朱耷

朱耷(1626—约1705),明末清初画家,中国画一代宗师。本名由桵,字雪个,号八大山人、个山 、人屋、道朗等,汉族,江西南昌人。他是明太祖朱元璋第十七子朱权的九世孙。明亡后削发为僧,后改信道教,住南昌青云谱道院。擅书画,花鸟以水墨写意为主,形象夸张奇特,笔墨凝炼沉毅,风格雄奇隽永;山水师法董其昌,笔致简洁,有静穆之趣,得疏旷之韵。擅书法,能诗文。他的作品往往以象征手法抒写心意,如画鱼、鸭、鸟等,皆以白眼向天,充满倔强之气。笔墨特点以放任恣纵见长,苍劲圆秀,清逸横生,不论大幅或小品,都有浑朴酣畅又明朗秀健的风神。章法结构不落俗套,在不完整中求完整。存世作品有《水木清华图》、《荷花水鸟图》等。
 

  • 中文名朱耷
  • 性别
  • 民族
  • 祖籍江西南昌
  • 出生日期1626
  • 逝世日期约1705
  • 信仰道教
  • 职业明末清初画家
  • 主要成就清初画坛“四僧”之一
  • 代表作品《水木清华图》、《荷花水鸟图》
  • 所属年代明末清初
  • 本名朱由桵
  • 雪个
  • 八大山人、个山 、人屋、道朗等
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朱万章:墨韵与意蕴——清初朱耷《八哥图》解读

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朱耷(1626—1705)是明末清初杰出的书画家,与石涛、髡残、渐江并称“四僧”。他本为明宗室,明亡后一度为僧,后来又当道士,以书画自适,驰誉清代画坛。  朱耷有别号八大山人、雪个、纯汉、卧...
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人物简介

八大山人,俗姓朱,本名中桂,后名耷。为明江西弋阳荣庄王朱奠壏九世孙。生于明天启四年(公元一六二四年),卒于清康熙四十四年(一七○五),享年八十一岁。幼负性绝慧,早事诸生业。明亡,甫弱冠,佯装喑哑。三十九岁,遯迹江西奉新山耕香院,从颖学弘敏大师学,薙发为僧,释名传綮,曾藏八大人觉经,遂自号八大山人,或谓寓“四方四隅,皆我为大,而无大于我也”;又谓其署名,喜以草书连缀笔画,视之,八大二字有似哭字笑字,山人二字有似之字,合而读之,类哭之笑之,皆隐约有玩世之意。其它别号,尚有雪个、个山、个山驴、驴屋、驴汉、人屋、刃庵、拾得、何园、洛园、黄竹园、书年、书疾、八还等,不一而足。居山二十年,称宗师,从学者百余人。其后,清廷诏举博学鸿词,临川令胡亦堂闻其名,迎入官舍,心不愿就,佯发狂疾,走还南昌。自是常戴布帽,曳长袍,倘佯市肆间,履穿踵决,拂袖蹁跹,儿童后随哗笑,亦不之顾,与人不言不语。晚年,归隐背云谱,筑寤歌草堂以居。死后,葬于新建县中庄。江阴邵长蘅为撰“八大山人传”。依君友会王爱君美术文献载,山人精书画,又善诗。画长于山水、花鸟与竹木,皆能不泥成法,脱出蹊径,山水皴笔无多,意境幽邃,花鸟竹木水墨点渍,形象奇特,俱得古之破墨法,以简省胜,笔情纵恣,墨趣横溢,苍劲圆晬,逸气迥出。松莲石固称神品,芦雁凫汀、潜鱼飞翼,亦无不极生物之致,洵非他人所可企及;书法初学董其昌,后出入魏晋,典雅萧散,深得钟王气韵,狂草尤怪伟;诗原有集帙,惜未流传,存世题跋如吉光片玉,古雅可诵。山人面色微頳,丰下而少髭,好饮而量浅,贫士山僧、市井屠沽、有具酒邀请辄往,往辄饮,饮辄醉,醉辄歔欷流涕,或备纸笔,牵袂捉矜索画,则墨渖淋漓,不经意挥酒,忽作云山,忽作竹石,无所爱惜。故求其画者,多索之醉中,且多就山僧屠沽之徒购得,若显贵以数金易一木石,蕲不予,性情如此。又其为人襟怀浩落,慷概啸歌,抗节高义,一生以明室宗裔,痛遭社稷颠覆、国土沦亡之变,悲愤慷概,汨浡郁结,无所发泄,于是蹈隐高踪,佯狂装哑,哭笑杯酒,游戏笔墨,以消磨劫后生涯,人目为狂,而不知其内心之悲苦,故发为书画,正西人所谓血泪之交逬,感情之升华者,感人至深且巨,山人有自题山水册,诗云:“墨点无多泪点多,山河仍是旧山河。横流薍石枒杈树,留得文林细揣摩。”足为其生涯与艺术交融之写照。

人物生平

朱耷,(zhū dā)清初画坛“四僧”之一。谱名朱统𨨗,为明太祖朱元璋的第十七子宁献王朱权的九世孙子。宁王改封南昌后,历代子孙世居南昌等地,共分八支,八大山人是弋阳王七世孙。其祖父朱多是一位诗人兼画家,山水画风多宗法二米,颇有名气。父亲朱谋觐,擅长山水花鸟,名噪江右,可惜中年患暗疾去世,叔父朱谋也是一位画家,著有《画史会要》。朱耷生长在宗室家庭,从小受到父辈的艺术陶冶,加上聪明好学,八岁时便能作诗,十一岁能画青山绿水,小时候还能悬腕写米家小楷。
崇祯十七年,明朝灭亡。朱耷时年十九,不久父亲去世,内心极度忧郁、悲愤,他便假装聋哑,隐姓埋名遁迹空门,潜居山野,以保存自己。在朱耷的画幅上常常可以看到一种奇特的签押,仿佛象一鹤形符号,其实是以“三月十九”四字组成,借以寄托怀念故国的深情(甲申三月十九日是明朝灭亡的日子)。
顺治五年,他妻子亡故,朱耷便奉母带弟“出家”,至奉新县耕香寺,剃发为僧,自此改名雪个。二十四岁时,更号个山和个山驴。顺治十年(1653年),朱耷二十八岁时,又迎母至新建县洪崖寺,在耕庵老人处受戒称宗师,住山讲经,随从学法的一百多人。有人考证,朱耷从二十八岁到三十六,曾带着母亲和弟弟住在南昌市抚州门(进贤门)外绳金塔附近。当时此地茶室酒肆甚多,是劳动人民聚居之处。朱耷生活清贫,蓬头垢面,徜徉于此。常喜饮酒,但不满升,动辄酒醉。醉时,大笔挥毫,一挥十多幅,山僧、贫士、屠夫、孤儿,向其索画,有求必应,慷慨相赠。 朱耷三十六岁时,想“觅一个自在场头”,找到南昌城郊十五里的天宁观。就在这一年,他改建天宁观,并更名为“青云圃”。“青云”两字原是根据道家神话“吕纯阳驾青云来降”的意思。并有用“飞剑插地,植桂树规定旧基”的说法,这也是亥处现存唐桂的由来。清嘉庆二十年(1815年),状元戴均元将“圃”改为“谱”,以示“青云”传谱,有牒可据,从此改称“青云谱”。
青云谱原是一处历史悠久的道院。相传在二千五百多年前,周灵王太子晋(字子乔)到此开基炼丹,创建道场,“炼丹成仙”。西汉时南昌县尉梅福弃官隐居于此,后建梅仙祠。晋朝许逊治水也在此开辟道场,始创“净明宗教”,易名为“太极观”,从此正式形成道统,属净明道派。唐太和五年(831年),刺史周逊又易名为“太乙观”。宋至和二年(1055年),又敕赐名为天宁观。清顺治十八年(1661年),朱耷前来访求先贤遗迹,很赏识这里的山川风景,于是在原有道院基础上进行重建,并改名为“青云圃”。从此,朱耷便成了青云圃的开山祖师。后人还建立了“正开山祖道朗号良月文号八大山人朱真人”功德堂的牌位。
朱耷从三十六岁至三十八岁时,往返于南昌城与青云谱之间,青云谱的重建由其弟朱道明主持。朱耷正式定居青云谱,约在三十九岁以后至六十二岁。他苦心孤诣经营这所道院,历时二十多年。朱耷在度过了十三年的佛教徒生涯后,又成了一所道院的开山祖师。他的亦僧亦道的生活,主要不在于宗教信仰,而是为了逃避清朝满洲贵族对明朝宗室的政治迫害,借以隐蔽和保存自己。
康熙十七年他五十三岁时,临川县令胡亦堂闻其名,便延请他随其僧长饶宇朴等到临川官舍作客年余。这使他十分苦恼郁愤,遂佯为疯癫,撕裂僧服,独自走回南昌。一年多后,他又回到青云谱,并在这里度过“花甲华诞”。当他六十二岁时,不再做住持,便把道院交给他的道徒涂若愚主持。
朱耷六十岁时开始用“八大山人”署名题诗作画,他在署款时,常把“八大山人”四字连缀起来,仿佛象“哭之”、“笑之”字样,以寄托他哭笑皆非的痛苦心情。其弟朱道明,字秋月,也是一位画家,风格与乃兄相近,而且还要粗犷豪放。他的书画署名为牛石慧,把这三个字草书连写起来,很象“生不拜君”四字,表示了对满清王朝誓不屈服的心情。他们两兄弟署名的开头,把个朱字拆开,一个用“牛”字,一个用“八”字。这样隐姓埋名,可谓用心良苦。
朱耷晚年常住在南昌城内北竺寺、普贤寺等地。僧友澹雪为北竺寺方丈,与朱耷交谊很深。澹雪亦善书法,性格倔强,后来因触怒了新建县令方峨,说他“狂大无状”、被抓进监狱,死在狱中。澹雪死后,北竺寺不久被毁。这段时间,朱耷外出云游,访友作画,画作颇多,这是朱耷创作旺盛时期。最后在南昌城郊潮王洲上,搭盖了一所草房,题名为“寤歌草”。当时诗人叶丹曾作《八大山人》诗一首,描写他在这里的生活情况,“一室寤歌处,萧萧满席尘,蓬蒿丛户暗,诗画入禅真,遗世逃名志,残山剩水身,青门旧业在,零落种瓜人。”
朱耷就是在这所草屋中度过了他孤寂、贫困的晚年,直至去世。一说朱耷葬于南昌城郊窑湾了英家山,但解放后迁墓时,仅见一些朽木铁钉,未见骸骨,可能是他的衣冠冢。牛石慧墓在青云谱南将军岭,墓中有骨灰一罐,解放后亦迁葬于青云谱内吐珠山。另据《新建县志》、《西山志》载:朱耷墓在县西北三十里即今西山璜溪公社的猴岭一带。墓葬确在何处,已难查考了。

主要成就

八大有一首题画诗说:“墨点无多泪点多,山河仍是旧山河。横流乱世杈椰树,留得文林细揣摹。”这第一句“墨点无多泪点多”,夫子自道,最言简意赅地说出了他绘画艺术特色和所寄寓的思想情感,只有沿着他所提示的这条线索,我们才能真正地理解和欣赏这位画家的伟大艺术作品。

晦涩的痛苦
八大由于他的特殊身世,和所处的时代背景,使他的画作不能像其它画家那样直抒胸臆,而是通过他那晦涩难解的题画诗和那种怪怪奇奇的变形画来表现。例如他所画的鱼和鸟,寥寥数笔,或拉长身子,或紧缩一团,倾是而非。特别是那对眼睛,有时是个椭圆形,都不是我们生活中所看的鱼、鸟的眼睛,生活中鱼、鸟的眼睛都是圆圆的,眼珠子在中央也不会转动。八大的鱼、鸟的眼珠子都能转动,有时还会翻白眼瞪人哩。他画的山石也不像平常画家画那个样子,浑浑圆圆,上大下小,头重脚轻,他想搁在哪里就在哪里,也不管它是不是稳当,立不立得住。他画的树,老干枯枝,仅仅几个杈椰,几片树叶,在森林中几万棵树也挑不出这样一颗树来。他画的风景、山、光秃秃的树,东倒西歪,荒荒凉凉,果真有这么个地方,我想谁也不肯到这里来安家落户。
还有,他画上的题诗、签名和印章,也是怪怪的。例如他自号“八大山人”,解释的人很多,至今学者们还有不同争论。他有一方印章,印文刻作 ,有人说它是由“八大山人”四字组成,有的人则持慎重态度,称之为“屐形印”,因为它的形状像只木屐。至于他画上的题诗,许多句子更是令人难解。
然而,八大明确地告诉我们:“横流乱世杈椰树,留得文林细揣摩”。又说:“想见时人解图画”。他是很希望人们能够理解他的画中之意的。因此许多学者经细心的研究,从他的画意和字里字间,探听出许多真消息。例如他有一个画押写作 ,很长时间人们一直称它为龟形画押,因为其形状特别像一只乌龟。后来才看出,原来是由“三月十九日”几个字变形组成,这恰好是明代最末一个皇帝崇祯自杀的日子,标志着明朝的灭亡。那么这个画押,也就表示对国亡的纪念。
康熙二十一年他曾经画了一幅《古梅图》,树的主干已空心,虬根露出,光秃的几枝杈椰,寥寥的点缀几个花朵,像是饱经风霜雷电劫后余生的样子。其上题了三首诗,第一首写道:“分付梅花吴道人,幽幽翟翟莫相亲。南山之南北山北,老得焚鱼扫虏尘。”“梅花吴道人”是指元代画家吴镇,自号“梅花道人”。方框内的字,显然是被当时或稍后的收藏者有意剜去,以避免文字狱灾祸。不难猜测,这个字不是“胡”,即是“虏”。清代统始者以满族入主中原,最忌讳的也是这两字。要在“南山之南北山北”扫除“胡尘”,朱耷非常明确地表达了他的反清复国思想。第二首诗写道:“得本还时末也非,曾无地瘦与天肥。梅花画里思思肖,和尚如何如采薇。”诗中用了两个典故,一是元初遗民画家郑思肖,在南宋灭亡之后隐居吴下,画兰花露根不画坡土,人问何故,他回答说:“土地都被人抢夺去了,你难道不知吗?”二是殷遗民伯夷、叔齐在周灭殷以后,耻不食周粟,隐居首阳山采薇而食,直至饿死。原来八大这幅《古梅图》虬根外露,也不画坡土,是仿照郑思肖画兰之意,暗含着国土被清人所抢夺,他这个明代宗室子孙,之所以成了和尚,正如伯夷、叔齐采薇首阳山那样,不肯臣服于新王朝。国破家亡,复国无望,这使他不能不“苦泪交千点”了。
八大题画诗,是解开他画意的钥匙,然幽涩难解,如迷如雾,许多学者都下过一番功夫进行破释。例如康熙二十三年所作《甲子花鸟册》(今藏美国普林斯顿大学博物馆),其中第七页画一只八哥站在枯枝上,题诗曰:“衿翠鸟唤哥,吭圆哥换了。八哥语三虢,南飞鹧鸪少。”此诗之意,香港中文大学饶宗颐教授经过引经据典考释后结论说:“此诗画是讥‘虢’(指明)亡后,忠臣如鹧鸪之志切怀南,殊不多见。”这就是说,八大的作品,除了一般的国破家亡的情绪表达之外,有时还具体有所指。《瓜月图》亦是件有所指的作品,在题诗之后他记录说:“己巳润八月十五夜画所得”。面对着天上的圆月,和人间家家户户吃月饼,他的心被触动了,那么他“所得”是什么呢?画上题诗曰:“眼光饼子一面,月圆西瓜上时。个个指月饼子,驴年瓜熟为期。”有人根据吃月饼的风俗来源于反清义军传递起事暗号的民间故事,说八大在期盼着这一天到来。然而却要等到何年(驴年)呢?“驴年马月”是俗语,表示遥无定期。果真如此,则八大的心迹,就不只是徒有国亡余痛了。

水墨写意高峰

八大长于水墨写意,为其划时代的人物。 在水墨写意画中,又有专擅山水和专擅花鸟之别,八大则两者兼而善之。他的山水画,近师董其昌,远法董源巨然郭熙米芾黄公望倪瓒诸家。例如康熙四十一年所作《书画册》(上海博物馆藏)共画了六幅山水小品,就可以看出深受董其昌的影响,其远笔的圆润则有着董、巨和黄公望的遗踪,墨法参照了米氏云山,而某些树石的组合形式,显然取自倪瓒。但是,我们在欣赏这些作品时,却又强烈地感觉到朱耷的个性,上述那些古人的法则,不过是他随手拈来为自己服务的。那些山、石、树、草,以及茅亭、房舍等,逸笔草草,看似漫不经心,随手拾掇,而干湿浓淡、疏密虚实、远近高低,笔笔无出法度之外,意境全在法度之中。这种无法而法的境界,是情感与技巧的高度结合,使艺术创作进入到一个自由王国。
比起山水画来,八大的花鸟画创作,更具有他风格个性的典型性。顺治十六年所作《传綮写生册》(台北故宫博物院藏),和康熙五年作的《墨花卷》(北京故宫博物院藏),是八大早期作品,从中可以看到他的水墨写意花鸟画创作,深受沈周陈淳徐渭的影响,其用笔较方硬,题材、布局也未脱离前人窠臼,但是画中所表现出的兀傲之气,以及不拘一格的大胆剪裁,如不求物象的完整性,却已预示着他的未来的发展。
八大花鸟画最突出特点是“少”,用他的话说是“廉”。少,一是描绘的对象少;二是塑造对象时用笔少。如康熙三十一年所作《花果鸟虫册》,其《涉事》一幅,只画一朵花瓣,总共不过七、八笔便成一幅画。在八大那里,每每一条鱼,一只鸟,一只雏鸡,一棵树,一朵花,一个果,甚至一笔不画,只盖一方印章,便都可以构成一幅完整的画面,可以说少到不可再少了的程度。前人所云“惜墨如金”,又说“以少少许胜多多许”,只有八大才真正作到了这点,可谓前无古人,后难继者。
少,也许能有人作到,但是少而不薄,少而不贫,少而不单调,少而有味,少而有趣,透过少而给读者一个无限的思想空间,这是难有人作到的,八大却具备了如上的要求,这里大有文章。首先是他在用笔用墨上的功夫。他的用笔由方硬变圆润,饱和墨汁与运笔的方法相结合,一下笔就给人以浑厚丰富之感。他是第一个充分主动利用生宣纸特性以加强艺术表现力的画家。生宣纸的吸水能力强,容易使墨汁扩散(洇),这本来是缺点,而八大却把它变为优点,不但为水墨写意画开辟了一个广阔的前景,而且也创造了人们对水墨写意画的新观念,其功不朽。
其次是形象的塑造。八大的花鸟造型,不是简单的变形,而是形与趣、与巧、与意的紧密结合,所以我们在欣赏时,就不会感到单薄和寂寞。再次是他的布局,特别讲究少许物象在二维空间中摆放的位置。其诀窍是充分利用空白,即前人所谓“计白当黑”。与此同时,并充分调动题跋、署款、印章在布局中的均衡、对称、疏密、虚实等的作用。他不像一般画家那样,先画好画,然后在恰当的位置题款和押印,而是有总体的规划设想,使每一点都在布局中起到举足轻重的作用,不多,不少,不奢侈,不节约。例如康熙三十三年所作《花鸟山水册》(上海博物馆藏),第一幅仅画一只雏鸡。小鸡置于画面中右偏下,这一位置的重心,将画面分割成四大块空间,每块空间的大小都不一样,平衡而有变化。由于小鸡头部方向朝左,故题诗在右第二大块空间中,使空荡的背景顿时活跃起来,视觉上起到突破平衡和内容丰富的作用。小鸡的刻画生动传神,动态像小孩刚学走路,蹒跚得十分可爱。瞪着大眼警惕着前方,特别是眼后加三撇,像电波一样,好似前方有什么声响传来,使小鸡心惊胆怯。这只小雏鸡我们可以理解为它刚出蛋壳,表示出对这个世界的惊异与警惕;也可以理解为走失了群体,找不到妈妈,感到孤独而害怕,如何理解,任人们驰骋想象的翅膀,所以有时候少画,反而思想的容量更大。
少,不是目的而是手段,否则越少越好,艺术又会走入另一条邪径。少是相对的,例如康熙四十二年所作的《杨柳浴禽图》(北京故宫博物院藏),相对上述作品来说是“多”了,但比起一般画家处理同类题材的作品来,却少了许多许多。例如他对柳枝的处理,约有十二笔,就占住了整个画面上部的空间,不但表现出杨柳的老干新枝的质,也表现了枝条迎风的势。在春风料峭之中,八哥在洗刷自己的羽毛将振翅欲飞。这一生活小景,表现出无限的生意。康熙十六年所作的《河上花图》(天津艺术博物馆藏),是八大一生作品中仅见的长篇巨制,也是他笔墨最多、布局最复杂的一幅,但他仍然体现着少的原则。例如开卷的一丛荷花,总共超不出三十笔,笔减而意繁,一开卷便引人入胜。
八大,前承古人,后启来者。白石老人曾有诗曰:“青藤(徐渭)雪个(八大山人)远凡胎,缶老(吴昌硕)当年别有才。我原九泉为走狗,三家门下转轮来。”其倾倒如此。今天随着东西方文化的交流,欣赏和理解他艺术的人越来越多。

艺术特色

八大山人善画山水和花鸟。他的画,笔情恣纵,不构成法,苍劲圆秀,逸气横生,章法不求完整而得完整。他的一花一鸟不是盘算多少、大小,而是着眼于布置上的地位与气势。及是否用得适时,用得出奇,用得巧妙。这就是他的三者取胜法,如在绘画布局上发现有不足之处,有时用款书云补其意。八大山人能诗,书法精妙,所以他的画即使画得不多,有了他的题诗,意境就充足了,他的画,使人感到小而不少,这就是艺术上的巧妙。
八大山人干擦而能滋润明洁。所以在画上同是“奔放”,八大山人与别人放得不一样,同是“滋润”,八大山人与别人润得不一样。如画鱼、鸟,曾作“白眼向人”之状,抒发愤世嫉俗之情。其花鸟画风,可分为三个时期,50岁以前为僧时属早期,署款“传綮”、“个山”、“驴”、“人屋”,多绘蔬果、花卉、松梅一类题材,以卷册为多。画面比较精细工致,劲挺有力。50岁至65岁为中期,画风逐渐变化,喜绘鱼、鸟、草虫、动物,形象有所夸张,用笔挺劲刻削,动物和鸟的嘴、眼多呈方形,面作卵形,上大下小,岌岌可危,禽鸟多栖一足,悬一足。65岁以后为晚期、艺术日趋成熟。笔势变为朴茂雄伟,造型极为夸张,鱼、鸟之眼一圈一点,眼珠顶着眼圈,一幅“白眼向天”的神情。
他画的鸟有些显得很倔强,即使落墨不多,却表现出鸟儿振羽,使人有不可一触,触之即飞的感觉。有些禽鸟拳足缩颈,一副既受欺又不屈的情态,在构图、笔墨上也更加简略。这些形象塑造,无疑是画家自的写照,即“愤慨悲歌,忧愤于世,一一寄情于笔墨”。他在题黄公望山水诗中写道:“郭家皴法云头小,董老麻皮树上多。想见时人解图画,一峰还与宋山河。表现出他的民族意识。
八大山人的画在当时影响并不大,传其法者仅牛石慧和万个等人,但对后世绘画影响是深远的,他的艺术成就主要一点,不落常套,自有创造。他的大写意,不同于徐渭徐渭奔放而能放,八大山人严整而能放。清代中期的“扬州八怪”,晚期的“海派”以及现代的齐白石张大千潘天寿李苦禅等巨匠,莫不受其熏陶。
艺术个性
八大山人的诗文因其古怪幽涩的格调而充满了神秘性和讽刺性,向来为人所费解。
总的来说,八大57岁以前所有书画作品上的题画诗文,总体特征和倾向是借书画抒发自己的遗民思想、人品气节,往往将禅家遏语和历史典故杂糅在诗文之中,因而诗文隐晦曲涩。如《传綮写生册》中的《题画湖石》:击碎需弥腰,折却楞伽尾:浑无斧凿痕,不是惊鬼神。又如52岁作的《梅花图册》中的《题折枝梅》:三十年来处士家,酒旗风里一枝抖。断桥荒藓无人间,颜色于今似杏花。这首诗,几乎像作自似的描述了诗人的人品和气节。
而八大57岁还俗后,其诗文的风格特点则呈现出以“无惧为胜”,大胆超越前人和自我的面貌。这一时期八大有许多真知灼见的诗文涌现,如《书法山水册》的题识之中,就有“画法兼之画法”两节题文,而“书法兼之画法”的明确提出,则是前无古人的。
可以认为八大晚年艺术上的杰出成就,在很大程度上与后期诗文风格特点的转变是密切相关的。正如八大在《书法山水册》中一节题识反问:“文章非人间世之书画也耶?”八大晚年诗文的突出特点,就是建立在其艺术观与人生观相互统一的基础上,这也正是八大晚年诗文的精髓。

存世作品

朱耷的画作在东方尤其在日本备受推崇,并在世界画坛引起了很大的反响,如:《孔雀竹石图》《孤禽图》《眠鸭图》《猫石杂卉图》,以及《荷塘戏禽图卷》、《河上花并题图卷》、《鱼鸭图卷》、《莲花鱼乐图卷》、《杂花图卷》《杨柳浴禽图轴》、《芙蓉芦雁图轴》、《大石游鱼图轴》、《双鹰图轴》、《古梅图轴》、《墨松图轴》、《秋荷图轴》、《芭蕉竹石图轴》、《椿鹿图轴》、《快雪时晴图轴》、《幽溪泛舟图轴》、《四帧绢本浅绛山水大屏》等,许多条幅,册页中的花鸟鱼鸭,山水树石等。书法方面有《临兰亭序轴》、《临“临河叙”四屏》,以及各大家法帖和行草诗书轴册等,都在国内外的博物馆、院中珍藏。朱耷的书画有少小说诗歌文学作品,已不复得见。
八大山人 《孤雁》 纸本立轴金陵天渡楼收藏
八大山人 《孤雁》 纸本立轴金陵天渡楼收藏
八大山人 《孤雁》 纸本立轴 现为金陵天渡楼收藏
朱耷部分作品艺术品投资市场拍卖情况:
《竹石鸳鸯》,2010,西泠印社拍场,成交价1.187亿。
《仿倪云林山水》,2009年 成交价8400万元
《个山杂画册》,2008,西泠印社拍场,成交价2352万元。
《山青水碧鸟语花香》,2008,佳士得拍场,成交价3426万元。
《鹭石图》,2008,北京万隆拍场,成交价3300万。
《瓶菊图》,2008,中国嘉德拍场,成交价3136万元(不含佣金)。

纪念馆

八大山人纪念馆青云谱是一座极具江南特色的园林。园内,数百年的古樟树、苦楮树、罗汉松青叶苍干,繁荫广被,覆护着青砖灰瓦白墙红柱的殿宇,显得格外静谧。密叶筛过的天光洒在小径上,明暗闪烁,野趣横生。一弯荷池清澈明净,倒映着笼笼修竹,鱼儿嬉戏,花影摇曳。园外清溪蜿蜒,溪畔农田阡陌纵横,农舍炊烟袅袅,恰似人间仙境。
八大山人纪念馆坐落在历史修久、风景优美的江西南昌南郊十五华里处的梅湖定山桥畔青云谱内,相传二千五百多年前,周灵王之子王子晋到此开基炼丹。西汉末年,南昌尉梅福曾弃官隐钓于此,后人建“梅仙祠”祀之。东晋年间许逊治水至此,始倡道教“净明派”,并建“太极观”,唐大和五年易名“太乙观”。宋至和二年复易名“天宁观”、至清顺治十八年始定名“青云圃”,后易“圃”为“谱”。谱内屋宇布局以关帝殿、吕祖殿、许祖殿为主体,三殿逐次递进,曲廊相通,甚是幽雅。一九五七年被定为省级重点文物保护单位。一九五九年辟为八大山人纪念馆,陈列八大山人书画作品。
八大山人是我国明末清初的杰出画家,生于明天启六年,卒于清康熙四十四年(公元一六二六——一七0五),享年八十岁。他姓朱名耷,僧名个山、传启 ,别号八大山人,是明太祖朱元璋第十六子朱权的九世孙。明亡后,他抱着对清王朝不屈的态度出家为僧。后还俗,自筑陋室“寤歌草堂”于南昌城效,孤寂贫寒地度过了晚年。八大山人在艺术上有独特的建树。他以水墨写意画著称,尤擅长花鸟画。其画面构图缜密、意境空阔;其笔墨清脱纯净、淋漓酣畅;取物造形旨在意象,笔简意赅,形神兼备,体现出其孤傲落寞清空出世的思想情感。其书法善用淡墨秃笔,犹尽流畅,含蓄内敛,圆浑醇厚,亦工篆刻。其诗文多为幽涩古雅。三百年来他饮誉画坛,“扬州八怪”、吴昌硕,近代齐白石张大千潘天寿李苦禅等画家都不同程度受其影响。八大山人(朱耷)从明王爷成为遗民,承受国亡家破之痛,先后沦为僧道,巧妙应付"临川之变",绳金塔下为民挥毫,其“哭之、笑之”的人品和画品成为发人深思的画坛传奇。爱国、爱乡的八大山人,对清初的残暴疾恶如仇,终身苦守不阿,人品至上,成为后世为人的风范。跨越时空的八大山人书画艺术,释放出巨大艺术能量,辐射璀璨的艺术之光。艺术修养全面的八大山人给我们留下了极为珍贵的诗作,吟咏之余,我们借此心灵辙音,感受三百年前诗人的娓娓独言,将已逝去的流光重新唤回眼前。
85年八大山人被联合国科教文组织命名为中国古代十大文化名人之一。当今画坛,流派纷呈,相互竞技,各展异彩,本馆展出当代花鸟高手之作,是艺术家离经叛道在感觉和直觉水平的一个发展。一批资质精深的专家、学者在八大画风的继承与创新方面从特殊的顿悟中找到了自我,许多作品让人回味无穷。
江南名园青云谱,历经周、西汉、东晋、唐、宋、元、明、清数朝,系唯一保存完好环境的江西净明道教发源地,院内殿宇堂阁,丹桂碧池,凉亭月楼,展示岁月的沧桑,漫游其间,感受二千多年神秘道教文化深蕴的内涵。青云谱道院现存许多令人向往的文化遗迹:万历古井、仙人桥、净明真境、鹤巢黍居、羲之墨池、竹经通幽、岭云来阁、八大墓等为观众提供了寻幽觅古的情趣,令人流连忘返。
古青云谱是镶嵌在市南郊一颗绿色明珠,阳春季节,红茶、桃花争奇斗艳,盛夏荷满十里,三秋桂子飘香,严冬寒梅竞放,四、五百年的参天古木香樟、罗汉松、苦树被历代文人墨客誉为镇院之宝。南昌现存最长的双面碑廊。120多幅因心造境的书画作品揭示了八大山人非凡的笔墨生涯。移步换景的回廊与巧夺天工的石刻工艺带给了观众沁人心脾的美感。

English is introduced

Zhu Da (1626 - about 1705), the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty painter, master of Chinese painting. The name of the snow, a snow, the number of eight mountain people, a mountain, house, Dawn, etc., the Han nationality, Jiangxi Nanchang. He is the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang seventeenth son of nine generations. After the death of shaved hair for the monk, after the conversion of Taoism, live Nanchang Qingyun spectrum hospital. Style painting magnanimous, pen and ink condensate Shen Yi, style majestic timeless; landscape teacher Dong Qichang, pen to concise, a quiet interest, have Shu Kuang rhyme. Good calligraphy, can poetry. His works often symbolic way to express his mind, such as pictures of fish, ducks, birds, etc., are to look to the sky, full of stubborn gas. Pen and ink features to laissez-faire longitudinal known, vigorous round show, Qing Yihengsheng, regardless of sharp or Pieces, there are muddy and smooth and bright show Xiujian Aeolus. The structure of the composition is unconventional and incomplete. Surviving works of "Shuimu Tsinghua map", "Lotus Waterbird" and so on.

Biography

Eight mountain people, common surname Zhu, whose real name in Guangxi, after the name of Da. For the Ming Jiangxi Yiyang Rongzhuang Wang Zhu Zhujiu nine sun. Born in Ming Dynasty four years (AD 1624), died in the Qing emperor Kangxi forty-four years (1705), at the age of 81 years. Young negative negative wisdom, early things all the industry. Ming dead, just weak crown, pretending to dumb. 39-year-old, escape the Jiangxi Feng Xinshan Gengxiang homes, learn from the Ying Hong Min master, hair for the monk, the release of the name of Chuan, had hidden eight adults feel, then since the Bada mountain, or that "the Quartet Four corner, all I big, and no greater than I "; also said that the signature, hi to cursive Lianbi strokes, depending on the eight words like crying word laughing word, the word mountain people like words, read together Of the class cry of laughter, are vaguely cynical meaning. Other aliases, there are snow, a mountain, a mountain donkey, donkey house, donkey Han, house, edge Um, pick, Ho Park, Los Park, Wong Chuk Yuen, book year, book disease, eight While the foot. Home Hill twenty years, said the master, from the scholars of more than 100 people. Subsequently, the Qing imperial edict to learn the word, Lin Chuan Hu Yutang heard his name, welcome into the official homes, the heart does not want to, feign madness, go also Nanchang. Naturally often wear a cloth cap, drag robe, if the city, between them, heel muster, walk out of the limelight, children after the laughter, nor care, and people without a word. In his later years, Guiyin back spectrum, built hu song cottage to home. After death, buried in the new county in the village. Jiangyin Shao Changheng for the "Bada Shanren Biography." According to Wang Jun Jun Wang Junjun art literature, mountain fine painting, and poetry. Painting is longer than the landscape, flowers and birds and bamboo, can not mud into the law, out of the way, landscape Cunwen no more, the mood quiet, flowers and birds, bamboo and ink stains, the image of peculiar, both ancient ink breaking method, Longitudinal pleases, the Mexican interesting, vigorous round 晬, Yi gas utterly out. Calligraphy Beginner Dong Qichang, after access to the Wei and Jin Dynasties, elegant Xiaosan, won the Zhongwang style of rhyme (also known as " , Kuangcao especially blame Wei; poems of the original set Zhi, unfortunately not spread, save the world inscriptions such as Jiguang film jade, quaint can recite. Mountain people looking micro-Fu, abundance and less mustache, drink and the amount of shallow, poor monks mountain, marketplace slaughter, there is a wine to invite noir to, noir drink, drunk, drunk, drunk runny nose, or prepare Paper and pencil, pull one hand to catch the boastful cable painting, the ink dripping, inadvertently play wine, suddenly for Yunshan, suddenly for bamboo, nothing to cherish. So seek their painter, the cable of the drunk, and more on the mountain monk Tu Kutu purchased, if the elite to a number of gold easy to a stone, Qi is not, the temperament so. But also its mankind haokao, generous Ji Xiaoge, anti-section of high justice, life to the Ming-room descent, the pain was subvert the country, the land of the degeneration of change, grief generous, Mimi stagnation, nothing vent, To the post-robbery career, people head for the mad, but I do not know the heart of the sad, so for the painting and calligraphy, the West is the so-called blood and tears of the cross, the sublimation of the feelings of those who, Moving deeply and the giant, mountain people have since the title landscape book, poem goes: "ink point no more tears, mountains and rivers is still the old mountains and rivers. Cross-flow stone fork tree branches, leaving the Wenlin fine try to figure out. Life and art blend of portrayal.

Historical figures

Zhu Da, (zhū dā) Early Qing painting "four monks" one. Spectrum of the name of Zhu Tong, the emperor of the Ming emperor of the seventeenth son of Ning Zhu Wang's nine grandson. Ning Wang changed Nanchang, the descendants of Nanchang and other places in the world, is divided into eight, eight mountain people is the king of the seventh generation of Yiyang. His grandfather Zhu is a poet and painter, landscape painting method of multiple law two meters, quite famous. His father Zhu Moujun, good at landscape flowers and birds, famous Jiang right, but unfortunately middle-aged suffering from dark disease death, uncle Zhu Mou is a painter, author of "history will be." Zhu Da grew up in the imperial clan family, from childhood to the father of the art of molding, coupled with smart studious, can be poetry at the age of eight, 11-year-old can paint mountains and rivers, a child can also write wrist.
Chongzhen seventeen years, the demise of the Ming Dynasty. Zhu Da-year-old nineteen, and soon his father died, heart extremely depressed, anger, he pretended to deaf and dumb, anonymity escape trace Kongmen, hiding in the mountains to save themselves. In Zhu Da's picture can often see a strange charge, as if a crane-shaped symbol, in fact, is the "March 19" four words, in order to pinch the memory of the motherland's affectionate (Jia Shen March 19 Is the demise of the Ming Dynasty).
Junji five years, his wife died, Zhu Da will be the mother with the brother, "monk" to Fengxin County Gengxiang Temple, shaved as monks, since then renamed a snow. At the age of twenty-four, but also a mountain and a mountain donkey. Junji ten years (1653), Zhu Da twenty-eight years old, and welcome the mother to the new county Hongya Temple, in Gannan old place by the master, live in the mountain preaching, followers learn more than one hundred people. It was research, Zhu Da from twenty-eight to thirty-six, with his mother and brother lived in Nanchang Fuzhou gate (Jin Yin door) outside the vicinity of the urn. At that time, there are many teahouses and wine shops in this area, which is the place where the working people live. Zhu Da living poor, unkempt, wander in this. Often like to drink, but dissatisfied with liters, often drunk. Drunk, big brush, waved more than 10 pieces, mountain monks, poor, butcher, orphans, to its cable painting, responsive, generous with the gift. Zhu Da 36-year-old, would like to "find a free head," found Nanchang suburb of the concept of Tianning fifteen years. In this year, he converted Tianning concept, and changed its name to "Qingyunpu." "Albatron" was originally based on the myth of Taoist "Lv Chunyang driving Albatron to drop" means. And useful "Feijian inserted, the provisions of the old base of laurel plant," saying, this is the origin of the existing Hai Tang Gui. Qing Jiaqing twenty years (1815), the champion Dai Junyuan will be "garden" to "spectrum" to show "Qingyun" mass spectrum, there is a dispatch, according to, renamed "Qingyunpu.
Albatron spectrum is a long history of the Tao Yuan. According to legend, in 2500 years ago, Zhou Ling Wang Taizi Jin (word son Joe) to open the base alchemy, the creation of the temple, "alchemy immortal." When the Western Han Dynasty in Nanchang County Wei Mei Fu seclusion here, after the construction of the Temple of Meixian. The Jin DynastyXu XunWater also in this open up the temple, founded "net out religion", renamed "Taiji concept", from the formal formation orthodoxy, is a net Ming Road. Tang Tai Wo five years (831), the provincial governor Zhou Xun renamed "Taiyi concept." Song to two years (1055 years), and Chi Ci named Tianning view. Qing Shunzhi eighteen years (1661), Zhu Da came to visit the sages ruins, very appreciative of the mountains and rivers here, so on the basis of the original Taoist temple reconstruction, and changed its name to "Qingyunpu." Since then, Zhu Da has become the pioneer of Qingyunpu. The descendants also established a "is the ancestor of the Long Road, the number of good month on the number of eight mountain people Zhu real" Hall of merit tablets.
Zhu Da from thirty-six to thirty-eight years old, and from Nanchang city and Qingyunpu between the reconstruction of Qingyun spectrum by his brother Zhu Daoming presided over. Zhu Da officially settled in Qingyunpu, about after the age of thirty-nine to sixty-two years old. He painstakingly managed to operate this Tao Yuan, which lasted more than 20 years. Zhu Da in the thirteen years of Buddhist career, has become a Taoist priest. His monk's life was mainly not in religious belief, but in order to avoid the political persecution of the Manchu nobles in the Ming dynasty to conceal and preserve themselves.
Kangxi seventeen years when he was fifty-three years old, Lin Chuan county magistrate Hu Yitang heard his name, he was invited to follow his monk Rao Yu Park, Linchuan officials to wait more than a year. This makes him very distressed Yu angrily, then pretend to be crazy, torn monk clothes, alone back to Nanchang. More than a year later, he returned to Qingyunpu, and spent here, "Huajia birthday." When he was sixty-two years old, no longer abbot, he put the Taoist priest Tu Ruoyu handed over to him.
At the age of sixty, Zhu Da began to use the signature poems of the Badashanren. When he was in the Department, he often put the words "Ba Da Shan Ren" together as if it were "crying" or "laughing". Sustenance of his painful mood of laughing and crying. His brother Zhu Daoming, the word Moon, is also a painter, style and brother is similar, but also rough uninhibited. His calligraphy and painting signed Niu Shihui, this three-character cursive together, much like the "students do not worship the king," the four words, expressed the Qing Dynasty vowed not to yield to the mood. The signature of their two brothers at the beginning, the words separated, a "cow", one with "eight". This incognito, can be described as well-intentioned.
Zhu Da in his later years in the city of Nanchang North Zhu Temple, Samantabhadra and other places. Monk Dan snow for the North Zhu Temple Abbot, and Zhu Da friendship deep. Dan snow is also good calligraphy, character stubborn, and later angered by the new county magistrate Fang E, said he was "mad big no shape", was arrested in prison, died in prison. Dan snow died, North Zhu Temple soon destroyed. During this time, Zhu Da out to travel, visit friends painting, painting a lot, this is Zhu Da creative period. Finally in the suburbs of Nanchang Chaozhou Wangzhou, take the cover of a cottage, entitled "Hu song grass." At that time, the poet Ye Dan was a poet of the "Eight Mountains" poem, describing his life here, "a room Wu song, Xiao Xiao Man dust, basil cloak family dark, poetry into Zen true, Zhi, residual mountain water body, green door in the old industry, scattered species of melon.
Zhu Da is in this cottage spent his lonely, poor old age, until his death. Zhu Da buried in the outskirts of Nanchang Yaowan Yingjiashan, but moved tomb after the liberation, only to see some dead wood nails, no bones, may be his cenotaph. Cattle Shi Hui Tomb in Qingyunpu General Ridge, ashes in the tomb of a can, after the liberation of Qingyun spectrum also spit beads Chu. According to the "new county", "Xishan" contains: Zhu Da tomb in the northwest of the county thirty years in the Xishan huangxi commune monkey ridge area. Where the tomb is indeed difficult to check the.

Major achievements

Eight have a painting poem, said: "The ink point no more tears, mountains and rivers is still the old mountains and rivers. Cross flow chaos coconut tree, stay in Wenlin fine speculation copy." This first sentence " ", Master Road, the most concise and concise to say his painting art characteristics and the thoughts and emotions of the stay, only along the tips he suggested that this clue, we can really understand and appreciate the artist's great works of art.
Obscure pain
Because of his special life experience, and his background, his painting can not be like any other painter, but by his obscure poem and the strange painting of the strange deformation of Qiqi to show. For example, he painted fish and birds, a few pen, or elongated body, or tightening a ball, dumping rather than. Especially the eyes, sometimes an oval, is not our life to see the fish, the bird's eye, life fish, birds eyes are round, eyeball in the central will not turn. Eight of the fish, the birds can turn the eyeball, and sometimes rolling his eyes staring. He painted the rocks are not like ordinary artists to paint that way, muddy round, on the big small, top-heavy, where he wants to put on where, and whether it is not secure, not stand up legislation. He painted trees, old dry branches, just a few branches of coconut, a few leaves, tens of thousands of trees in the forest can not pick such a tree to. He painted landscapes, mountains, bare trees, stagger, desolate cool, there really is such a place, I think no one would not come here to settle down.
Also, he painted the poem, signature and seal, is also strange. For example, since his number "Bada Shanren", explained a lot of people, scholars have different arguments so far. He has a seal, printed inscriptions, it was said that it is "Bada Shanren" four words, some people are cautious attitude, called "clog-shaped India", because it is shaped like a clog. As for his poem on the painting, many sentences are more difficult to understand.
However, the eight clearly tell us: "cross-flow chaos of the coconut tree, stay thin Wenlin try to figure out." Added: "When people want to see the solution picture." He is very much hope that people can understand the meaning of his paintings. Therefore, many scholars have carefully studied, from his painting and the word between the words, listen to many true news. For example, he has a painting writing, for a long time it has been called tortoises painted, because its shape is particularly like a tortoise. Later it was discovered that the original "March 19" words composed of deformation, which is precisely the last Ming Emperor Chongzhen suicide day, marking the demise of the Ming Dynasty. Then the painting, also expressed the commemoration of national death.
Kangxi twenty-one years he once drew a "Gu Meitu", the trunk of the tree has been hollow, Qiu root exposed bare branches of a few branches of coconut, a few of the embellishment of several flowers, like wind and thunder and lightning survived the look. The title of the three poems, the first wrote: "The plum blossom Wu Taoist, faint Zhai Zhai Mo intimate. Nanshan north and south of the mountain, the old burning fish swept Krupp dust." "Plum Wu Taoist" refers to the Yuan Dynasty Painter Wu Zhen, since the number of "plum Taoist." The words in the box, apparently by the then or later collectors intentionally cut off to avoid the scourge of literary prison. It is not difficult to guess, the word is not "Hu", that is, "Krupp." The beginning of the Qing Dynasty Manchu to the Central Plains, the most taboo is the word. To "Nanshan North and South Mountain" sweep "Hu dust", Zhu Da is very clear expression of his anti-Qing Fu thought. The second poem wrote: "The end of this also has not, has no thin and Tianfei. Plum painting Si Si Xiao, how monks such as Plum." The poem used two allusions, After the death of the Southern Song Dynasty, the painter Zheng Si-xiao, who lived in seclusion after the death of the Southern Song Dynasty, painted the orchid dew root, and asked why, he replied: "The land has been robbed, do not you know?" Second Yin Yin Bo Yi, Shu Qi in the week after the eradication of Yin, shame does not eat Zhou Su, seclusion first Yangshan Weiwei and food, until starved to death. The original eight this piece of "Gu Meitu" Qiu root exposed, do not draw the slope of soil, is modeled on the meaning of Zheng Si Xiao Lan, implied by the territory of the Qing Dynasty who snatched his clan the Ming Dynasty clan, the reason has become a monk, Uncle Qi mining Yang Shou as refused to submit to the new dynasty. The country broke the family dead, complex country hopeless, which he can not help but "tearful pay a thousand points."
Eight painting poems, is to unlock the key to his painting, then quietly astringent, such as fans, such as fog, many scholars have been under some effort to break. For example, Kangxi twenty-three years of the "Jiazi bird book" (now the United States of America Princeton University Museum), which the seventh page of a starling standing on dead branches, the poem reads: "Kingfisher call brother, "This poem is intended, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Professor Rao Zongyi after the passage of the classics, according to the conclusion, said:" This poem is ridiculed 'Guo' (specify) after the death of loyalists, such as partridge (the partridge) This is to say, eight works, in addition to the general state of the emotional expression of the broken home, but also specifically refers to the specific. "Gua Yue Tu" is also a reference to the work, in the poem after he wrote: "I have run August 15 night painting income." The face of the moon in the sky, and every household to eat moon cakes, his heart was touched, then he "income" What is it? Painting on the poem reads: "Some people according to the custom of eating moon cake from the anti-Qing Yi Jun transmission of the cipher of folk tales, saying that the moon cakes, moon cakes, Eight is looking forward to this day. However, they have to wait until the year (donkey years)? "Donkey years on horse" is a saying, that the remote from time to time. If so, the heart of the eight, not only the country has died more than pain.
 

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