探索之旅-古埃及的艺术文明

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 史前人类住在漆黑的洞穴里面,而今天我们要讲的故事虽然离那个时代已经过去了上万年,但是人们住的地方也并没有比洞穴好多少,他们住在用泥巴堆起来的土房子里,十分简陋。更奇怪的是,他们其实并不在乎活着的时候住的地方,他们更感兴趣而且更愿意投入精力规划的是他们死后的住所,他们就是生活在5000年前的古埃及人,古埃及人几乎一辈子都在为“来世”的生活做准备。为什么会这样呢?

古代埃及人相信,他们死后,身体会在几千年后重生。他们认为与永恒的来世相比,当下短暂的人生是微不足道的。古埃及人看到太阳每天从尼罗河东升西落,周而复始。所以他们认为太阳神是永生的,可以保佑他们进入来世,太阳神是鹰头人身的神灵,古埃及人信奉太阳神,他是古埃及的最高神灵。

在莎草纸上绘制的《亡灵书》,里面写有咒语还有绘画,可以帮助古埃及人通过各种障碍到达来世,得到永生。《亡灵书》会和其他的陪葬品一起放入墓中。

古埃及人的墓穴修建的十分华丽,他们会将各种珍贵的财宝和雕像带到墓中。为了能让自己在来世更好的生活,除了做成木乃伊长久保存以外,他们还在墓穴里画满了绘画,是画给神灵看的,是要告诉神灵逝者生前的生活是什么样的,这样他们就可以在来世继续原有的生活方式。这些绘画中可能有逝者生前的工作场景,或者生前的事迹,甚至还有他们的兴趣爱好,比如他们生前最喜欢玩的某种游戏。下面的画就是拉美西斯二世法老最喜爱的妻子,奈费尔提蒂王后,她正在玩一种古老的桌面游戏——塞尼特棋。

古埃及绘画将人像与象形文字结合在一起,文字也成了绘画构图和装饰的一部分。

古埃及绘画是不是觉得、像是一个人画的?古埃及绘画除了内容上有区别,但绘画风格都是一样的,看起来似乎就像是一个人画的。古埃及绘画在漫长的3000年中,风格几乎没有任何变化。他们的画匠从9岁开始接受训练,有非常严格的绘画规则。他们在描绘人物各部分时均选择最佳的角度,胸部和眼睛为正面,头部和四肢为侧面。画中所有的事物均以二维平面的形式呈现。古埃及人认为,如果在墓穴的画中正确展示了播种、收获、动物以及仆人等等,那死者便可以永远享用这些东西。下图为古埃及工匠大师森内德杰姆墓中的一幅壁画。壁画的作用是施下符咒,保证森内德杰姆和妻子莉内芙蒂来世丰衣足食。

古埃及人最后到底得到了永生没有呢?几千年后的今天,我们可以从博物馆中了解到古埃及人当时是如何生活的,他们怎样工作、怎样播种、有什么兴趣爱好,他们就已经在我们的心中得到了永生,以后的人们世世代代都能欣赏到描绘他们的生活场景的绘画,他们就真的永远活下去了。

 

 

--------Introduction in English--------

Prehistoric humans lived in dark caves, and the story we are going to tell today, although it is tens of thousands of years from that time, people do not live in much more places than caves. They live in mud-piled earthen houses, which are very simple. Strangely enough, they didn't really care where they lived when they were alive. What they were more interested in and more willing to devote their energies to planning their residence after death was the ancient Egyptians who lived 5000 years ago, who spent almost their whole lives preparing for the afterlife. Why?

Ancient Egyptians believed that after their death, their bodies would be reborn in thousands of years. They think that compared with the eternal afterlife, the present short life is insignificant. Ancient Egyptians saw the sun rising and setting from the Nile every day, and it began again and again. So they think that the sun god is immortal and can bless them into the afterlife. The Sun God is the God of the hawk. The ancient Egyptians believe in the sun god. He is the highest god in ancient Egypt.

The Book of the Dead, drawn on papyrus, contains incantations and paintings, which can help ancient Egyptians reach the afterlife through various obstacles and achieve eternal life. The Book of the Dead will be placed in the tomb with other burials.

The tombs of the ancient Egyptians were magnificently built, and they brought precious treasures and statues to the tombs. In order to make a better life for themselves in the afterlife, besides making mummies for long-term preservation, they also painted tombs full of paintings, which are for the gods to see, to tell the gods what life was like before death, so that they can continue their original way of life in the afterlife. These paintings may include the work scenes of the deceased, their deeds, and even their hobbies, such as some of their favorite games. The following picture shows the wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, Queen Nefertiti, who is playing an ancient desktop game, Senite.

Ancient Egyptian paintings combined portraits with hieroglyphics, which became part of the composition and decoration of paintings.

Does ancient Egyptian painting feel like it was painted by a person? Ancient Egyptian paintings differ in content, but they all have the same style. They seem to be painted by one person. The style of ancient Egyptian painting has hardly changed in the long 3000 years. Their artists have been trained since they were 9 years old and have very strict painting rules. They choose the best angle when describing each part of the character, with the chest and eyes on the front and the head and limbs on the side. Everything in the picture is presented in two-dimensional plane. Ancient Egyptians believed that if sowing, harvesting, animals and servants were shown correctly in tomb paintings, the deceased could enjoy them forever. Below is a mural from the tomb of the ancient Egyptian craftsman Master Senededjam. The role of the murals is to cast a spell to ensure that Senededjam and his wife, Linafuti, are well-fed and well-clothed in their afterlife.

Did the ancient Egyptians finally get immortality? Thousands of years later, we can learn from museums how ancient Egyptians lived, how they worked, how they sowed, what interests and hobbies, they have been immortalized in our hearts, and people can appreciate paintings depicting their life scenes from generation to generation, and they really live forever.

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