一分钟看懂中外美术史的差异

 

艺术到底有多重要呢?

王国维曾在《去毒篇:鸦片烟之根本治疗法及将来教育上之注意》一文里,将“美术”与“宗教” 并列为治疗“鸦片癖”的两个良方:“宗教之慰藉理想的,而美术之慰藉现实的”,“美术者,上流社会之宗教也”。他所说的美术不仅包括建筑、绘画、雕刻,也包括音乐、文学。

艺术不分年龄、性别、种族、国籍

但又因为这些条件的不同

而产生极其丰富的艺术形式和艺术风格

中 西 艺 术

各有渊源,自成体系

有着不同的特点、区别

而这些差异

归根结底就是文化体系的差异

既不能归咎于画家个人的思想风格

更不能视为只是材料、技法的不同

我们来举个栗子

THE WEST VSTHE EAST

从最初的史前艺术,就可以看出中西方艺术的差别,36000年前法国东南部发现的Chauvet Cave,线条粗旷的勾勒了动物外形,而在中国发现的岩画,形象刻画更为精细,更有故事情节。

建筑,是人在自然之中的延伸,也是人类文明构成中非常重要和关键的一环。

在中国人手中,但建造,必是自然的、符合天道的,所谓“天圆地方”。迥异于东方,西方的建筑经常求变,其结构和材料演变得比较急剧,无论从形象、比例、装饰和空间布局,都发生了很大变化。这反映了西方人,敢于独辟蹊径,勇于创新的精神。

Cappella Sistina 中的壁画,

Michelangelo 所绘的<The Last Judgement / 最后的审判>构图采用了水平线与垂直线交叉的复杂结构,形象逼真立体;中国敦煌第57窟,线条柔美、神韵犹存。两者不同的叙事方式,不同的表现手法,最重要的是不同的宗教信仰,使两者之间产生强烈的对比。

柔美裸露的 Venus de Milo,与布阵庄严的秦始皇兵马俑,同是雕塑艺术,西方更注重人体的写实,东方则在意意境和气场。

Da Vinci 的 <Lady with an Ermine / 抱银鼠的女人>,无比写实,将光线与主体之间的关系处理的惟妙惟肖;而唐代周昉绘制的《簪花仕女图》,以工笔重彩绘,用笔和线条细劲有神,流动多姿,浓丽的设色,头发的钩染、而部的晕色、衣着的装饰,都极尽工巧之能事,较好地表现了贵族妇女的细腻柔嫩的肌肤和丝织物的纹饰。

同是莲花,Claude Monet 的 <Nymphéas / 睡莲>,看不到非常明确的阴影,也看不到突显或平涂式的轮廓线,一切都在朦朦胧胧的意境之中;东方的工笔则更为低调含蓄的绘制而出,但晴朗的画面之中,满是精准的线条轮廓。

--------Introduction in English--------

Chinese and Western Art

Each has its own origin and system.

They have different characteristics and differences.

And these differences

In the final analysis, it is the difference of cultural system.

Neither can it be attributed to the artist's personal style of thought.

Not to mention the differences in materials and techniques.

From the original prehistoric art, we can see the difference between Chinese and Western art. Chauvet Cave, discovered in southeastern France 36,000 years ago, outlines the shape of animals in broad lines, while the rock paintings found in China are more elaborate and storytelling.

Architecture is the extension of human being in nature, and it is also a very important and key link in the formation of human civilization.

In the hands of the Chinese people, all construction must be natural and in line with the Tao of Heaven, the so-called "Tianyuan Place". Different from the East, the architecture of the West often changes. Its structure and materials have evolved rapidly. No matter from image, proportion, decoration and space layout, great changes have taken place. This reflects the spirit of Westerners who dare to innovate.

Murals in Cappella Sistina,

Michelangelo's <The Last Judgement/The Last Judgement/The Last Judgement> composition uses the complex structure of crossing horizontal and vertical lines, which is vivid and three-dimensional. In Cave 57 of Dunhuang, China, the lines are soft and charming. The two have different narrative ways, different expressive techniques and, most importantly, different religious beliefs, which make a strong contrast between them.

The soft and naked Venus de Milo and the solemn Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang are both sculpture arts. The West pays more attention to the realism of the human body, while the East pays more attention to the artistic conception and atmosphere.

 

Da Vinci's <Lady with an Ermine/Woman with a Silver Mouse> is very realistic, which handles the relationship between light and the subject vividly; while Zhou Fang's Hammer Lady Picture in Tang Dynasty, which is redrawn with fine brushwork, vigorous and spiritual with pens and lines, flowing and colorful, graceful design, hook dyeing of hair, halo of part and decoration of clothes, all do their best. It shows the delicate and tender skin of noble women and the decoration of silk fabrics.

 

 

 

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