[274] The early figures in German Expressionismsuch as Emil Nolde acknowledged a debt to Van Gogh's work.[275] Bremmer assisted Jacob Baart de la Faille, whose catalogue raisonné L'Oeuvre de Vincent van Gogh appeared in 1928.[276][note 15]

 

Van Gogh's fame reached its first peak in Austria and Germany before World War I,[279] helped by the publication of his letters in three volumes in 1914.[280] His letters are expressive and literate, and have been described as among the foremost 19th-century writings of their kind.[9] These began a compelling mythology of Van Gogh as an intense and dedicated painter who suffered for his art and died young.[281] In 1934 the novelist Irving Stone published an account of Van Gogh's life entitled Lust for Life, based on Van Gogh's letters to Theo. This book and the 1956 film of the same name further enhanced his fame.[282]

 

In 1957 Francis Bacon based a series of paintings on reproductions of Van Gogh's The Painter on the Road to Tarascon, the original of which was destroyed during the Second World War. Bacon was inspired by an image he described as "haunting", and regarded Van Gogh as an alienated outsider, a position which resonated with him. Bacon identified with Van Gogh's theories of art and quoted lines written to Theo: "[R]eal painters do not paint things as they are ... [T]hey paint them as they themselves feel them to be."[283]

 

Van Gogh's works are among the world's most expensive paintings. Those sold for over US$100 million (today's equivalent) include Portrait of Dr Gachet,[284] Portrait of Joseph Roulin and Irises. The Metropolitan Museum of Art's version of Wheat Field with Cypresses was acquired in 1993 for US$57 million.[285] In 2015 L'Allée des Alyscamps sold for US$66.3 million at Sotheby's, New York, exceeding its reserve of US$40 million.[286]

 

Van Gogh Museum

Van Gogh's nephew and namesake Vincent Willem van Gogh (1890–1978),[287] inherited the estate after his mother's death in 1925. During the early 1950s he arranged for the publication of a complete edition of the letters presented in four volumes and several languages. He then began negotiations with the Dutch government to subsidise a foundation to purchase and house the entire collection.[288] Theo's son participated in planning the project in the hope that the works would be exhibited under the best possible conditions. The project began in 1963; architect Gerrit Rietveld was commissioned to design it, and after his death in 1964 Kisho Kurokawa took charge.[289]Work progressed throughout the 1960s, with 1972 as the target for its grand opening.[287]

 

The Van Gogh Museum opened in the Museumplein in Amsterdam in 1973.[290] It became the second most popular museum in the Netherlands, after the Rijksmuseum, regularly receiving more than 1.5 million visitors a year. In 2015 it had a record 1.9 million;[291] 85 percent of the visitors come from other countries.[292]

 

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