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马万里

马万里,原名瑞图,字允甫,别署曼庐,晚号大年。斋名天地庐、九百石印精舍等,江苏常州武进人。杰出的书画篆刻艺术家、美术教育家。早年曾于暨南大学、上海美专、中华艺术大学任教。

  • 中文名马万里
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 出生地江苏常州武进
  • 居住地北京
  • 出生日期1904-02-29
  • 逝世日期1979-10-26
  • 职业美术家
  • 擅长花鸟
艺术家马万里简介

马万里,原名瑞图,字允甫,别署曼庐,晚号大年。斋名天地庐、九百石印精舍等,江苏常州武进人。杰出的书画篆刻艺术家、美术教育家。早年曾于暨南大学、上海美专、中华艺术大学任教。1935年与黄宾虹同赴广西举办书画联展。抗日战争爆发后,于全国各地多次组织书画义卖活动支援抗战。1941年创建桂林美专。1944年离桂至重庆、成都、大理等处写生及开办画展,并继续从事美术教育活动。抗战胜利后,协助雷沛鸿发展广西地方教育事业。后移居北京。1960年应广西政府邀请返桂,历任广西文史馆副馆长、广西政协委员、广西美协理事等。
斋名拏云阁、紫雪仙馆、曼福堂、去住随缘室、去矜斋、天地庐、墨君堂、东风堂、九百石印精舍等,江苏常州孟河镇人,系清代名医马文植(马培之)的曾孙。擅长中国画、金石、书法,毕生从事美术创作和教育事业,是一位杰出的书画篆刻艺术家与美术教育家。曾受业于江南名士钱振锽(钱名山)门下,与名山先生女婿词人谢玉岑(谢稚柳的胞兄)相交甚笃。1922年考入南京美术专科学校,受教于梁公约(梁菼)、萧俊贤(萧厔泉)、谢公展、符铁年(符铸)、胡汀鹭等书画名家,与同窗学友闻钧天(爱国诗人闻一多的胞弟)、周桢、王霞宙、王叔惠、王野萍、黄学明等九人结成“旭社”朝夕研讨绘事。毕业后留校任教,期间往来宁沪,与海上名流论艺。1925年春于南京中央饭店举办个人画展,盛极一时。同年夏天又与舅父张仲青在常州举行扇页联展,由进步政治活动家庄蕴宽(庄思缄,故宫博物院创建人之一)任主持。其时与在常州公演的梅兰芳相识,梅赠其西洋红印泥。1929年移居上海,亦曾受教于吴昌硕、曾熙(曾农髯,张大千的授业老师),与谢觐虞、吴湖帆、郑逸梅、陶冷月吴待秋钱瘦铁、赵古泥、赵叔孺、王师子、贺天健柳子谷等过从甚密并入蜜蜂画社,又与朱其石、张聿光等人创立艺海回澜社,自任社长。曾任上海真如国立暨南大学国画系教授、上海美术专科学校国画系及艺术教育系教授(应好友刘海粟、关良所邀前往任教)、中华艺术大学国画系教授。被孙中山誉为“东亚画坛第一巨擘”的中国油画巨匠、先驱者李铁夫对马万里极为赏识,称其是“热爱生命的画家”。1935年秋,与老画师黄宾虹联翩赴广西行联展于南宁,盛况空前,获得“马君以其艺倾倒南中名流”的美誉(出自徐悲鸿序)。后受广西当局邀请于广西国民基础教育研究院任教。翌年到桂林与张大千、徐悲鸿两位挚友昕夕谈艺,多次合作。1936年6月筹办广西第一届美术展览会,于7月5日正式开幕,为期将近一个月,共展出自己与徐悲鸿、张大千、齐白石、张聿光、汪亚尘高剑父、刘海粟等饮誉海内外的大名家及本省名家的画作近五百件,马万里与徐悲鸿共同担任审查委员,画展在当时引起极大轰动。之后在桂林从事抗战美术活动,以创作和办学为主,积极组织书画义卖展出,支援抗战。为了推动桂林抗战美术运动,与龙月庐(龙潜)、郑明虹、关山月、沈樾、帅础坚、阳太阳、张家瑶、范新琼、林半觉等人于1941年10月创建桂林美术专科学校(现广西艺术学院前身之一),任校长兼国画系主任。在任期间,着力提倡“简朴生活与高尚思想统一是提高艺术创新的力量”的主张并力邀张大千、徐悲鸿、张安治等名家来校开讲授课。至1944年秋,日寇侵犯湘桂,马万里被迫离桂避难至贵阳、重庆等地(在渝期间曾应民国政府外交部之邀作《水墨葡萄》作为国礼赠美国总统罗斯福,广获美艺界赞誉)。其后又辗转成都、昆明、大理、保山、腾冲等处写生及举办个展,继续为抗战募款,支援前线。抗战胜利后,曾回广西在南宁、梧州等地举办画展为其妹夫、著名教育家雷沛鸿先生筹办广西省立西江学院(现广西大学前身之一)募集建校资金,捐献书画作品两百余幅。又为广西医学院筹募建设院舍资金奔忙,先后义卖个人作品及藏作百余幅。现广西医学院(1992年后更名为广西医科大学)校园内仍树有石碑撰文记载此事。建国之初,马万里应李济深与徐悲鸿之邀,北上京师,与陈半丁徐邦达李苦禅王雪涛许麟庐叶浅予、邓散木等过往甚密,并经常到故宫博物馆观摩历代名作,日夕与金石书画为友,创作了大量优秀作品。1954年经许麟庐介绍,与“末代格格”金默玉相识并结为夫妇。时任国家副主席的李济深极爱马万里之才,常与其谈艺论教。马万里也将所藏、所作精品或借或赠,与李副主席共相展玩。1955年,李济深曾将马万里的两幅画作赠与毛泽东主席。1958年人民大会堂落成后,李济深亦曾邀马万里作巨幅悬于厅堂间。又曾为国母宋庆龄刻“庆龄女史印信长寿”白文八字印一枚。1960年,马万里应广西壮族自治区党委统战部邀请重返广西。回到广西后,潜心钻研画艺及书法篆刻之道,为广西地方美术事业的发展贡献颇多。十年浩劫中,马万里被定性为“反动学术权威”、“画坛黑匠”、“反革命修正主义分子”等,被强制劳动改造。在漫长的遭受迫害的恶劣艰苦环境条件时期,依然坚持艺术创作毫不松懈。1979年5月始得平反,结束十余年“文革”苦难。1979年10月26日,马万里因病去世。1981年,广西壮族自治区展览馆、南京博物院及常州博物馆、常州市工人文化宫为马万里先生举办了遗作展。
代表作品有《桂林老人山》、《雪泥鸿爪册页集》、《桂林独秀峰》、《云溪精舍图》、《事事如意》及与张大千、徐悲鸿合作的《岁寒三友图》、与赵少昂合作的《紫藤金鱼》、[16]与徐悲鸿合作的《松猫图》等。早年上海现代书画扶轮会、上海印书馆出版有《马万里书画集》、《万里画集》、《马万里花卉集》、《万里画屏》、《马万里墨妙》、《马万里写杨万里诗意册》、《南兰陵马万里画屏二十四幅精品》、《万里印存》、《紫云仙馆印存》、《曼福堂篆刻》、《曼福堂印谱》[17]、《马万里山水花鸟草虫走兽精品》等;其后荣宝斋出版社、广西美术出版社等又陆续出版了《马万里书画篆刻集》、《马万里三代书画选》、《万里人生》、《荣宝斋画谱·花卉部分/马万里绘》等。
马万里先生艺术一身,以绘画名最著,花鸟、草虫、蔬果、鸡雏无不精妙;兼擅山水,雄肆苍劲,有明人笔意,偶写青绿,亦雄奇可喜。所作花卉,红英璀璨,素蕊芬芳,在纷披历乱中自绕春阳气息,紫藤尤为一绝,墨竹亦清隽绝尘。长于题跋,先生于每幅画的题款与用印,均极讲究,题字的位置及大小、墨色的浓淡、用印的巨细朱白、印泥的色泽深浅,都力求相适应。他备有五色印泥,是谢翰华(谢梅奴)于抗战前在南京用百年陈油特制,色料是蒙古画马专家田协安所赠。田为清代贝子后裔,存有宫中朱、白、兰、黑、黄等墨锭;西洋红为法国艺人赠梅兰芳,由梅转赠的。先生尝以浓墨写竹,淡墨题字,用橙黄印泥铃盖白文小印,清丽别致,前所未有。又曾用深色仿古笺画白色花卉,用白色印泥铃印,芬芳素雅,古朴有趣。又以朱墨写竹,淡墨题字,用粉兰印泥钤印。有时更以淡墨作画,浓墨题字。题款有的仅署万里二字,有的题字占画面三分之二以上,而字少者不觉其少,字多者不嫌其多,随意经营,无不精妙,此中奥秘,非三折肱者实不能为。书法于行楷外,篆隶亦佳胜。抗战时,曾用石达开句作篆联:“忍令上国衣冠,沦为夷狄。相率中原豪杰,还我河山。”先生篆刻是功力最深的,初得祝子祥指授,先后取法于邓石如、吴让之、赵之谦、吴昌硕诸家,继则上追周秦,所诣益深,为当代名家邓散木、唐醉石等所赞许。其挚友虞逸夫跋其遗作云:“万里治印,胎息秦汉,斟酌皖浙,旁及封泥瓦当之奇丽,彷徨洽浃,寓变化于法度之中,功而不纤,拙而弥古,浑厚典重,如其为人。”可谓知言。

Introduction to the artist

Ma Moli, yuan Mingrui pursues, word allow justs, fasten arrange graceful cottage, late date good year. Essence of cottage of heaven and earth, 900 lithography abandons fast name etc, jiangsu Changzhou fierce takes a person. Educationist of artist of crackajack seal cutting of painting and calligraphy, art. Ceng Yu of one's early years and south university, Shanghai is beautiful only, China art university teachs. Went to Guangxi to hold couplet of painting and calligraphy to exhibit together with Huang Binhong 1935. After the War of Resistance Against Japan erupts, organize activity of sale of work of painting and calligraphy to assist war of resistance against aggression for many times at countrywide each district. Founded Guilin beauty 1941 only. Waited for place paint from life and open art exhibition to Chongqing, Chengdu, Dali from laurel 1944, continue to be engaged in art teaching an activity. After war of resistance against aggression wins, assist Lei Peihong to develop Guangxi place to teach a career. Beijing migrates after. Answered 1960 Guangxi government invites return bay tree, have successively held the posts of beauty of committee member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference of deputy curator of Guangxi Rearch Institute of Culture and History, Guangxi, Guangxi assistant manager thing.
House of celestial being of Yun Ge of fast name , violet snow, Manfutang, go following predestined relationship room, go essence of hall of cottage of pity fast, heaven and earth, Mo Juntang, east wind, 900 lithography is abandoned etc, river of Jiangsu Changzhou the first month presses down a person, ma Wenzhi of cure of name of the generation that fasten Qing Dynasty (Ma Peizhi) great-grandson. Be good at Chinese picture, inscriptions, calligraphy, be engaged in art is created and teaching a career for a whole life, it is an artist of crackajack seal cutting of painting and calligraphy and art educationist. Ceng Shouye at Zuo of Qian Zhen of Changjiang Delta Mingshi (Qian Mingshan) below the door, with the name person of word of hill gentleman son-in-law thanks Yu Cen (the afterbirth elder brother of willow thanking childish) intersect very earnest. Checked Nanjing art training school 1922, suffer teach Yu Liang convention (bridge Qu ) , Xiao Junxian (desolate spring) , Xie Gong is exhibited, Fu Tienian (Fu Zhu) , a person of academic or artistic distinction of painting and calligraphy such as Hu Ting aigret, hear your day with schoolfellow stable-companion (patriotic poet hears the afterbirth younger brother of more than 1) , the 9 people such as time of Zhou Zhen, Wang Xia, Wang Shuhui, Wang Yeping, Huang Xueming are formed " brilliance of the rising sun company " job of paint of delibrate of a very short time. Stay after graduation school teach, come-and-go coulds there be during Shanghai, talk with maritime distinguished personages art. Restaurant held individual art exhibition in the center of Chun Yuna Beijing 1925, be in fashion for a period. Summer of of the same age holds fan page couplet to exhibit in Changzhou with uncle Zhang Zhongqing again, by Zhuang Yunkuan of ascensive politics home (Zhuang Sai close, museum of the Imperial Palace founds one of people) allow to chair. Meantime and the Mei Lanfang in Changzhou perform in public are acquainted, the plum gives his western red ink paste used for seals. Emigrant 1929 Shanghai, ever also sufferred teach Yu Wuchang large, Ceng Xi (Ceng Nong beard, magnify the teacher giving job of 1000) , as cold as Xie Jinyu, Wu Hufan, Zheng Yimei, contented month, Wu Daiqiu, Qian Shoutie, Zhao Gu Ni, Zhao Shuru, Wang Shizi, He Tianjian, wait for a person to found solely with Zhujishi, Zhang Yu again art sea returns billows company, assume a president oneself. Ceng Ren Shanghai is true if state-maintained and south department of traditional Chinese painting of training school of art of professor of department of university traditional Chinese painting, Shanghai and artistic education department are taught (before what millet of good friend bang, Guan Liang invites, should go to teach) , traditional Chinese painting of China art university is a professor. By Sun Zhongshan praise for " East Asia draws altar the first thumb " Li Tiefu of Chinese canvas great master, precursor is right Mamoli very appreciate, weighing its is " the painter that has deep love for life " . 1935 autumn, with old painter together of yellow guest rainbow goes to wide westing couplet to exhibit Yu Naning, exceptionally grand occasion, obtain " Ma Jun with its art south dump in distinguished personages " beautiful praise (foreword of grand of out Xu Bei) . Guangxi authorities suffers to invite after at Guangxi countryman foundation educational academy teachs. Next year to Guilin and magnify 1000, evening of Xin of two bosom friends talks about Xu Beihong art, cooperate for many times. Made preparations in June 1936 Guangxi exhibition of the first art, kicked off formally on July 5, by a definite date a month, exhibit oneself and a Xu Beihong, magnify in all 1000, the drink such as millet of father of light of Qi Baishi, Zhang Yu, Wang Yachen, Gao Jian, bang praise global name the home and originally, ma Moli and Xu Bei grand hold the position of juror jointly, art exhibition causes great sensation at that time. Activity of art of war of resistance against aggression undertakes in Guilin later, give priority to with create and running a school, sale of work of active organization painting and calligraphy exhibits, assist war of resistance against aggression. Move to promote art of Guilin war of resistance against aggression, with Long Yuelu (Long Qian) , Zheng Minghong, Guan Shan month, Shen Yue, Shuai Chujian, Yang Taiyang, Zhang Jiayao, Fan Xinqiong, Lin Banjiao, holding the post of the president to hold traditional Chinese painting concurrently is a director. During allow, exert oneself is advocated " austere life and exalted thought are united is the power that enhances artistic innovation " advocate and force invites magnify 1000, a person of academic or artistic distinction such as Xu Beihong, Zhang Anzhi comes school begin lecturing gives lessons. To 1944 autumn, day bandit encroachs Hunan laurel, ma Moli is forced to take refugee from laurel to and other places of Guiyang, Chongqing (ever answered during change of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of government of the Republic of China invite " grape of water Chinese ink " as the country the ceremony gives American president Luo Sifu, wide win recognition of bound of United States art) . Ever since flounder Chengdu, Kunming, Dali, protect the place paint from life such as hill, Teng Chong to reach hold exhibit, continue to be money of collect of war of resistance against aggression, assist front. After war of resistance against aggression wins, ceng Hui Guangxi holds art exhibition to be its in and other places of city of Nanning, Wu gentleman of grand of Leipei of younger sister's husband, famous educationist makes preparations Guangxi provincial Xijiang institute (show one of Guangxi university predecessor) collect establishs school fund, work of alms painting and calligraphy more than 200. Build a courtyard to abandon capital to bustle for collect funds of Guangxi college of medicine again, early or late work of individual of sale of work and Tibet make more than 100. Show Guangxi college of medicine (after 1992 more the name is Guangxi medical university) still cultivate inside campus monument writes article account this matter. At the beginning of founding a state, ma Moli should of Li Jishen and Xu Beihong invite, division of the Beijing on north, with Chen Banding, Xu Bangda, Li Kuchan, Wang Xuetao, Xu Lin cottage, Xie Jian grants, the associate with such as Deng Sanmu is very close, often arrive master of past dynasties of view and emulate of museum of the Imperial Palace, day night and inscriptions painting and calligraphy are friend, created a large number of outstanding work. Introduced via making Lin cottage 1954, with " division of division of the last reign of a dynasty " Jin Moyu is acquainted and the knot is a couple. The Li Jishen that national vice-chairman holds the post of when loves Mamoli's ability extremely, often talk with its Tan Yi religion. Ma Moli also makes place Tibet, place high-quality goods or borrow or give, exhibit in all with Vice-chairman Li play. 1955, li Jishen ever made two pictures of Mamoli donative Chairman Mao Zedong. People is old 1958 after hall completion, li Jishen ever also invited Mamoli to make gigantic hang at hall hall. Song Qingling of Ceng Weiguo's mother is engraved " celebrate age female history credential is macrobian " Yin Yimei of character 8 of the text of an annotated book. 1960, ma Moli should ministry of battle of all of Party committee of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region invites return Guangxi. After returning Guangxi, with great concentration studies the way of picture art and calligraphy seal cutting, the development contribution that is career of Guangxi place painting is quite much. In 10 years of catastrophe, ma Moli by qualitative for " reactionary an academic authority " , " picture altar black artisan " , " counter-revolutionary is revisionist element " wait, be transformed by forced labor. Undergoing period of persecuting abominable and difficult ambient conditions endlessly, still hold to artistic creation none lax. In May 1979 only then must rehabilitate, end more than 10 years " Culture Revolution " affliction. On October 26, 1979, mamoliyin disease dies. 1981, palace of culture of worker of city of museum of exhibition of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanjing and Changzhou museum, Changzhou was Mr Mamoli to hold posthumous work to exhibit.
Have on behalf of work " hill of Guilin old person " , " collect of Xue Nihong ungual an album of paintings or calligraphy " , " Guilin alone beautiful peak " , " Yun Xi essence abandons a plan " , " at every turn flexibly " reach with magnify 1000, Xu Beihong cooperates. Contemporary painting and calligraphy of Shanghai of one's early years helps round of meeting, Shanghai up to imprint book house is published have " collect of Ma Moli painting and calligraphy " , " collect of 10 thousand lis of pictures " , " collect of Ma Moli flowers " , " 10 thousand lis of painted screen " , ; Published publishing house of flourish treasure room, Guangxi art publishing house in succession again ever since " collect of seal cutting of Ma Moli painting and calligraphy " , " 3 allograph picture chooses Ma Moli " , " 10 thousand lis of life " , " Rong Baozhai.
A suit of art of Mr Ma Moli, with painterly name most, essence of life of all without exception of cheeper of painting of flowers and birds in traditional Chinese style, grass-and-insect painting, vegetables and fruits, chicken is wonderful; Hold landscape of arrogate to oneself concurrently, male four is vigrous, have idea of bright person pen, write viridescence occasionally, yi Xiongji is delectable. What make painting of flowers and plants in traditional Chinese style, gong Ying brights, element pistil is aromatic, wrap around in confused Chun Yang breath is circled oneself in all previous chaos, wistaria particularly a special skill, yi Qingjuan of Chinese ink bamboo absolutely dirt. Long at preface and postscript, the gentleman inscribes paragraph and affix an official seal at what draw every, all extremely exquisite, the depth of colour and lustre of the Zhu Bai of large and small of the shade of color of the position of inscribe and size, Chinese ink, affix an official seal, ink paste used for seals, photograph of do one's best suits. His stock 5 kinds of ink paste used for seals, it is Xie Hanhua (thank Mei Nu) use hundred years old oil at Nanjing is in before war of resistance against aggression tailor-made, lubricious makings is Mongolia picture Tian Xiean of Home Ma Zhuan is given. Cropland is descendant of clear acting Bei Zi, put have Gong Zhongzhu, white, orchid, black, yellow ingot waiting for Chinese ink; Kermes gives Mei Lanfang for French actor on the west, of You Mei make a present of sth given to one. The gentleman is tasted with thick Mo Xiezhu, inscribe of weak Chinese ink, the text of an annotated book of lid of bell of mud of the Huang Yin that use orange color is little imprint, qing Li is chic, unprecedented. Ever used brunet archaize annotation to draw white flowers again, imprint with bell of white ink paste used for seals, aromatic simple but elegant, of primitive simplicity is interesting. Write bamboo with Zhu Mo again, inscribe of weak Chinese ink, use seal of powdery orchid ink paste used for seals to imprint. Sometimes more make a picture with Dan Mo, inscribe of thick Chinese ink. The some that inscribe a paragraph only arrange 10 thousand lis of 2 words, some inscribe take a picture 2/3 above, and the word is little person do not become aware its are little, the word is much person do not disrelish its much, manage at will, essence of life of all without exception is wonderful, the mystery in this, be not fact of the 3 person that fold humerus to cannot be. Outside calligraphy Yu Hangjie, yi Jiasheng of seal be subordinate to. When war of resistance against aggression, ceng Yongshi amounts to a couplet that make seal: "Bear make go up country clothes and hat, reduce exterminate surname. Lead Central Plains hero, return my land. " gentleman seal cutting is work force is the deepest, zhu Zixiang is gotten to point to first award, early or late take as one's model the modest at Deng Shi Ru, Wu Rangzhi, Zhao, Wu Changshuo all homes, zhou Qin is chased after on afterwards criterion, place attainments beneficial is deep, for contemporary a person of academic or artistic distinction the place such as stone of Deng Sanmu, Tang Zui speaks favorably of. Postscript of husband of ease of anxiety of its bosom friend cloud of its posthumous work: "10 thousand lis are treated imprint, fetal breath Qin Han, consider Anhui short for Zhejiang Province, of eaves tile of take up lute strange beautiful, jia of hesitation be in harmony, contain changes at law in, result and not fine, clumsy and cover is ancient, simple and honest allusion is heavy, if is a person. " it may be said knows word.

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