中世纪欧洲美术产生的背景艺术总特征

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 早期基督教美术

 

主要体现在“地下墓窟”的壁画《善良的牧人》和“巴西里卡”式的教堂中。

 

基督教最早产生于公元1世纪的巴勒斯坦地区,最初受罗马帝国的迫害。 

 

需要关注的点:中世纪欧洲美术产生的背景、艺术总特征、巴西里卡式、

 

补充的点:欧洲中世纪艺术的几个主要阶段是什么、中世纪美术同古希腊美术的区别是什么

拜占廷美术

 

拜占廷的建筑主要继承罗马风格,早期教堂建筑沿用罗马的平面结构和拱券结构并加以变化,早期的集中式和中后期的“希腊十字式”成为教堂布局的主要模式,建堂的建筑和镶嵌画在拜占廷艺术中占有特殊地位。

 

建筑:主要体现在镶嵌画、壁画和圣像画上。最著名的镶嵌画在意大利拉文纳的圣维他尔大教堂,代表作有《荣耀基督》《查士尼皇帝和廷臣》《皇帝提奥多拉和女宫》。

 

镶嵌画:是以小彩色玻璃和石子镶嵌而成的建筑装饰画,成为教堂内部装饰的主要形式。 

 

需要关注的点:拜占庭艺术发展背景及特点、圣索菲亚大教堂

 

 

加洛林文艺复兴

 

公元8世纪,法兰克国王查理曼为恢复昔日罗马的繁盛,在文化上回复罗马的传统,也希望借此恢复昔日罗马帝国的称号,将辉煌的文化注入半野蛮民族血液中,亲自领导并召集艺术家一宫廷为中心进行创作,复兴古典文化的潮流,历史称之为“加洛林文艺复兴”,这次复兴的最大意义是将北欧的日耳曼精神与地中海文明成功的融合在一起。

 

建筑:阿琛王宫是查理曼时代最重要的建筑工程,阿琛所有教堂大门一律向西,这一向西的入口建筑也叫“西部工程”。

 

雕塑:科隆大教堂中的《罗杰的十字架》是奥托王朝时期的代表作,从中可以看到拜占廷艺术的若干影响。《圣米迦勒教堂》确立了德意志地区在中世纪建筑中的独立地位。 

 

 

罗马式美术

 

哥特式艺术以前的左右艺术都称为“罗马式”。

罗马式建筑主要分布在天主教盛行的地区,讲堂的主要建筑形制是“拉丁十字式”,教堂前的塔楼成为罗马式建筑的标志之一,教堂建筑的典型代表:法国图卢兹的圣赛尔南大教堂。真正罗马式风格的形成一英国杜勒姆教堂的建成为标注。代表性的罗马式建筑还有德国的圣基列阿达教堂、意大利的比萨教堂。罗马式的石雕主要有法国奥顿教堂的“最后的审判”。

需要关注的点:简述罗马式建筑的主要特征

 

 

 

哥特式美术

这一时期随着封建制度的巩固,城市的兴起,农民地位的提高,宗教艺术也呈现世俗化的倾向,使得哥特式美术更注重艺术的象征意味,这种时代特征体现在教堂建筑及雕塑装饰,彩色玻璃花方面,到13世纪各种地方风格的不断融合,逐渐形成统一的哥特式风格,称为“国际哥特式”。

 

这一时期教堂成为城市的主要标志。哥特式艺术是整个中世纪艺术发展的一个顶点。建筑上主要采用肋拱结构,并利用飞扶壁和扶垛传递。最著名的哥特式建筑是巴黎圣母院,最能反映哥特式艺术雕刻成就的是法国的夏特尔教堂。绘画成就主要体现在彩色玻璃画和手抄本插图上。 

 

需要关注的点:哥特式美术、哥特式建筑、巴黎圣母院、镶嵌画、彩色玻璃窗画(上述为名词解释)、结合作品分析哥特式美术的艺术特色

 

 

--------Introduction in English--------

 

 

Byzantine Art

Byzantine architecture mainly inherited the Roman style. The early church architecture followed the plane structure and arch coupon structure of Rome and changed. The early centralized style and the "Greek Cross" style in the middle and late period became the main pattern of church layout. The building and mosaic of churches occupied a special position in Byzantine art.

Architecture: mainly embodied in mosaics, murals and holy portraits. The most famous mosaics are in the Cathedral of Saint Vital in Lavena, Italy. The representative works are Glory of Christ, Emperor Justine and Tintin, Emperor Theodora and the Palace of Women.

Mosaic: It is an architectural decorative painting mosaic of small stained glass and stone, which has become the main form of interior decoration of churches.

Points needing attention: Byzantine art development background and characteristics, St. Sophia Cathedral

Carolingian Renaissance

In the 8th century, King Charlemagne of Frankfurt, in order to restore the prosperity of Rome and the tradition of Rome in culture, also hoped to restore the title of the former Roman Empire, inject the splendid culture into the blood of the semi-barbaric nation, personally lead and assemble artists to create a palace as the center, and revive the trend of classical culture. History calls it the "Carolinian Renaissance". The greatest significance of this revival is the successful integration of Nordic Germanic spirit and Mediterranean civilization.

Architecture: The Achen Palace was the most important architectural project in Charlemagne's era. All the church gates of Achen were to the west. This entrance building to the West was also called the "Western Project".

Sculpture: Roger's Cross in Cologne Cathedral is a representative work of the Otto Dynasty, from which we can see some influence of Byzantine art. St. Michael's Church establishes the independent status of the German region in medieval architecture.

Roman Art

Before Gothic art, left and right art was called "Roman style".

Roman architecture is mainly distributed in the areas where Catholicism is prevalent. The main architectural form of the lecture hall is "Latin Cross". The tower in front of the church becomes one of the symbols of Roman architecture. The typical representative of the church architecture is St. Cernan Cathedral in Toulouse, France. The formation of the true Roman style marked the construction of Durham Church in England. The representative Roman architecture includes St. Kirieada Church in Germany and Pisa Church in Italy. The Roman stone carvings are mainly the "final judgment" of the Orton Church in France.

Points for Attention: Brief Description of the Main Characteristics of Roman Architecture

Gothic Art

During this period, with the consolidation of feudal system, the rise of cities, the improvement of peasants'status and the tendency of secularization of religious art, Gothic art paid more attention to the symbolic meaning of art, which was embodied in church architecture and sculpture decoration, stained glass flowers, and the continuous integration of various local styles in the 13th century, gradually forming a unified Gothic style. It is called International Gothic Style.

During this period, the church became the main symbol of the city. Gothic art is a vertex of the development of art throughout the Middle Ages. The rib arch structure is mainly used in the building, and the flying buttresses and buttresses are used for transmission. The most famous Gothic architecture is Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, and the Chartres Cathedral in France is the most representative of Gothic art sculpture. Painting achievements are mainly reflected in stained glass paintings and hand-written illustrations.

Points needing attention: Gothic art, Gothic architecture, Notre Dame de Paris, mosaics, stained glass window paintings (the above explanation for the noun), analysis of the artistic characteristics of Gothic art combined with works

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