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恽寿平(恽南田)

恽南田(1633-1690),原名恽格,字寿平,后以字行,改字正叔,号南田,别号云溪外史,晚居城东,号东园草衣,后迁居白云渡,号白云外史。作为明末清初著名的书画家,是常州画派的开山祖师。他是明末清初著名的书画家,开创了没骨花卉画的独特画风,是常州画派的开山祖师。

  • 中文名恽寿平
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏常州武进
  • 出生日期1633
  • 逝世日期1690
  • 职业清代书画家
  • 主要成就清六家之一,常州画派的开山祖师
  • 所属年代明末清初
  • 原名恽格
  • 寿平
  • 南田
  • 别号云溪外史
  • 晚号东园草衣,白云外史
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恽寿平《书画对题册》650万落槌

中国美术网 09-05 浏览

2013年12月3日,北京保利2013秋拍“欣遇——中国古代书画夜场”在北京四季酒店举行。恽寿平《书画对题册》以550万起拍,最终以650万落槌。拍前估价为65...
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人物简介

恽寿平生活在民族矛盾极其尖锐的时代。少时从伯父学画,青少年时期参加过抗清义军,家破人亡,当过俘虏,又被浙闽总督收为义子,曾在灵隐寺为僧,返里后卖画为生,一直赡养父亲。与王时敏王鉴王翚(hui)、王原祁吴历合称为“清六家”,他山水画初学元黄公望王蒙,深得冷澹幽隽之致。又以没骨法画花卉、禽兽、草虫,自谓承徐崇嗣没骨花法。创作态度严谨,认为“惟能极似,才能传神。”“每画一花,必折是花插之瓶中,极力描摹,必得其生香活色而后已”[2]  。他画法不同一般,是“点染粉笔带脂,点后复以染笔足之”,创造了一种笔法透逸,设色明净,格调清雅的“恽体”花卉画风,而成为一代宗匠。对明末清初的花卉画有“起衰之功”,被尊为“写生正派”,影响波及大江南北,史载:“近日无论江南江北,莫不家家南田,户户正叔,遂有‘常州派'之目”。
恽南田的山水画初学元代黄公望王蒙,深得冷澹幽隽之致,与王时敏王鉴王翚王原祁吴历合称为“清六家”。他的山水画,不让“四王”,小幅逸笔草草,寄郁勃于悠闲,枯而有润,淡而有奇,自成格局,有“四王”未到之处。
清康熙二十八年(1689)腊月,恽南田离家到杭州卖画。次年五月,托人购得杭州坟地两处,决定迁葬其父灵柩于湖上,以了其生平之愿。他急于筹款,抱病作画,以致病倒不起。其于三月十七日返回常州,次日卒于白云渡瓯香馆,终年五十八岁。一代才华绝世的宗师,就此默默地终结其坎坷的人生。

人物生平

恽南田的一生世家子弟 勤奋好学恽南田的家族是武进的世家大族,曾祖恽邵芳是明嘉靖进士。祖父恽应候,万历年间国子监(明朝最高学府)监生。父亲恽日初崇祯六年贡生,大学问家刘世周的高足,曾参加抗清运动,后在乡里讲学。堂伯恽本初,明朝著名山水画家,崇祯十七年弃官归隐。堂伯恽厥初,明万历三十二年进士,任湖广按察使(省公安厅长),带兵参与抗清运动。堂叔恽于迈,崇祯年间曾任知县,明亡后弃官遁入空门,四处云游。由于南田先生的祖、父辈多是有节操的名士,因此这位世家子弟从小就受到了精忠报国的良好的教育。他自幼聪明,“八岁咏莲花成句,惊其塾师”。这是他后来成为著名画家的重要条件。
潜身浙东 报国抗清南田十一岁那年,父亲不满明末的腐败政治,带着两个孩子隐居浙江天台山。清兵入关后,在扬州、江阴、杭州等地开展大屠杀,南田随父兄逃到福州,父亲在福州参加了武装抗清运动,福州被清军攻破,南田随父兄又逃往广州,千里奔波,颠沛流离。到达广州后,福建的建宁义军将领王祁邀请南田的父亲前往建宁共商抗清大计,父亲接到信后,由南田到建宁暗地考察后认为“此地尚全盛,兵强富储胥。窃观王公为,魁杰实丈夫。”南田当时只有十五岁,但已经有了相当高的政治见地。通过他的判断,促使他父兄到建宁参加了义军。到建宁后,在对清战斗中,南田的长兄战死,清军六万围困建宁达100多天,被攻陷,王祁在巷战中自杀,二哥不知所终,父亲由于外出求援而幸免于难,从此多年离散。
狱中囚俘 初露才华南田被俘后,没有被杀,开始了痛苦的奴隶生涯,后来出人意料的成为当时清军将领闽浙总督陈锦的养子。这是怎么回事呢?在他后来写的诗中,我们知道这和一位青楼女子有关。这位青楼女子是当时建宁城中的一位歌舞妓,在建宁城破后被总督收留。当时的总督夫人想打造一些首饰,但是请了一些画师画首饰的图样,感觉都不满意。这位歌舞妓知道南田的画很好,就推荐南田为总督夫人画图样。总督夫人见他“丰神俊朗、进退从容”,人品出众,自己又恰好无子,一直想收养一个孩子,于是“喜出望外,遂蓄子”。这样,南田从一个战俘营的囚犯,一下成为一个总督的公子。
不慕富贵 极尽忠孝在被陈锦收养4年后,南田二十岁的时候,陈锦被家丁刺死,陈夫人带着南田前往奔丧,在杭州灵隐寺给陈锦超度亡灵,大做法事,恰巧南田在众僧中发现了自己的父亲恽日初。当时他很想上前相认,但因为养母和众多的家将兵丁在场,考虑到这样做很可能弄巧成拙,于是暗中与父亲见面,然后请主持具德和尚出面,骗陈夫人说:我看你这个儿子寿命不长,要想保住他的性命,只有让他出家从佛。具德和尚是当时最有名望的一位神僧,在灵隐寺任住持18年之久,“先后十做道场,开大法门,雷震海内”,“所至万人挤拥,挥汗成雨,至浴水一时呷尽”,就是这样一位权威,说出来的话所以极具威信,老夫人哭着不肯,要带南田回京继承陈锦的爵位,但南田表示约翰辉赶硎苋倩还螅敢庠谒轮谐黾遥路蛉宋弈危缓妹闱客獍涯咸锪粼谒轮欣肴ァU庋咸锞颓擅畹睾透盖紫嗳希缓笏娓盖谆氐缴系昀霞摇:罄矗肪缂以栋涯咸锏恼庖辉缒晟硎辣喑闪司绫尽娥辗逶怠罚诳滴跏拍旯阄晌欢渭鸦啊
 

一生清贫,矢志不渝

回乡后,南田以卖画为生,抚养老父亲,教化乡里。南田为人清高,视名利如草芥,决不肯趋炎附势。遇到谈得来的,不论贫践,求他作画,即刻挥毫;若遇见一些想用金钱来买画的势利小人,即使给他一百两银子,也不肯为他们画一花一叶。南田每次出游,归家时,身上总带着许多银子,这是他作画得来的馈赠。他为人慷慨,喜欢周济别人,自己反而经常过着清贫的生活。南田先生的晚年极其凄凉,他老来得子,大儿子却溺亡于水沟中,二儿子因天花夭折。为了偿还葬父所欠债务,他拼命地画画。1690年三月十八,这位贫病交加的老人终于倒在了白云渡寓所,终年58岁。他的儿子当时只有5岁,连棺材也置不起一口,南田生前好友王翚(hui)等人,出钱代为料理了后事。
恽南田的品格修养坚贞不渝 民族气节南田先生的家族中,多是抗清义士,他本人参加过抗清运动,两个兄长也都死于抗清战斗中。明清易祚,清廷为了加强统治,对汉民族采取了残酷的屠杀和愚民政策。数据显示:明末时汉族有1亿人口,到了清初只剩下一半。但当后来清朝大局已定,在清廷的怀柔政策感召下,有许多士人纷纷投入清廷的怀抱,并为清朝的种族屠杀粉饰,还千方百计寻找清朝替代明朝的合理性和正统性。南田先生坚决采取与清朝“不合作”的立场。他一生不应科举,不做官,连个秀才都不去考。他的所有作品,书信,从来不署清朝的年号,而是用天干地支。他就以这种消极、沉默的反抗抒发自己的民族感情。
富贵不淫 贫贱不移南田先生的一生只有一个污点,就是被满清闽浙总督陈锦收为养子,但是我们要知道,当时他还只是一个15岁的孩子,我们能要求一个孩子自杀殉国吗?而就是这样一个富贵公子,面对着继承两省总督的养父爵位的巨大诱惑时,他选择了毅然离去,甘受清贫,最后在穷困潦倒中病死,这不能不让我们佩服他的高尚情操。
侍父极孝 待友极诚当他在灵隐寺发现自己的生父时,毫不犹豫地弃富贵如浮云,坚决随父亲回乡。父亲在乡里每天以文会友,所需笔墨等费用均一直靠南田卖画所得赡养父亲,支持父亲的教化事业。他从不攀附权贵,对朋友推心置腹,待之以诚。比如当时人称“画圣”的王翚,南田非常推崇,认为他在山水画上的造诣很高,两人结交为兄弟,并在王翚的画上题写了很多的跋,成为画史上的佳话。
胸襟坦荡 诚实守信南田先生一生最大的遗憾就是被俘后成为了清军将领陈锦的养子。他在给朋友的信中写道:“……白圭之玷,何如其无玷也,凡吾所为,勿令君子道可惜,更待将来觅铁铸错字也。”可见他把自己被陈锦认作养子视为“白圭之玷”。他虽然不愿意提起这段经历,但却并不隐瞒这段经历,而是在伤感之余任由他人评说,显示出他诚实的品格和坦荡的胸襟。
执着追求 坚定不移南田先生一生精力全部用于绘画艺术,而且他不受世俗的干扰,坚持走自己的路,走创新之路。当时的画坛是以山水画作为正派,他本人山水画水平也极高,但他始终没有放弃对现实主义艺术创新的追求,将绝大部分精力都投入到花鸟画的创作上。因为花鸟画的作品一般篇幅都不大,所以他存世的大幅作品较少。

艺术成就

恽南田诗、书、画皆造诣深厚,有“南田三绝”之誉。

恽南田的诗在诗坛上被誉为“毗陵六逸”之首。大学者顾炎武曾称赞南田的诗说:“恽正叔落笔如子山,萧瑟乡关,……非大地欢乐场中仿效徘倡,郎当舞袖。”“选意必幽,择辞必鲜,俗尘凡语自然不侵其笔。” 其诗见于《南田诗钞》、《瓯香馆集》。

南田从楷书入手,之后行草学王羲之王献之父子,后来致力于学褚遂良书法,这在当时来说是不可多得的,也是他能在当时书坛中独树一帜的原因。明末清初的书坛,是以董其昌为代表的对宋元书风的承袭,将宋元以来文人书法的把握和个人性情的表现融汇一体,将和谐优雅、轻松自然的风格发挥得淋漓尽致。入清后,由于康熙皇帝的个人喜好和提倡,使董书弥漫书坛。但是南田对当时流行的董其昌书法也是颇有微辞的,他认为:“秀绝故弱,秀不掩弱,限于资地,故上石辄不得佳,其不足在是,其高超亦在是”。这表明南田能发现其长处和短处,而扬长避短,自成一家。

恽南田的伯父恽向是个名画家,南田从小跟伯父学过诗文绘画,可以算是唯一的老师。南田归家后,开始画山水,在山水画上创出了名声,四王吴恽并称为“清六家”。然而,南田面对花鸟画的日渐式微,开始专攻花鸟画,他继承北宋徐崇嗣的画法,然后几乎是独创出一种“没骨画”法,直接用颜色或墨色绘成花叶,而没有“笔骨”。给当时的花鸟画创作注入了一股新的活力,为此后中国画的均衡发展作出了一定的贡献。对明末清初的花卉画有“起衰之功”,被尊为“写生正派”,影响波及大江南北。《国朝画征录》上载:“近日无论江南江北,莫不家家南田,户户正叔,遂有‘常州派’之目”。中国绘画史上所载,常州画派画家即达百人之多。南田在绘画理论上的成就也很高,画论详见于《南田画跋》。他的画论主要有:“摄情说”;要“师古人”,更要“师造化”。还有“似”与“不似”,当时的主流观点是认为要“不似”,似了就成了庸俗。苏东坡曾经说过:“论画以形似,见于儿童邻。”后来的文人就以这句话来攻击画得似的画家。在南田看来,“似”与“不似”都不是绘画的最高要求,最高境界在于“传神”。他说:“世人皆以不似为妙,余则不然,惟能极似,乃称与画传神。”

绘画特点及后世影响

山水篇恽南田创作的山水画题材广泛,大幅求“势”,小幅求“趣”,淡墨、浅色、湿笔,追求幽深、寂静、清新、高逸的情趣。
书法篇康熙年间,董书风靡一时,但恽南田不染时风,以其深厚的诗画功底为素养,迥出时流,自成一格。恽南田的书法,具有深厚的传统功力,他广泛吸收古代名家之长,以我为用,即所谓“以王献之为体,以褚遂良为面,以黄庭坚为骨”,融会贯通,形成了秀润劲利的自家风貌,他书写并传世大量的诗画题跋无不独展风姿而光彩照人,构成了恽南田诗书画中的一绝。
花鸟篇恽南田的花鸟画以似求不似,画风清新雅丽,其没骨画法风靡一时,追随者众多。他自称“徐家传吾法”,他在继承了徐崇嗣的没骨花卉画法的基础上,又揉合了黄筌、徐崇嗣两家的精髓,重视形象写生,“以花传神”。他的画法是一种“点花粉笔点脂,点后复以染笔足之”的体貌,方薰认为这是“前人未传此法,是其独造”的新风貌,它融工笔与写意之精华为一体,既有工笔画形态逼真,更具写意画的传神。
据中国绘画史载,常州画派达百人之多,且有不少女画家。近现代知名画家任伯年吴昌硕刘海粟等都临摹学习过他的画。他还精行楷书,取法褚遂良米芾而自成一体。诗为毗陵六逸之首,擅五言古诗,其诗格超逸、书法俊秀、画笔生动,人誉之“南田三绝”。遗著有《瓯香馆集》。他在书法上的成就也很高,他学王羲之王献之父子,后来又学褚遂良书法。当时董书风靡一时,但恽南田不染时风,以其深厚的书画功底为素养,迥出时流,自成一格。
自从恽南田以高逸的山书画和寓意的没骨花卉写生画问世后,追随者众多。常州画派就是在这种审美风尚的趋引下,自然形成的。
 

English is introduced

Yun Nantian (1633-1690), formerly known as Yun Ge, the word Shouping, after the word line, change the word is tert, No. South field, alias Yunxi outside the history of the east, east park grass, later moved to Baiyundu, No history of white clouds. As the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty famous painter, is the founder of Changzhou school. He is the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty famous painter, created a unique bone flower painting unique style, is the founder of Changzhou school of painting.

Biography

Yun Shouping lived in the era of extremely sharp national contradictions. From the uncle to learn painting, adolescent participated in the anti-Qing army, home to death, as a prisoner, was governor of Zhejiang and Fujian for the son, in the temple as a monk, back to sell paintings for life, has been to support his father. And Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui (hui), Wang Yuanqi, Wu Li collectively known as the "Qing six", he began to landscape painting yuan Huang Gongwang, Wang Meng, won the cold Dan quiet Juan. Again no bone painting flowers, animals, grass insects, since that Xu Chengsi no bone flower law. Creative attitude is rigorous, that "can only be very similar to the vivid." "Every painting of a flower, must be folded into the bottle of flowers, tried to describe, it must have its fragrant live color and then" [2]. He painted a different style, is the "point of dyeing chalk with fat, after the point to re-dye the pen and foot," creating a pen through Yat, color and clean, elegant style "Yun body" flower style, and become a generation of master . On the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty flowers of the "decline of the power", was revered as "sketch decent", affecting the major north-south, the history contains: "Recently Jiangnan Jiangbei, home to every household, Changzhou sent 'the head. "
Yunnan Tian's landscape painting Beginning of the Yuan Dynasty Huang Gongwang, Wang Meng, won the cold Dan Jun Youzhi, and Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui, Wang Yuanqi, Wu Li collectively known as the "Qing six". His landscape painting, not to let the "four kings", slightly Yi Bi hastily, send Yu Bo in leisurely, dry and run, light and odd, since the pattern into the "four kings" did not arrive.
Twenty-eight years of the Qing Emperor Kangxi (1689) in the twelfth lunar month, Yun Nantian home to Hangzhou to sell paintings. In May the following year, the Trustee purchased Hangzhou cemetery two, decided to relinquish his father's coffin in the lake, to the life of the wish. He was anxious to raise money, ill painting, so that disease can not afford. He returned to Changzhou on March 17 and died the following day at the Baiyundu Ou Hall at the age of 58. Generation masterpiece peerless master, this silently end the ups and downs of life.

Artistic achievement

Yun Nan Tian poetry, books, paintings are accomplished deep, "South Tian Sanjue" reputation.
poetry
Yun Nantian poem in the poem known as "Piling six Yi" first. University of Gu Yanwu has praised the poem, said: "Yun Zhengshu put pen to paper such as sub-mountain, bleak Township, ... ... non-earth playground to follow the advocate advocate, when the dance sleeves." "Selected meaning quiet, Where the natural language does not invade its pen. "His poems in the" Southern Poems "," Ou Hong Museum Collection. "
book
South Tian from the regular script to start, after the line of grass Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi son, and later committed to learning Chu Sui-liang calligraphy, which at the time is rare, and he was unique in the book at that time the reason. The calligraphy in the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, which is represented by Dong Qichang, inherited the calligraphy style of the Song and Yuan Dynasties, integrating the literati calligraphy and the personal temperament since Song and Yuan Dynasties, bringing the harmonious elegance and relaxed natural style into full play. Into the Qing Dynasty, the Kangxi Emperor's personal preferences and advocacy, so that the book filled the book altar. But the South is the popular Dong Qichang calligraphy is also very cautious, he said: "show absolutely weak, show no weakness, limited to the capital, it is not good on the stone noir, its lack of is, its superb is" . This shows that South Tin can find its strengths and weaknesses, and avoid weaknesses, self-contained.
painting
Yun Nan Tian uncle Yun Xiang is a painter, South field childhood with uncle learned poetry painting, can be the only teacher. South Field go home, began painting landscape, in the landscape painting on the fame, four Wang Wu Yun and known as the "Qing six". However, in the face of the declining trend of flower-and-bird painting, Nan Tian began to specialize in flower-and-bird painting. He inherited the painting technique of Xu Chongsi in the Northern Song Dynasty, and almost created a "no bone painting" method, and painted the leaves with color or ink. There is no "pen bone". To the creation of flowers and birds at that time injected a new vitality for the subsequent development of Chinese painting made a certain contribution to the balanced. On the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty flower painting "from the power of failure", was revered as "sketch decent", affecting the major north-south. "North Korea painting collection" Upload: "Recently, regardless of Jiangnan Jiangbei, south home every family, every household is uncle, then there are 'Changzhou faction' of the head. Chinese painting history contained, Changzhou painter that is as many as 100 people. South field in the painting theory achievement is also very high, the painting theory is found in "Nan Tian painting Postscript". His paintings are: "love"; to "division of the ancients", but also to "good fortune." There are "like" and "not like", then the mainstream view is that to "not like", it seems to have become vulgar. Su Dongpo once said: "On the shape of the painting, found in the children's neighbors." Later, the literati on this sentence to attack the painter-like painter. In the South field, "like" and "not like" are not the highest requirements of painting, the highest state is "vivid." He said: "The world is not like the best, Yu is not, but can be very similar, is called and painted vivid.

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