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满维起

( 中国美术家协会会员 )

满维起,1954年出生于天津市,毕业于解放军艺术学院美术系中国画专业;现为中国水墨画院院长、中国美术家协会会员、国家一级美术师、硕士生导师、原中国艺术研究院中国画院常务副院长。文化部高评委;作品曾参加全国第八届、第九届、第十届、第十一届全国美展,并两届获奖;先后参加百年中国画展,黄宾虹学术奖展等国内重大展览;1997被中国文联评为中国画百杰;诸多作品被中国美术馆、博物馆等机构收藏。先后出版中国画作品及著作二十余种。

  • 中文名满维起
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 出生地天津
  • 居住地北京
  • 出生日期1954
  • 职业美术家
  • 擅长山水
  • 协会中国美术家协会
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通融之美——满维起山水画谈     作者:张晓凌

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

满维起的山水画,可以引发人们思考一个问题:中国山水画与西方风暴画存在着怎样的差异.因为满维起的画,着眼所在是西南地区的苗乡、侗寨等少数民族风景。这类形象在中国传统山水画中,无论青绿...
艺术家满维起简介
满维起老师画水

满维起(1954—),男,1954年生于天津市,毕业于解放军艺术学院美术系中国画专业。

现为中国水墨画院院长、中国美术家协会会员、国家一级美术师、硕士生导师原中国艺术研究院中国美术创作院副院长。

其作品曾作为国礼由国家领导人赠送日本、韩国重要领导人,曾获第八届全国美展优秀作品奖、第九届全国美展铜奖、首届中国乡村田园画展银奖、中国画三百家金奖、中国画坛百杰奖、联合国“’99世界和平教育”奖等。

曾先后参加第八届、第九届、第十届全国美术作品展,百年中国画展,黄宾虹学术奖展等国家级重要展览;山东翰墨缘画廊推荐画家多幅作品被国内外诸多博物馆、美术馆、纪念馆等艺术机构收藏。

《侗乡暮韵》获“第八届全国美术作品展览”优秀作品奖;《春风春雨》获“第九届全国美术作品展览”铜奖;《侗乡巡诊图》获“首届中国乡村田园画展”银奖;《绿叶山庄》获中国美协主办“中国画三百家”金奖;《猛洞河畔》获“中国画坛百杰”奖;《桂北雨霁》获联合国99世界和平教育奖等。

作品先后参加:“第三届全国体育美展”、“第四届全国体育美展”、“第九次全国新人新作展”、“全国首届山水华展览”、“中国政府恢复对香港行使主权全国艺术大展主题创作展览”、“庆祝建军七十周年全国美展”、全国“首届中国画邀请展”、“98中国国际美术年-中国山水画、油画风景画展”等国家级重要展览。

中国文联、中国美术家协会评为97中国画坛百杰画家之一。

 

艺术风格

满维起的山水画,可以引发人们思考一个问题:中国山水画与西方风暴画存在着怎样的差异.因为满维起的画,着眼所在是西南地区的苗乡、侗寨等少数民族风景。这类形象在中国传统山水画中,无论青绿、抑或写意,都是难寻踪迹的。相对传统山水画描绘中原地区的崇山峻岭与江南水乡的远山近渚,满维起所画的以广西、贵州地区为主的少数民族聚居地,其创作对象本身就带有一种令人浮想的奇异性。故而他在描绘对象的表现上,本来应该与传统山水画拉开很大的距离,在一种极具异域性的视觉效果中展现其画面所想表达的对象。这正如西方风景画,在以写生为基础的创作观念下,不同地域的风光,就自然会引发画面在风格、语言以及最终视觉效果上的极大差异。然而事实上,虽然满维起的画面足以令人一眼辨出。在众多山水画风中独树一帜。但是,这种独特的差异并没有在他的画面中膨胀到一种极致的程度,没有成为他画面中惟一的视觉元素。甚至相反,这种独特性的视觉元素在画面中是被消融在某种传统因素的共性之中。那么,在描摹对象与传统山水画具有如此巨大的差异下,满维起的山水画为什么没有如同西方风景画一样,因为表现对象的差异而与传统山水画凸现一种绝对的异样性呢?

从某种意义上说,将这种原本应该突兀的“特性”消融于某种传统的共性因素中,是满维起对待传统的一种机智表现,也是他自身文化内涵的某种自然流露。其结果便是:满家山水展卷,乍观之下,是令人惊叹的异乡风景;然进而细察,则其山其水,草木繁茂,山体滋昂之中流动着的,是一种传统的意蕴与境界。并且,更为微妙的地方在于:满维起的这种与传统的天生联系,又没有走到用与传统的“共性’’遏制画面新生的“特异”,于是,足以令西方风景画为之叹服的现象在满维起身上显现了:他竟然在传统的共性与个体的特性之中,寻到了一条通融的表现方式,使得其画面在古典精微的简淡与含蓄中显现出现代性的律动,这在西方风景画以革命为发展的风格史中是难得一见的。

应该说,满维起的成功得益于他对传统山水画的深度浸泡。中国山水画的发展不同于西方风景画以矛盾与冲突来实现,而是借助对山水本体精神观照一以贯之的。这种差别是两种文化立足点的差异所造成的,与西方科学理性精神不同,中国人的理念之中,本体和现象是浑然不可分的,正如章太炎曾言:“国民常性,所察在政事日用,所务在工商耕稼,志尽于有生,语绝于无验。”那么,这种“体用不二”的实用理性使得中国人没有先验的道,道存在于日常生活的万物运行之中。于是,将道赋予世间万物的中国人反过来又在世间万物中求道,文艺便成为求道的重要手段之一,“文以载道”才可谓“经国之大业,不朽之盛事”,绘画者亦然,“图绘者,莫不明劝戒,著升沉,升载寂寥,披图可鉴”。而山水画则尤为如此,宗炳提出了“山水以形媚道”,王微提出了“以一管之笔’’拟太虚之体,姚最则提出了“心师造化”’这里的造化不是指自然万物,而是指道在天地之间运行产生万物的过程,正所谓“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物”也,因此,所谓“心师造化”就是指师于万物之中道的运行,后世张躁所提“外师造化,中得心源”同于此。他的“外师造化”是要求画者在观察万物表象的同时,还要能深刻体悟宇宙造化的内在生命与流动的生机,其结果是要求“中得心源”。然而,心源并非凭空而出,而是画者心中“造化”衍生物象的结果。画者要仿照宇宙之道,造化运行的过程,在其心中创想出心造之物,或是心造之境。它的存在与形式不强求与自然物象统一,而是要求与万物生成的造化方式相统一。那么,精于此道的满维起也就自然不会因为他所面对的“对象”,而放弃中国传统山水画特有的精神审美,走向西方风景画发展的冲突与背离的路子上,故而他在画面的营造中,一方面师从西南山水表象上的奇异之景,而另一方面则更为注重在这样的山水中怎样体现对“道生万物”的观照,从而确保他的画面与中国传统山水画在精神层面上的一致性,用画面体现出一种心境,一种对感知世界的超越。以这种态度对待传统是一种智慧的表现,因为在确保与传统山水画相衔接的基础上,满维起用与传统山水画精神观照相一致的方式消解了西南风景突兀于传统山水画的“不和”之处,但同时也以西南之景丰富了传统山水画的精神内涵,并使两者融会贯通,形成了属于他自己的山水风格。

这种矛盾之中的融会与贯通在满维起对待古人山水图式的继承与发展中有着较为明显的体现 ,从某种意义上说,他的山水为今日中国山水画坛提供了较为少见的崇高感,在大都玩弄笔墨小情趣的潮流中,他极力地去表现山川本身高大健朗的质感属性,诚如有些学者所论,这种画面构成与北宋山水的“三远”空间有着明显的渊源关系。

然而,他对古人的“三远”却并非一种直接的接受,试拿满家山水比较于范宽《溪山行旅图》的高远,我们能明显感受到满氏高远不同于范氏平面直立的高耸图式,满维起的高耸是一种山体空间叠加的结果,越往上行,就越多出一种空间上向里推进的纵深感,以一种大与小,虚与实的对比组合,完成了山体视觉上崇高峻朗的最终效果。他的深远亦然,在山体与山体的前后组合中分割空间的完整性,并以此显现层峦叠嶂的深远空间,再辅以浓淡、黑白、深浅、干湿的对比,或墨与色、或冷与暖的对比,表现出郁郁葱葱的多层空间的重山之貌,与传统北宋山水图式有着某种同工之妙,但却绝非一种只懂得“脚丫子气”的重复。之所以能获得这样的一种结果,原因便在于满维起面对的客观物象是远离传统图式的对象,他无法直接简单套用古人的山水图式,为了能够在画面中显现他所面对的山川之景,他就必须将其改换面貌。然而,他的改换又并非是一种对传统的背叛,而是切人到传统图式之中,以传统来消融创作对象的“突兀”,以新貌来突破传统图式的“陈旧”,从而在两者之间获得了一种平衡,并以小青绿的面貌为今日中国山水画贡献了较为少见的健朗力雅的图式风格。

作品风格

作品风格

从画面的构成看,满维起描绘的风景大都具备几种要素:山岳的高峻、水波的浩淼、峡谷的幽深、云霞的微茫以及树木的苍古。这一类景物很容易让人产生雄强崇高的视觉联想。但满维起画面中的这种崇高性的联想,并非一种压抑悲情的崇高,他的画面以广阔迷茫的空间统汇、融合、调动并选裁这一类景物,常常以相同形状,相同动向的线条重重并置,层层组合,仿佛音乐中重复扩展的乐句,伴随着感情的波澜将画面情绪推向高潮,在形式上具有一种轻松华滋的张力,所以满维起的山水在崇高之中渗透着的是一种轻松而华美的清雅与秀丽。在繁茂丰富的画面内,显现出一派“雄秀清远”的气象,其画清风拂面,绿荫醉人,令人如人幽雅静美之胜地。山石房屋、林木流水被安排得错落有致,情趣盎然,透出几分灵秀的壮美。

满维起的山水属于密体小青绿,画面多景象,无论方寸之小,抑或丈尺之巨,皆万物繁茂,层峦叠嶂,饱涨着生命力的律动感。而在这样的画面中显现出灵秀之气并不容易,但满维起都运用他独具风貌的小青绿实现了这样的审美追求。

他在继承青绿山水严谨工细的法度之下,以消退了火气的青、绿、蓝为主调,衬以墨色的含蓄与凝重,在色度的明暗对比及变化中尽现空间的变化与灵动,从而避免了传统青绿的僵硬与单调。

他的作品构图饱满,充实而富有张力,虽然画面常常繁满茂密,大幅满纸,几乎不留空白,但却能安排有序,满而不塞,繁而不密。能够茂密之中见空灵,空旷之中见物象,可谓之满密而不滞,尽显空幽清雅之意。其画造型以中锋勾勒与皴染相统一的方式为主,早期曾作过粗笔触、大块面的山水,而则多以羊毫小笔作大画。

仅就表现方式而言,他的画无论大景小景,山石林木,皆以中锋勾勒轮廓,较少泼墨,常常于细微之处呈现出隽秀清逸的文人气息,这样的工整与雅致是当今山水画坛少有的收获之一——于崇高的严肃中尽现轻松的华滋,于饱满的丰腴之中渗透灵秀的律动,于厚实的张力中暗示秀美的轻盈,有论者云其画,是在矛盾的性质中获得了一种通融的美感,当为不谬也。

Introduction to the artist

Be born at Tianjin city, create a courtyard for Chinese art now standing assistant dean, the Master lays a teacher, chinese artist academician, country division of one class art. Work ever regarded a country as gift, it is important to give Japan, Korea by national leader leader.
Work introduces in many professional an album of paintings, the press, for domestic and international a lot of museum, art gallery, beauty assist, memorial hall is collected. Ever visited the country such as France, Germany, Holand, Belgian, Italy, Luxembourg, Russia as member of Chinese artist delegacy.  
Work attends early or late: "Beauty of the 3rd whole nation sports is exhibited " , " beauty of sports of the 4th whole nation is exhibited " , " new personality of the 9th whole nation is made newly exhibit " , " first landscape China of countrywide is exhibited " , " Chinese government restores to be opposite. Association of artist of Chinese article couplet, China is judged draw altar for 97 China one of 100 outstanding painters.

Manweiqi's landscape painting can cause people to think about a problem: what is the difference between Chinese landscape painting and Western storm painting? Because manweiqi's painting focuses on the Miao village, Dong village and other minority landscapes in Southwest China. This kind of image is hard to find in Chinese traditional landscape painting, no matter green or freehand. Compared with the mountains and rivers in the Central Plains and the distant mountains and rivers in the south of the Yangtze River, manwei's paintings of the minority settlements mainly in Guangxi and Guizhou have a kind of imaginative singularity. Therefore, he should be far away from the traditional landscape painting in the performance of painting objects, and show the objects he wants to express in a very exotic visual effect. Just like the western landscape painting, under the creative concept based on sketching, the scenery of different regions will naturally lead to great differences in the style, language and final visual effect of the picture. However, in fact, although the full dimension of the picture is enough to be discerned at a glance. It is unique in many landscape painting styles. However, this unique difference did not expand to an extreme degree in his picture, and did not become the only visual element in his picture. Even on the contrary, this unique visual element is melted into the commonness of some traditional factors in the picture. So, in the description of the object and the traditional landscape painting has such a huge difference, why does the full dimensional landscape painting not like the western landscape painting, because of the performance of the difference between the object and the traditional landscape painting highlights an absolute dissimilarity?

 

In a sense, it is manwei's wit to treat the tradition and a natural expression of his own cultural connotation to melt this unexpected "characteristic" into some traditional common factors. The result is that: at first glance, the landscape of man's family is an amazing landscape of a foreign country; however, if we look at it carefully, it is a kind of traditional meaning and realm that the mountains, water, vegetation and mountains flow. What's more subtle is that manwei's natural connection with tradition has not yet reached the "particularity" of using the "Commonness" with tradition to contain the new generation of pictures. Therefore, the phenomenon that is enough to make western landscape painting admire appears on manwei's rise: he actually finds a comprehensive way of expression among the commonness and individual characteristics of tradition, which makes manwei It is rare in the history of Western landscape painting style that the revolution is the development of its style.

 

It should be said that manwei's success is due to his deep immersion in traditional landscape painting. The development of Chinese landscape painting is different from that of Western landscape painting, which is realized by contradiction and conflict. This difference is caused by the differences between the two cultural footholds, which is different from the western scientific and rational spirit. In the Chinese concept, the noumenon and phenomenon are inseparable. As Zhang Taiyan once said, "the national constancy, what we observe in the daily use of politics, what we do in the industry and commerce, what we want to do is to live, and what we say is impossible to achieve." Then, the practical reason of "body and use are the same" makes Chinese people have no transcendental Tao, which exists in the operation of everything in daily life. Therefore, the Chinese people who give Tao to all things in the world, in turn, seek Tao in all things in the world. Literature and art have become one of the important means of seeking Tao. "Literature carries Tao" can be described as "the great undertaking of the country, the immortal event", and so can the painters. "The painters, with their admonitions, rise and sink, rise and carry loneliness, and draw pictures for reference.". And landscape painting is especially so. Zong Bing proposed "landscape beautifies the way with shape", Wang Wei proposed "pen with one tube" to imitate the body of too emptiness, Yao most proposed "mind master creation". The creation here does not refer to the nature of all things, but refers to the process of Tao running between the heaven and the earth to produce all things, just the so-called "Tao generates one, two, three and three things". Therefore, the so-called "Tao generates one, three generates all things" "Mind division and creation" refers to the operation of "mind division and creation" in the middle way of all things, which is the same as Zhang mani's "outside division and creation, the source of mind in the middle". His "creation by external teachers" requires that the painter not only observe the appearance of all things, but also deeply understand the inner life and flowing vitality of universe creation, and the result is to ask for "the source of the heart". However, the source of mind is not out of nothing, but the result of the image derived from the "creation" of the painter's mind. The painter should imitate the way of the universe, the process of creation and operation, and create in his mind something created by the heart, or the state created by the heart. Its existence and form do not insist on the unity with natural images, but with the way of creation. Therefore, man Wei, who is good at this way, will not give up the unique spiritual aesthetics of Chinese traditional landscape painting and go to the conflict and deviation road of Western landscape painting development because of the "object" he faces. Therefore, in the construction of the picture, on the one hand, he learns from the strange scenery on the southwest landscape representation, and on the other hand, he pays more attention to how to form in such landscape This paper focuses on the view of "Tao generates everything", so as to ensure the spiritual consistency between his painting and traditional Chinese landscape painting, and to use the painting to reflect a kind of mood, a kind of transcendence of perception of the world.

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