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庞薰琹

 庞薰琹(1906年-1985年),字虞铉,笔名鼓轩。祖籍塘桥,庞鸿文之孙。著有《薰琹随笔》。组织“决澜社”,举办“决庞薰琹庞薰琹澜”画展,蜚声艺林。是我国知名画家。他的创作,题材广泛,态度严谨,独具风格。曾深入贵州80多个苗寨,考察少数民族民间艺术,创作《贵州山民图卷》,富有浓厚的生活气息和感人魅力。其代表作有《地之子》、《路》、 《贵州山民图卷》 、 《瓶花》等,享有盛誉。

  • 中文名庞薰琹
  • 别名鼓轩
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 出生地江苏常熟
  • 出生日期1906年
  • 逝世日期1985年
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校上海震旦大学
  • 主要成就著有《薰琹随笔》
  • 代表作品《地之子》、《路》、 《贵州山民图卷》 、 《瓶花》
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庞薰琹《瓶菊》345万成交

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6月16日晚7点30,荣宝斋(微博)(上海)2012春拍油画雕塑夜场在上海雅居乐万豪酒店举槌。庞薰琹《瓶菊》从20万起拍,电话委托和场内买家轮番出价,竞价迅速上...
人物简介
庞薰琹绘画作品

 [近现代](1906年-1985年)著名工艺美术家,工艺美术教育家。原名蓥,字虞弦,笔名鼓轩。江苏常熟人。1921年考入上海震旦大学学医,课余学绘画。1924年毕业,次年赴法国,入巴黎叙利思绘画研究所学画,1927年在巴黎格朗歇米欧尔研究所深造。1930年回国,系统研究中国画论、画史,参加旭光画会、苔蒙画会,成为当时有进步倾向的新兴美术启蒙运动组织者之一。1931年在上海昌明美术学校、上海美专任教。与张弦倪贻德发起成立美术社团“决澜社”。1932年在上海举行第一次个人画展,以后又举行广告画展览。1936年后任教于北平艺专、四川省立艺专、华西大学、重庆中央大学、广东省立艺专、中山大学。1938年开始搜集中国古代装饰纹样和云南少数民族民间艺术。翌年深入贵州民族地区作实地考察研究工作。1940年任四川省立艺专教授兼实用美术系主任。

1947年在广东省立艺专任教授兼绘画系主任,兼中山大学教授。1948年,拒绝赴美国执教之聘,由粤返沪,迎接解放。1949年5月29日庞薰琹与刘开渠杨可扬、(郑)野夫、张乐平朱宣咸温肇桐陈烟桥、邵克萍、赵延年等国统区美术先驱代表上海美术界在《大公报》发表迎接解放的“美术工作者宣言”,该“宣言”的发表标志着国统区美术和上海近代美术史从此翻开了崭新的一页。 建国后历任中央美术学院华东分院教授、教务长。1953年在北京中央美术学院任教,并负责筹建中央工艺美术学院。同年底任“全国民间美术工艺展览会”具体负责人。遵照周恩来总理意见,1954年又筹备四个工艺美术展览会分赴苏联、东德、波兰、匈牙利、罗马尼亚、捷克和保加利亚展出。并任工艺美术代表团团长赴苏联访问。1956年,中央工艺美术学院正式成立,任教授、第一副院长。1957年被错划成右派。1979年恢复政治名誉,恢复高教级别。1980年加入中国共产党。1983年举办建国以来第一次个人画展。1985年逝世。家属将庞氏遗作479幅捐献桑梓常熟,于常熟高等专科学校(今常熟理工学院元和校区)建庞薰琹美术馆收藏、陈列。一生从事美术教育工作,并坚持绘画创作,数十年如一日。主张艺术必须立足于本民族的传统,又必须不断吸收、融化和创新。擅长油画、水彩及白描,尤精图案和装饰艺术设计,均融入中国民族特色。代表作品有《大地之子》、《路》、《贵州山民图卷》及《瓶花》等。著有《中国历代装饰画研究》、《工艺美术设计》、《图案问题的研究》和《论工艺美术》等。曾任中国美术家协会理事。

 

重要展览

 1932年  个人画展  上海 中华学艺社

1932—1935年 第一届至第四届“决澜社”昼展  上海 中华学艺社  上海 世界社礼堂  上海 留法同学会

1941-1945年 四次个人画展  成都 省立图书馆等地  重庆 中印学会

1946年  个人画展 上海 复旦大学礼堂

1983年  个人画展 北京 中国美术馆   中央工艺美术学院展厅

1985年   个人遗作展 南京 江苏美术馆

1996年  个人画展 上海 上海美术馆

1999年   庞薰琹--油画.设计.创造 杭州 中国美术学院陈列馆

艺术风格

 提起庞薰琹的绘画艺术,常被归入现代主义艺术或装饰绘画艺术之列;虽有一部分学者谈到庞薰琹对中西艺术的

融合,常专指其后期作品。笔者以为:就庞薰琹整个绘画艺术道路来看,他对中西绘画的融合自20年代留法时萌生,到40年代基本成熟,线索清晰,毋庸置疑。情况究竟如何?只要全面地剖析其绘画艺术道路的发展、演进,答案自然水落石出。

他画花,不是简单地摹写对象,而是根据画面需要构图变化,既依据对象,又不完全依据对象,而任凭自己的意图经营画面。他不无意地对人说:“有时别人送我一枝很好看的花,我就不断变换这枝花的放置位置,可以画出一簇好看的花来”,他就是这样在苦难中找“乐”,忘却了自己,把大自然赋予的一丁点美,一丁点生气,放大,升华,再现于画面,既是他高尚、乐观的情操体现,也是他于绘画艺术的奉献。

《美人蕉》是他这一类花卉作品的一个典型。不难看出,整个画面(包括背景)是画家“设计”的结果,花、叶陈列有致,色彩对比靓丽,富有强烈的装饰趣味。

一大把盛开的花朵插在一只宋瓷花瓶里,形式和谐完美的画面充满了装饰的美。整个画面作高调处理,色彩鲜明,构图饱满,显示出蓬蓬勃勃的生命力量。很难想像这样一幅充满生命活力的作品,却是一位不久前刚从“牛棚”里放出来,还背着沉重的政治冤屈未获平反的老艺术家的手笔。王安石曾有这样的诗句:“不得春风花不开,花开又被风吹落”,何缘身处逆境的庞薰琹却能用自己的画笔把春色凝固于画面而永驻人间?他的一首题为《小草》的自喻诗,也许是一个很好的注释:“一颗平平常常的小草,虽然饱经烈日秋风、旱涝雨雪,毕竟不可摧折,春风吹又生,始终顽强如故;甚至即使连地下的老根也枯死了,可是在死去的老根旁,却又长出新根长出了新芽,草地仍是一片绿色……”

出版物

 画册

《庞薰琹昼辑》、《庞薰琹画集》、《工艺美术集》、《工艺美术设计》、《巨匠庞薰琹》等。

著作

《图案问题研究》、《中国历代装饰画研究》、《薰琹随笔》、《论工艺美术》、《就是这样走过来的》等。

早期求学

 庞薰琹1906年6月20日(光绪32年4月29日)出生于常塾虞山镇一个世家,1921年初考入一所教会学校--震旦大学学习四年法文及医学。1925年8月乘法轮“波尔加”号赴法留学。富足的家庭,严格的早期教育,在一定程度上使庞薰琹留法前对当时中国社会震荡、艺术变革情况了解不多,无论是康有为的中国画衰敝论,还是陈独秀的美术革命对他基本上没有产生影响。

从学医到学画

1921年春,15岁的庞薰琹从家乡江苏省常熟县来到上海,在震旦大学预科学习。预科毕业后,决定到震旦的医学院学医。不过他在震旦医学院只待了一年,到1924年年底,两件意外的事促使他重新抉择,并彻底改写了他的人生。

1924年期末考解剖学,每位学生发到一根人骨,要求将骨头画下,并写出所有相关的拉丁名词。庞薰琹分到的骨头上有个小洞,他忘记了这个小洞的拉丁名称。监考的正是平时特别关照他的阿尔诺神父,神父要他坐在那里继续想。所有的同学都走了,神父在他身边突然轻声说了个拉丁名词,紧接着问:“你想想这个小洞叫什么?”庞薰琹一愣,便把听到的拉丁名词写上去了。这次考试,他得了全班最高分。这事使他非常不安,作为学医的人,假如在病人身上作假,那可是极其危险的事。他开始产生了离开这个学校的念头。庞薰琹对色彩从小有着敏锐的感觉和浓厚的兴趣。在常熟县立第一高小上学时,有一次下雨,一个响雷劈在图画教室的正上方。教绘画的王老师被震倒在地,他爬起来立即向直挺挺呆坐在教室中央的庞薰琹扑去,以为这孩子被雷击中了。想不到庞薰琹是被眼前的七彩世界迷住,他看到一个像虹一般的彩色圈将小伙伴们包围了起来。时隔六十年,他依旧清晰地记得响雷着地时五彩缤纷的瞬间。庞薰琹从十岁起正式学习绘画,母亲请了老画师教他画山水花鸟。就读县立第一高小时他开始学习水彩画。进入震旦,预科一年级的基础课程有图画课。从预科三年级开始,他还利用假期学油画。

然而,真要放弃已学了一年的医学,也挺难的。就在庞薰琹举棋不定之际,另一起意外的事发生了。这天,他在校门口碰上平时也很关心他的比利时神父特·拉·泰叶,庞薰琹把心事吐露了出来。不料话还没说完,神父突然变了脸色,大声吼道:“老实告诉你,你们中国人,成不了大艺术家!”庞薰琹的心一阵绞痛,他意识到自己不可能再在这个学校读下去了,便礼貌地回答了一句:“先生,你等着瞧吧!”一小时后,他雇了二辆黄包车,拉着所有的东西,离开了震旦大学。

1925年8月,庞薰琹搭乘法国“波尔加”号邮轮,离开上海前往马赛,然后坐火车到了巴黎。这时正是10月,每十二年一次的巴黎博览会正在举行。庞薰琹走进博览会的展览馆,立即被眼前美的世界所深深吸引。他说:“这使我有生以来第一次认识到,原来美术不只是画几幅画,生活中无处不需要美。”庞薰琹决定去巴黎高等装饰美术学院学习,但这个学校不收中国学生。后经徐悲鸿妻子蒋碧薇介绍,他进了叙利恩绘画研究所,画素描,画人体速写,也画油画,技巧上有了很大进展。为了提高文学艺术修养,他每天上午还去巴黎大学旁听法兰西文化史,抽时间阅读文学名著。又利用星期日免收门票的机会去卢浮宫看画,到博物馆、画廊以及各类展览会参观。为了了解古罗马艺术及文艺复兴时期的著名画家,他还学过意大利文。到巴黎两年,庞薰琹认识的朋友多了,还结识了旅美中国画家常玉。他听从常玉的劝告,于1927年暑假离开叙利恩绘画研究所,转入巴黎第六区蒙巴尔那斯著名的格朗特歇米欧尔研究所学习。第一次世界大战后,巴黎的艺术活动中心逐渐转移到蒙巴尔那斯。在这儿,庞薰琹接触了不同作风的艺术家,日渐熟悉不同风格的绘画流派。一天他跟一位“老头”学了一个上午雕塑,后来才知道这位常称呼他为“孩子”的老头就是闻名世界的大雕塑家波尔特儿(Bourdelle)。庞薰琹每天下午去研究所画速写,先用钢笔画,后受常玉的影响改用毛笔画,五分钟画一张,有时还迅速地加上一点水彩颜色。他每天至少画三十至四十张速写,用于练线条,练用笔,并由此打下了白描的基础。

一天,他正在卢森堡公园喷泉后面画风景。动笔不久,就有一个人走过来坐在他身边,看了半小时,轻声地说:“你还不是色彩的主人。”庞薰琹停下手中的画笔,回过头去询问。那位三十出头,头发胡须都毛烘烘的陌生人笑了,直言不讳地说:“我看你用的颜色,几乎都是从颜色瓶里挤出来的,而不是你自己在调色板上调出来的。做一个画家,每一笔颜色都应该是你自己调出来的。”他继续解释道:“色彩最能表达作者的感情,瓶子里挤出来的颜色是不表达感情的。”如此直爽的批评庞薰琹还是第一次听到。后来庞薰琹根据那人的建议,只用红、黄、青三色来调制自己所需要的各种颜色。他足足练习了一年多,驾驭色彩的能力得到显著提高。

庞薰琹在巴黎美术界闯出一些名气的时候,便萌发了回国的念头。起因是这样的:1929年的一天,一位法国记者带庞薰琹去观看尼奥太·依尼奥迦的印度舞专场演出。她的一举一动都表现出对民族艺术传统的自信、自尊和自豪,伴奏的乐器是鼓和锣,此外只有舞者佩饰小铃铛的响声和脚踏舞台的声音。那铃声,令庞薰琹想起自己的童年、家乡和祖国。他的眼睛湿润了。他决定回到祖国去。赴法初期经徐悲鸿介绍庞薰琹入叙利恩研究所学习。众所周知,徐悲鸿当年曾在此学习,为何他没有象徐悲鸿等人选择写实主义艺术,而接受现代主义艺术的影响?事实上徐悲鸿赴法胸有成竹,不仅熟悉中国画坛,对西方绘画也有一定的了解。并抱有明确的目标。这已被众多学者所论证。1917年徐悲鸿赴法前曾赴日考察。在各种流派中,中村不折、藤岛武二及黑田清辉等以西方写实技法表现东方文化题材的作品对徐悲鸿影响尤深(有学者认为其《田横五百士》、《奚我后》即受此影响)。

与徐悲鸿等人比较,庞薰琹赴法则不然。他曾谦虚地说“我去法国学习时对西洋美术史知道得很少,其它文艺修养也很差,学习也不踏实。所以到了巴黎既想学绘画,又想学音乐,还想学文学,没有一定的主张,浪费了很多时间。”那时他对音乐的兴趣很大甚至于超过了对绘画的爱好,曾一度“想弃画学音乐”若不是有人劝他说:既学绘画,又学音乐、文学不妥;若不是继续学音乐就必须动手术——他的手指略短——很难说他会走上一条怎样的艺术道路。后来即使他下决心放弃音乐专学绘画,仍无法摆脱西方绘画潮流的影响。用他自己的话说“象我这样一个学画青年,不受当时潮流影响是不可能的。有时我去卢浮尔博物馆,坐在维纳斯像前,一坐一两个小时。面对这样的雕像,我的心象被微风吹拂的湖面,清澈、安静。可是当我走进另一些画廊,我的心就着了火。”⑷他认为艺术学习中,依靠老师教导只能占30%,自学可占30%,而在朋友间得到的益处最少也要占40%。1926年春,庞薰琹在卢森堡公园画风景时,一位波兰人见他所用的颜色多数是从颜料瓶里挤出来直接使用,提出作为一个画家,每一笔都应该自己在调色板上调出来。色彩最能表达画家的感情,瓶子里挤出来的颜料不表达什么感情。从此以后,庞薰琹始终根据这一原则作画--每一笔颜色都自己在调色板上调配。青年画家马奈卡茨见庞薰琹总在临摹,提出用很多时间去临摹是不值得的,卢浮尔那么多名画临得完吗?即使临摹了几百张,临得很象也只能学到一点技术。用笔去临摹,不如用眼睛去看,用脑子去想。把它们的优点找出来,记在心里,以后就可以不受任何人影响,也不受任何画派的约束画出自己的风格来。这些对庞薰琹早期的绘画创作影响极大。值得一提的是1927年常玉对他的影响。庞薰琹原来计划在叙利恩学习两年,然后再去巴黎美术学校进修两年,受到常玉的坚决反对。常玉劝他离开叙利恩去格朗歇米欧尔画院。在巴黎潮流的影响下庞薰琹一步步走向了现代主义艺术道路。

艺术蜕变

 决澜社时期是庞薰琹现代主义绘画的重要时期。从1932年10月17日举行第一次展览到1935年10月在第四次展览中落幕,决澜社仅存在三年时间。在社会上产生了一些影响。正如庞薰琹本人所言“象投进一块又一块小石子到池塘中去,当时虽然可以听到一声轻微的落水声,在水面上激起一些小小的花,可是这石子很快落下,水面又恢复了原样。”首先,在决澜社成员中仅有庞薰琹留法、倪贻德留日、张旋留法,其他成员此前如果说接触过现代主义艺术,也只是借助一些印刷品。即使庞薰琹自己也不无谦虚地说自己“对祖国的艺术没有研究,对西方的现代派绘画也一样没有认真研究。”

毋庸讳言,科学技术的引进一般较为直接,文化艺术的借鉴则很难直接照搬,只能有选择地吸收、融合。虽可用外来技法进行创作,却必须丰富、充实本民族的艺术精神,适应人们的审美需求。这就必须知己知彼:一方面需熟悉和了解西方绘画艺术的长短得失;另一方面要研究和分析本民族传统艺术的精华和糟粕。对于身处内忧外患频仍,科技、经济落后国度中的众多青年来说这两方面的修养无疑都是不够的。其次,现代主义艺术发端于西方现代工业社会,是西方社会经济、科技、文化、艺术发展的必然结果。一个现代主义艺术家应是生活在现代工业社会中的现代人。正如淮南的橘到了淮北便成了枳一样,离开现代工业社会的环境和土壤,现代主义艺术家失去了生活的基石,很难产生现代主义艺术家应有的情感和创作激情。没有现代工业社会培育的现代主义艺术的参与者与欣赏氛围,可以想象要创作出现代主义艺术作品是多么艰难。

庞薰琹曾在《薰琹随笔》中写道:“猴子喜欢学人的种种动作,有时学得很神似,但是猴子总是猴子,人总是人。历史剧中拿破仑虽然穿着拿破仑的衣服,说拿破仑活着时所说的话,但是总只是一个演员,而不是拿破仑。何况是表现艺术家自我的艺术?”再次,从社会政治角度来看“艺术不可能脱离国家民族而孤立存在,它不是随民族觉醒、振兴而获得新生,就是随民族沦落、灭亡而沉落”决澜社等众多美术群体的解散,不言而喻是时代选择的结果。尽管每个人都有自主性,但每个人又都生活在大的社会历史背景下。所有的艺术家、所有的艺术作品都必须放在其所处的时代中进行考察才能找到相应的位置。这极大地损伤了那些不合潮流的天才艺术家;极大地损伤了那些确有创造性、但又不得不在这个时代被淹没的艺术家及其作品。这是无可奈何的。

决澜社落幕后,为了生计庞薰琹不得不离开上海,辗转杭州去北平任教。从某种意义上说,决澜社的解散是庞薰琹绘画艺术道路的重要转折点。其后,对中国传统装饰纹样的研究是促使他最终摆脱西方现代主义艺术束缚的重要原因。三十年代的中国,一个油画家除了到学校去教学以外,几乎没有其它的谋生办法。1936年9月应李有行先生之聘,庞薰琹赴北平艺专任教。不是受聘于西画系,而是受聘于图案系,这使庞薰琹有机会接触到装饰纹样。艺术事业,尤其是美术在封建社会常常被认为是“壮夫不为之事”;而装饰纹样则更属于“画续之事”为历代“名士”所不屑。所以世代相传并在我国文化史上占据重要地位的装饰纹样很少有人去整理。20世纪二十年代后,一批有志于振兴民族文化、民族艺术的志士开始了多方面、系统的整理研究。庞薰琹即是其中骨干之一。1939年起庞薰琹着手研究中国古代装饰纹样。从中他认识到祖国文化艺术的博大精深,感到作为一个中国艺术家认识祖国文化遗产是多么必要。因此尽管闻一多等人不赞成庞改变先前的绘画风格,但“事实上做不到”。

工美探索

 抗日战争爆发后,庞薰琹到了云南,在中央博物院研究文物。这期间他通过与菜农、屠夫、花匠的接触和交往,了解到人民生活的疾苦,也体验到穷乡僻壤纯朴的民风,增进了他与乡民的情感。特别是后来他不辞辛苦、想方设法深入到“地无三尺平,天无三日晴,人无三分银”的贵州少数民族地区收集民间装饰资料,对其中西融合艺术思想走向成熟起着决定性的作用。

贵州之行庞薰琹不仅收集到了600多件花边,而且收集到从头到脚的全套服饰。三十年后,日本学者鸟居龙藏说有些图案他那时都没有搜集到。在回忆这段经历时庞薰琹不无感慨地说“我过去完全没有想到民族民间工艺这样丰富,同时它能表现出如此高的艺术水平。”那些山里姑娘,没有什么绘画基础,更没有受过什么专业技术训练,90%以上没有出过哪个县,90%以上没有上过学。她们没有什么底样,也不需要底稿,拿起针来凭着自己的想象,根据传统的装饰结构,绣出各式各样的装饰图案,虽不全是上品,但决不会有废品。因为她们尊重自己的劳动,爱惜这些来之不易的布。“这种群众中潜在的艺术智慧,对我触动很大。从那时起我决心要想尽办法为群众多做一点有益的工作。”

从1940年到1946年间他创作的主要作品有:

白描《母与子》、《归来》、《吹笙》、《跳花》、《卖炭》、《收地瓜》、《卖柴》、《收桔》、《汲水》、《持镰》、《缝补》、《脱脚休息》等。

水彩《捕鱼》、《赶集》、《垂钓》、《跳花》、《畅饮》、《割稻》、《洗衣》、《笙舞》、《捉鱼》、《车水》、《小憩》、《丧事》、《射牌》、《情话》、《收割》、《黄果树瀑布》、《双人笙舞》、《桔红时节》等。

仅从这些作品的标题上便不难看出他对社会现实和民众生活的关注。对于民间装饰艺术的浓厚兴趣,使得庞薰琹获得了一把开启民族艺术的金钥匙。一个善于思考、勤于实践的艺术家,当他沟通了土与洋、古和今的艺术之后,必然会大彻大悟,在艺术上更为成熟。

艺贯中西

 庞薰琹中西融合的绘画艺术在其作品中得以充分的体现。《贵州山民图》系列是庞薰琹创作的一组工笔重彩画。这些作品反映出他在绘画艺术上新的思考和探索。作品描绘西南少数民族生活和劳动的不同的场面,表现他们的愿望和愁苦。画家十分熟悉笔下对象,具有娴熟的艺术技巧。他把西方的写实素描技巧融进中国画的情趣之中。作品中人物似有几许淡淡的哀愁,生动地传达出时代的情绪。他用浪漫的色彩再现了柔和、淡雅的贵州景色,低矮的茅屋、与鲜艳的民族服装形成了鲜明的对比。他将传统国画的兰叶描与铁线描合用,线条结实有力而有韵致。显然已与决澜社时期的作品不同,和留法时期的作品相比更有变化。不论白描、淡彩或水彩画均趋于写实而赋有装饰性。多年的磨练使他的创作更具中国气派,在使用传统与现代绘画的表现手段上,也更为娴熟。苏利文先生评价说:“与他的许多同事不同,他不满足单纯的临摹,而是把题材作为出发点,创作出一种结构合理、令人满意的《贵州山民图》。

 

风景画

在风景画上,庞薰琹所作的中西融合也不容忽视。他曾说:“我对风景画没有太大兴趣。我在巴黎时虽然画过几幅风景,但是没有画好”。后来去过一些地方,“有许多好风景,我也一张风景都没有画。我并不后悔,因为今天的摄影技术完全可以把美好的风景照下来。”

这种思想显然受到西方现代主义艺术影响。随着庞薰琹艺术思想、艺术创作的发展,他对风景画的认识也在发生变化。1947年庞薰琹自上海去广州时,因洪水冲断了粤汉桥,便辗转去了庐山。安定的生活、幽静的环境使他拿起画笔,一个月里创作了小幅10幅、大幅2幅庐山风景。这些作品用水彩画在绢上。画家把欧洲油画的构图及色彩层次与中国绘画的笔法、意境相结合,不着意表现,而是生活体验和创造积累的自然流露。其中《雾》一作,描绘烟云笼罩下的树林,云遮雾障,朦胧而清秀;《雨》一作则是画家坐在窗前画窗外景色--正值风雨绵绵,云儿入窗穿堂而过之景,可谓其得意之作,珍藏多年。

 

花卉

此外,庞薰琹以花为题材的绘画作品对中西融合的探索也极为鲜明。瓶花,是许多画家都涉及过的题材。画家们常常集中描绘花的丰富色彩和欣欣向荣的生命感。插花的瓶子因为无关紧要而很少付出较大的心力去刻划。这自然可以,因为画家的认识主体是花而不是瓶。但庞薰琹对花付出极大的热情和心力去表现的同时,对花瓶往往也十分着意去描绘,精细入微地描绘它的纹样、质地、色泽等。花瓶上所刻的花纹与插在瓶口的花卉相对比、映衬,色彩和谐、形式稳定,充满宁静之美。整个画面构图饱满,几乎将空白赶到画外,显示出蓬勃的生机。这些作品与其早期绘画已相去甚远,显得更典雅精致、平淡超脱。他把痛苦和艰辛留在心底,把美好和欢乐展现给世界,具有一种超脱的寂寞。与林风眠的《花》相比,林的重彩浓墨似沉郁的重重叹息;庞的轻描淡写似悠扬的夜曲,又似轻歌吟唱;一个是“荤菜”,一个是“素食”(陶咏白语)。相比之下庞的素食更具东方文人的艺术修养和艺术追求。

 

总结

通过上述具体作品的剖析,对庞薰琹绘画艺术道路的阐述,其中西融合的绘画艺术风貌已清晰地展现出来。一千四百多年前刘勰在《文心雕龙》中论述了文学要保持活力就必须随时代变化的道理。他说:“文律运周,日新其业。变则可久,通则不乏。趋时必果,乘机无怯。望今制奇,参古定法。”这似乎是对这位艺术家经验的概括。

艺术脉络

 庞薰琹中西融合绘画艺术道路是漫长而又清晰的,可约略地将这一道路划分为三个时期:一、接受西方写实主义和现代主义艺术影响,又萌生摆脱其束缚的发生期;二、吸收中国传统装饰艺术及民间装饰趣味,融合中西的成熟期;三、老当益壮,继续前进的发展期。

第一时期

第一个时期庞薰琹先是在法国受到写实绘画和现代艺术的双重影响,接触、观摩了不同时期、不同流派的作品,并进行了多方面的试验和探索。却始终牢记应逐步摆脱巴黎各种画派的影响、要使人能看出是一位中国画家的作品。他接受西方现代主义艺术的影响是短暂(1927—1930)而又有限的。“一方面练练手,同时也动动脑子”而已。其中西融合的绘画在留法时便已萌生并进行了初步的实践。回国后,他对中国画画史画论画作的研究更明确了倡导中西融合,主张艺术与社会相结合的艺术思想。他说“我不明白为什么画国画的人开口就要说这是谁谁的笔法……更不明白为什么画油画的人要去死仿塞尚、仿雷诺阿、仿毕加索等等”。他并不赞成简单地模仿西方现代主义艺术。他参加决澜社是希望借集体的力量在艺术上闯出一条路来。虽然这一时期他的一些绘画作品带有西方现代主义艺术的烙印,但是这些作品在内容、形式及效果上又都与西方现代主义艺术存在着显见的差异。

第二时期

第二个时期,决澜社落幕后对装饰艺术的研究及深入少数民族地区收集装饰纹样时与普通群众的交往和相互理解,使他获得了一把通向绘画艺术殿堂的金钥匙,大彻大悟的他抛弃了青年人只破不立的莽撞,用自己的画笔把西方绘画技巧融进中国画、中国传统装饰绘画的意境、情调之中,反映社会现实和民众生活,传达艺术家的艺术追求,歌颂生活中的美好事物。作品既具有欧洲油画的色彩层次、构图追求,又充溢着中国画的笔法、意境和传统装饰艺术的淡雅与清新,赋有一派田园气息。其中西融合的绘画艺术达到了相当娴熟、纯净的程度。

第三时期

第三个时期,庞薰琹因社会工作缠身,加之22年身处逆境,至七、八十年代的绘画创作总体上是第二个时期艺术风貌的延续和发展。

技寄于道,艺以传情。从《地之子》到《贵州山民图》系列、《庐山风景》系列、《瓶花》等,庞薰琹无不用他的绘画作品揭露社会阴暗、反映人民疾苦、关注社会发展、关心人民生活,表达艺术家的思想感情和普通大众乐观向上、一往直前的生活态度。其中西融合的绘画作品较之徐悲鸿用历史故事隐喻现实更直接;较之林风眠将感情赋予画面的运动和节奏之中更理性。他敢于直面人生、针砭时弊,在理性中追求赋有美感的画面。他将痛苦和热情深埋在心底,而把美好、秩序、和谐展现给世界。他用自己的艺术作品表达对现实世界的美好祝愿,抒发对理性、秩序、和谐的期盼之情。如果说林风眠的中西融合是将西方现代主义绘画与中国传统绘画结合的产物,那么庞薰琹的中西融合则是将西方现代主义艺术与中国传统装饰艺术和民间装饰趣味结合起来。其作品有古典主义艺术的和谐、庄重与肃穆,有浪漫主义艺术的诗情,有写实主义艺术的诚实,有表现主义艺术的空灵,有印象主义艺术的率真,更有文人画的意境和装饰艺术趣味。他的作品如悠扬的牧歌空旷而不哀怨;象一杯春茶馨香而不苦涩。他的作品将其本人对社会、人生、文化、艺术的理解蕴于其中,令人反复咀嚼而意犹未尽。这些都是西方现代主义艺术所不可期及的。

成就及荣誉

 庞薰琹先生是“决澜社”的创始者和主要负责人,为中国的美术运动掀开了新的一页,加快了我国美术运动的现代化进程,如陈抱一当时所说,“决澜社”画展已显示了较清新的现代绘画的气息。 庞薰琹先生学贯中西,兼容并包,面对当时流派纷呈的巴黎画坛,他不像有些留欧的画家,因缺少西方文化的基础而无所适从或格格不入,只能把当时保守的学院派绘画作为自己学习的目标。而他对现代诸流派的变化,就比较容易理解和接受,并从容地学习和消化。他反对刻板机械地模仿的“自然主义”和所谓“写实派”的绘画,也反对画油画的人去死仿塞尚、仿雷诺瓦、仿毕卡索。他认为,“艺术就是艺术家的自我表现,是人类发泄情感的工具‘主张’艺术家利用各自的技巧,自由地、自然地表现出各自的自我”他回国后,于1932年9月在上海举办的第一次个人画展,着实让人们大开了眼界。人们在惊异兴奋中发现:“他的作风,并没有一定的倾向,却显出各式各样的面目,从平涂的到线条的,从写实的到装饰的,从变形到抽象的形……许多现在巴黎流行的画派,他似乎都在作新奇的尝试。”(倪贻德《艺苑交游记》)尤其是他的“纯粹素描”,与作为油画底稿的素描所不同,有些中国的淡墨画的意味,其价值不在于描写的是什么,而在于线条的纯美和形体的创造。

傅雷当时在《薰琹的梦》一文中评述:“梦有种种,薰琹的梦却是艺术的梦,精神的梦。他把色彩作纬,线条作经,整个的人生作材料,织成他花色繁多的梦。他观察,体验,分析如数学家,他又组织,归纳,综合如哲学家。他分析了综合,综合了又分析,演进不已。这正因为生命是流动不息,天天在演化的缘故”。庞薰琹具有现代艺术精神的丰富多彩的艺术在当时的报刊包括英、法文报都作了热情地报导。他的艺术和艺术思想在30年代的中国西画界是极具鲜明个性和前卫特色的。他的出现被时人称为“是中国留法美术家中的一个奇迹”。固然,庞薰琹的艺术以其新颖的形式赢得了一片喝彩,但在变换的形式中蕴含着他对人生、对命运、对时代的哲思,如反映巴黎荒淫享受的《如此人生》,喻人生舞台就像个赌场的《人生哑谜》,而《慰》抒发了他在“一·二八”事件后观感,《构图》则是他对在“三座大山”压榨下中国向何处去的思考,在“决澜社”第三回展中他的一幅《地之子》,因表现了黑暗的社会中农村破产,民不聊生的惨景,而受到反动当局的威胁和恫吓,被迫出走。

庞薰琹先生怀着美好的理想,从东方走向西方,又从西方回到东方,探索中国艺术的振兴之路,开启现代绘画和现代设计继往开来、承前启后的新局面。在祖国危难时期,用艺术为民族危亡的命运而呐喊。他的理想和行为,象征了时代的精神和呼唤,也为现代中国艺术和艺术教育奠定了根基与趋向。他是“人生为艺术,艺术为强国”的中华优秀儿女的代表。

庞薰琹先生为中国的美术事业培养了大批德才兼备的人才。四十年代曾获教育部二等奖。

庞薰琹先生立足于本民族传统,不断吸收、融化和创新,擅长油画、水彩画及白描,尤精图案、装饰艺术设计,是我国现代艺术的先驱者、现代工艺美术事业的拓荒者。

参考资料

 ⑴庞薰琹《薰琹随笔》,四川美术出版社1991年4月版。

⑵袁韵宜《庞薰琹传》,北京工艺美术出版社1995年6月版

⑶三宅正太郎《东方与西方现代美术》,陕西人民美术出版社1990年12月版

⑷庞薰琹《就是这样走过来的》,三联书店1988年版

⑸王庆生《绘画--东西方文化的冲撞》,北京大学出版社1991年11月版。

⑹袁韵宜编《庞薰琹艺术研究》,北京工艺美术出版社1991年9月版

张道一《薰琹的梦》,引自《庞薰琹研究》江苏美术出版社

作品收藏

 常熟庞薰琹美术馆、常熟美术馆、中国美术馆。

Introduction in English

 Pang Xunqin (1906-1985), the character Yuqin, the pen name Guxuan. Tangqiao is the grandson of Pang Hongwen. He is the author of Fumigating Essays. Organize the "Julan Society", hold the "Jupang Fumigation Pang Fumigation Pang Fumigation Pang" painting exhibition, renowned art forest. It is a well-known painter in China. His creation has a wide range of subjects, rigorous attitude and unique style. He has gone deep into more than 80 Miao villages in Guizhou, studied folk art of minority nationalities, and created "Guizhou Mountain People's Picture Volume", which is full of strong flavor of life and emotional charm. His representative works, such as Son of the Earth, Road, Pictures of Mountain People in Guizhou, Vase Flowers, etc., enjoy high reputation.

 

Brief Introduction to Characters

 

[Modern] (1906-1985) Famous artist and educator of Arts and crafts. The original name is Ying, the word Yuxian, and the pen name Guxuan. Changshu, Jiangsu. In 1921, he was admitted to Shanghai Sinian University to study medicine and painting after school. He graduated in 1924 and went to France the following year to study painting at the Syris Institute of Painting in Paris. In 1927, he studied at the Granchemieur Institute in Paris. Returning to China in 1930, he systematically studied Chinese painting theory and history, participated in Xuguang Painting Fair and Timon Painting Fair, and became one of the organizers of the new art enlightenment movement with progressive tendency at that time. In 1931, he was a full-time teacher in Shanghai Changming Art School and Shanghai Meimei. With Zhang Xian and Ni Yide, he initiated the establishment of the Fine Arts Society "Breaking Lan Society". In 1932, the first solo painting exhibition was held in Shanghai, and then the advertising painting exhibition was held. After 1936, he taught at Peiping Arts College, Sichuan Literature Arts College, West China University, Chongqing Central University, Guangdong Literature Arts College and Sun Yat-sen University. In 1938, the collection of ancient Chinese decorative patterns and Yunnan minority folk art began. The following year, we went deep into Guizhou's minority areas for field investigation and research. In 1940, he was a professor and chairman of the Department of Applied Fine Arts in Sichuan Province.

 

In 1947, he was a full-time professor and chairman of the Department of Painting and Professor of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangdong Province. In 1948, he refused to teach in the United States and returned from Guangdong to Shanghai to welcome liberation. On May 29, 1949, Pang Xunqian and Liu Kaiqu, Yang Keyang, Yefu (Zheng), Zhang Leping, Zhu Xuanxian, Wen Zhaotong, Chen Yanqiao, Shao Keping and Zhao Yannian, the pioneers of Fine Arts in the national areas, issued a "declaration of artists" to welcome the liberation on behalf of the Shanghai art community in the "Ta Kung Pao", which marked the beauty of the Guotong area. Art and modern art history of Shanghai have opened a new page. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, he has successively been a professor and Dean of East China Branch of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. In 1953, he taught at Beijing Central Academy of Fine Arts and was responsible for the preparation of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts. At the end of the same year, he was appointed as the specific director of the National Folk Arts and Crafts Exhibition. Following the opinions of Premier Zhou Enlai, in 1954 four more arts and crafts exhibitions were prepared for exhibition in the Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czech Republic and Bulgaria. He also served as the head of the delegation of Arts and crafts to visit the Soviet Union. In 1956, the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts was formally established as a professor and first vice-president. It was wrongly classified as the Rightist in 1957. In 1979, political reputation was restored and higher education was restored. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1980. In 1983, the first personal painting exhibition was held since the founding of the People's Republic of China. He died in 1985. Family members donated 479 pieces of Ponzi's legacy to Changshu Mulberry and built a collection and display of Pang Xunqiang Art Museum in Changshu College of Technology (now Yuanhe Campus of Changshu Institute of Technology). He has been engaged in art education all his life and has persisted in painting creation for decades. It holds that art must be based on the tradition of the nation, and must constantly absorb, melt and innovate. He is good at oil painting, watercolor and white sketch, especially in pattern and decorative art design, which are integrated with Chinese national characteristics. His representative works include Son of the Earth, Road, Pictures of Guizhou Mountain People and Vase Flowers. His works include Research on Decorative Paintings of Chinese Dynasties, Design of Arts and Crafts, Research on Patterns and On Arts and Crafts. He was a member of the Chinese Artists Association.

 

Style of Art

 

Pang Xunqin's painting art is often classified as modernist art or decorative art, although some scholars have talked about Pang Xunqin's Chinese and Western art.

 

Fusion, often refers to its later works. The author thinks: Pang Xunqin's integration of Chinese and Western painting sprouted in the 1920s when he left France, and basically matured in the 1940s. There is no doubt that the clues are clear. What is the situation? As long as we fully analyze the development and evolution of his painting art road, the answer will come out naturally.

 

He paints flowers not simply by copying objects, but by composing pictures according to the needs of the pictures, not entirely based on the objects, but by his own intentions to manage the pictures. He unconsciously said to people, "Sometimes when someone gives me a beautiful flower, I constantly change the position of the flower to draw a beautiful flower." That's how he finds pleasure in misery, forgets himself, and reproduces a little beauty given by nature, a little angry, enlarged, sublimated, and reproduces it in the same way. Picture is not only the embodiment of his noble and optimistic sentiment, but also his contribution to the art of painting.

 

Canna is a typical flower work of his kind. It is not difficult to see that the whole picture (including the background) is the result of the painter's "design". Flowers and leaves are displayed in a delicate way, with beautiful colors and strong decorative interest.

 

A large number of blooming flowers are inserted in a Song Porcelain vase. The harmonious and perfect picture is full of decorative beauty. The whole picture is high-profile processing, bright color, full composition, showing the vigorous vitality. It is hard to imagine such a work full of vitality, but it is the pen of an old artist who just released from the "cowshed" not long ago and who has not been overcome with heavy political grievances. Wang Anshi once had such a poem: "Don't let the spring breeze blossom, and the flowers blossom and fall by the wind." Why Pang Xunqian in adversity can use his brush to solidify the spring in the picture and stay in the world forever? His self-allegory poem entitled "Grass" may be a good comment: "An ordinary grass, though withstood by the hot sun, autumn wind, drought, rain and snow, is indestructible after all, and the spring wind blows again and again, and is always tenacious; even if the old roots of the underground are dead, they are still growing beside the old roots of the dead. New roots and buds grow, and the grass is still green.

 

Early Learning

 

 

 

Pang Xunju was born on June 20, 1906 (April 29, Guangxu 32) in a family of Changyu Mountain Town. He was admitted to a missionary school, Sinian University, in early 1921 to study French and medicine for four years. In August 1925, the multiplier wheel Bolga went to France to study. Rich families and strict early education, to a certain extent, made Pang Xunqiang know little about the social shock and artistic changes in China at that time before he stayed in France. Whether Kang Youwei's theory of the decline of Chinese painting or Chen Duxiu's Art Revolution had little influence on him.

 

In the spring of 1921, Pang Xunqian, 15, came to Shanghai from his hometown, Changshu County, Jiangsu Province, to study in the preparatory course of Sinian University. After graduating from the preparatory course, I decided to go to the Medical College of Sinian. But he only stayed at Sinian Medical College for one year. By the end of 1924, two unexpected events prompted him to make a new choice and completely rewrite his life.

 

In the final examination of anatomy in 1924, each student sent out a bone and asked to draw it down and write down all the Latin terms. Pang Xunqian had a small hole in the bone he had separated. He had forgotten the Latin name of the hole. It was Father Arnault who took special care of him in the invigilator's exam. He asked him to sit there and think about it. All the students left, and the priest whispered a Latin noun beside him. Then he asked, "What do you want to call this hole?" Pang Xunqiang was stunned and wrote down the Latin nouns he had heard. In this exam, he got the highest score in the class. This made him very upset. As a medical student, it would be extremely dangerous to cheat on patients. He began to have the idea of leaving the school. Pang Xunqin has a keen sense and strong interest in color since childhood. At the first elementary school in Changshu County, there was a rain and a thunder splitting right above the picture classroom. Mr. Wang, who taught painting, was knocked down by the earthquake. He got up and immediately rushed to Pang Xunqiang, who was sitting upright in the middle of the classroom, thinking that the child had been struck by lightning. Unexpectedly, Pang Xunqian was fascinated by the colorful world in front of him. He saw a rainbow-like color circle surrounded his little friends. Sixty years later, he still clearly remembered the colorful moments when thunder struck the ground. Pang Xunqin has studied painting since he was ten years old. His mother invited an old painter to teach him how to paint mountains, rivers, flowers and birds. In his first hour at the county level, he began to learn watercolor painting. Entering Sinian, the basic course of the first grade of preparatory course includes drawing course. From the third grade of preparatory school, he also used his holidays to study oil painting.

 

Nevertheless, it's hard to give up medicine, which has been studied for a year. Just as Pang Xunqiang was uncertain, another unexpected event happened. On this day, he met Belgian priest Te La Taye, who usually cared about him, at the school gate. Pang Xunqin revealed his mind. Unexpectedly, before he had finished, the priest suddenly changed his face and shouted, "To tell you the truth, you Chinese can't be a great artist!" Pang Xunqin's heart ached. He realized that he could no longer study in this school. He politely answered, "Sir, you wait and see!" An hour later, he hired two rickshaws, pulled everything, and left Sinian University.

 

In August 1925, Pang Xunqian left Shanghai for Marseilles on the French cruise ship Bolga, and then took a train to Paris. It was October, and the 12-year Paris Expo was being held. Pang Xunqian walked into the exhibition hall of the Expo and was immediately attracted by the beautiful world in front of him. He said, "This makes me realize for the first time in my life that art is not just about painting a few pictures, but that beauty is everywhere in life." Pang Xunqian decided to study at the Higher Institute of Decorative Arts in Paris, but the school did not accept Chinese students. After the introduction of Xu Beihong's wife, Jiang Biwei, he went to the Syrian Painting Institute to draw sketches, sketches of human bodies, and oil paintings. He made great progress in techniques. In order to improve his literary and artistic accomplishment, he went to the University of Paris every morning to listen to the history of French culture and take time to read literary classics. They also took advantage of the opportunity of free admission on Sunday to see paintings in the Louvre and visit museums, galleries and various exhibitions. In order to understand the famous painters of ancient Roman art and Renaissance, he also studied Italian. In two years in Paris, Pang Xunqian had met many friends, and he also met the Chinese painter Chang Yu who traveled to the United States. Following Changyu's advice, he left the Syrian Institute of Painting in the summer of 1927 and studied at the famous Grant Schemier Institute in Montbarnes, Paris's sixth district. After World War I, the art activity center in Paris gradually shifted to Montparnasse. Here, Pang Xunqian has come into contact with artists of different styles and is increasingly familiar with different styles of painting. One day, he studied sculpture with an "old man" for a morning, only to learn that the old man often called "child" was the world-famous great sculptor Bourdelle. Pang Xunqin goes to the Institute to sketch every afternoon, first with pen, then with brush under the influence of Changyu. He draws one in five minutes, and sometimes quickly adds a little watercolor color. He draws at least thirty to forty sketches a day to practice lines and brushes, thus laying the foundation for white sketch.

 

One day, he was painting scenery behind the fountain in Luxembourg Park. Shortly after writing, a man came up and sat beside him, looked at him for half an hour, and said softly, "You are not the master of color yet." Pang Xunqian stopped his brush and went back to ask. The stranger in his early thirties, with his hair and beard drying, laughed and said frankly, "I think the color you use is almost squeezed out of the color bottle, not from the palette yourself. To be a painter, every brush of color should be your own. He went on to explain: "Colors best express the author's feelings, and the colours squeezed out of the bottle do not express feelings." It is the first time Pang Xunqin has heard such a straightforward criticism. Later, Pang Xunqin, according to the man's suggestion, only used red, yellow and green to modulate the various colors he needed. He practiced for more than a year, and his ability to control colours was greatly improved.

 

When Pang Xunqian broke out some fame in Paris art circles, he had the idea of returning home. The reason is this: one day in 1929, a French journalist took Pang Xunqiang to watch the Indian Dance Concert of Neotti Inioga. Her every move shows confidence, self-esteem and pride in the national art tradition. The accompanying instruments are drums and gongs. In addition, only dancers wear small bells and footsteps on the stage. The bell reminds Pang Xunqiang of his childhood, hometown and motherland. His eyes were wet. He decided to return to his motherland. At the beginning of his trip to France, Pang Xunqin was introduced by Xu Beihong to study at the Syrian Institute. As we all know, Xu Beihong studied here in that year. Why did he not choose realistic art like Xu Beihong and others, but accept the influence of modernist art? As a matter of fact, Xu Beihong has made great achievements in French painting. He is not only familiar with Chinese painting, but also has a certain understanding of Western painting. And have a clear goal. This has been demonstrated by many scholars. Xu Beihong visited Japan before going to France in 1917. Among various schools, works such as Nakamura Buyi, Fujima Wu II and Heitian Qinghui, which express Oriental cultural themes with western realistic techniques, have a profound impact on Xu Beihong (some scholars believe that his Five Hundred Shi Tian Heng and After He taunted me were affected by this).

 

Compared with Xu Beihong and others, Pang Xunqiang's law is different. He once said modestly, "When I went to France to study, I knew very little about the history of Western art. Other literary and artistic accomplishments were also poor, and my study was not down-to-earth. So when I arrived in Paris, I wanted to learn not only painting but also music, and literature. I had no definite idea and wasted a lot of time. At that time, his interest in music was even greater than his interest in painting. At one time, he "wanted to abandon painting and learn music" if someone did not persuade him that it was not appropriate to learn not only painting, but also music and literature.

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