边寿民

边寿民(1684—1752)清代著名花鸟画画家。初名维祺,字颐公,又字渐僧、墨仙,号苇间居士,山阳人(今淮安区),晚年又号苇间老民、绰翁、绰绰老人,江苏淮安秀才。善画花鸟、蔬果和山水,尤以画芦雁驰名江淮,有“边芦雁”之称。其泼墨芦雁,苍浑生动,朴古奇逸,极尽飞鸣、食宿、游泳之态。泼墨中微带淡赭,大笔挥洒,浑厚中饶有风骨。又善以淡墨干皴擦小品,更为佳妙。因他画芦雁,称其所居名“苇间书屋”。他又工诗词、精中国书法。和郑板桥金农等人齐名。

  • 中文名边寿民
  • 别名维祺(祺一作骐)字寿民
  • 民族
  • 出生地江苏省淮安市淮安区
  • 出生日期公元1684年
  • 逝世日期公元1752
  • 职业画家
  • 主要成就芦雁图
  • 代表作品《芦雁图全套八幅册页》、《碧梧双峙图》、《老圃秋容图》
个人经历

山阳边氏是世代书香之家,但边寿民祖与父都无功名,属于寒门。他自幼聪颖,诗文书画,为长者所称,虽境遇困穷,却能坚守寒士清操。据传,他对于同宗富家、同里豪绅,不乐往来,安贫守道,课徒之业,以文字笔墨自适。早在康熙四十三年(1704年)边寿民20周岁之际,即入学为诸生,但由于他鄙薄章句帖括之文,应乡试而不中式,乃更寄情于诗画。他居住在山阳旧城东北隅梁陂桥附近,远离闹市,清幽静寂,四面环水,芦苇丛生,风景绝佳,入秋尤宜,秋水澄碧,芦花飘白,蓼花透红,游憩其间,此身如在画图中。他有《忆江南·苇间好》云:苇间好,明浦豁西窗。两岸荇芦侵阔水,半天紫绿挂斜阳。新月到回廊。苇间好,最好是新睛。寺后菜畦春雨足,城头帆影夕阳明。人傍女墙行。苇间好,初夏最关情。浅水半篙荷叶出,深芦一带水禽鸣。雨后杂蛙声。苇间好,重九雨霏霏。古寺客穿红叶出,小舟人载菊花归。酒熟蟹螯肥。倾接文儒淮人程嗣立(字风衣,号水南,1688—1744年)工诗,善书画,好交游。家有柳衣园(在城西北河下镇),园有曲江楼,日与文士聚会唱酬于其中。边寿民等经常参与曲江文会,同会者有“曲江十子”之称。“曲江会课”,颇负时誉。边寿民友人中,相交最厚者,周振采(1687—1756年),字白民,号菘畦,山阳人;陆立(1689—?年),字竹民,亦山阳人;时人合称为“三民”。友人史震林为作《三民合记》。《合记》谓寿民“有草亭,匾曰‘莲叶仙舟’”,“土阶积苔,座无俗客”。寿民尝谓客曰“俗盖有二:粗俗可耐,文俗难忍。”客曰:“粗俗则易知矣,文亦有俗乎?”寿民曰:“姑举其略:古也而馊,今也而油,赘言若疣,套言若球,佯问若搜,强辨若咻,偷视侧眸,假听点头,足恭意偷,目高气浮,钓名胜钩,刺利胜矛,步如曳牛,坐如锁猴。”边寿民经常出游,甚至长期羁旅在外,在他的诗词中反映甚多,60岁左右曾作一阕自述生平的《沁园春》,云:自笑鲰生,五十年来,究竟何如?只诗囊画箧,客装萧瑟;瘦驴疲马,道路驰驱。大海长江,惊风骇浪,冒险轻身廿载余。真奇事,却公然不死,归到田庐。苇间老屋堪娱,纵三径全荒手自锄。爱纸窗木榻,平临水曲;豆棚瓜架,紧靠山厨。卖画闲钱,都充酒价,词客骚人日过余。余何望,尽余年颓放,牛马凭呼。归来定居、建成新屋后所作的一阕自抒情怀的《满江红·苇间书屋》:万里归来,就宅畔诛茅结屋,柴扉外,沙明水碧,荇青蒲绿。安稳不愁风浪险,寂寥却喜烟霞足。更三城宛转一舟通,人来熟。泉水冽,手堪掬。瓮酒美,巾堪漉。只有情有韵,无拘无束。壮志已随流水去,旷怀不与浮云逐。笑吾庐,气味似僧寮,享清福。
       鬻画远游就经行地域言,扬州、苏州、杭州一带是他常游之地。雍正五年(1727年)他44岁时和雍正九年(1731年)48岁时两度作江汉之行,所以有“楚水吴山都历遍”之句。他还远适北国。他在《柳梢青·雁》中所云“塞北风霜,江南烟树,到处为家”,虽指雁言,亦为以雁自喻。而下文“匹马秋风,孤舟夜雨,人在天涯”则实为诗人自道。就出游时间言,所谓“廿载余”,约指他25岁至49岁,即康熙四十七年至雍正十年(1708—1732年)这段时期。其间,由40岁至49岁,即雍正元年至十年(1723—1732年),他的行踪,或游杭州西湖,或在山阳会友,或作江汉之行,或在扬州作客,或在江阴作画,几乎每年都有记载可考。在25岁至39岁,即康熙四十七年至六十一年(1708—1722年)这15年间,正当壮盛之年,罕见记载,未悉行踪,如有经年远游当在此际。就在外活动言,旧时文人漫游四方者,或入幕依人,或访友揽胜,或卖文鬻画。边寿民游览名胜如西湖、黄山则有之,然不甚频繁;受聘入幕,则毫无迹象;“饥驱作客”,卖画谋生,自是他的主要活动内容。然而,人们不能不胸存疑团,出外仕宦、商贾、旅游者多,边寿民何以特别担惊受怕,以致归来定居之后,犹有余悸,深为慨叹呢?康、乾之世,宇内安然,南来北往还较方便,边寿民何以采用“冒险轻身”这样十分严峻的字样,又何以产生自必死而视“不死”为“奇”这样非同寻常的心态?边寿民所云“壮志已随流水去”真相何如?其远行的经历遭际“究竟如何”?漫游期间,边寿民的画传遍南北,声名日盛。康熙皇帝的第四子雍亲王爱新觉罗·胤禛在王府中“张其画四幅于屏”。尝劝边寿民“一游都门,可博进取”。对于封建时代的寒士来说,直接受知于帝王,确实是一条猎取富贵的捷径,清前期以诗或画邀恩宠、备侍从者,不鲜其例。然而,边寿民漠然不以为意,可见他志不在此。约在雍正元年(1723年),边寿民自绘《苇间老人泼墨图》;乾隆元年至十二年(1736—1747年),又先后请友人为绘《苇间书屋图》6幅。他在待客、访友、出游当中,随时随地为二图征求题词,分装成册。这是他40岁后30年间锲而不舍的一项重要活动。身后,二图先后归淮人屠潢、胡云樵、朱虞生,后由淮人何楚侯携藏京寓,1979年何君病逝后,下落不明。
        壮志旷怀据丁志安所藏二图题咏抄本题《泼墨图》者80人,题《苇间书屋图》者50人。众多同时代人的题咏,是探索、研究边寿民其人其诗其画的珍贵资料。程嗣立题《泼墨图》云:“苇间主人何所有?秃笔一枝墨一斗。十指夺得化工心,生气遂令君公走。东涂西抹日不停,怪怪奇奇发性灵。此中有歌亦有哭,谁能于此求其真!”王敛题《泼墨图》云:“海内知名称同调,长歌短句漫相赓。愧我无端淮上游,公余偶得识清流。……造君庐,披君图,睥睨啸傲一丈夫!”郭焌(1714—1755年)题《泼墨图》云:“我年三十走京师,耳闻其名今见之。一见使我低头拜,再见三见神魂痴。……十年足迹半天下,屈指朋游皆丈夫。淮安交得周与程,常叹老边绝代无。……如此翁者那可得,于思于思万人特。雕龙有谈信惊座,射虎若骑能杀贼。几曾将相与侯王,空尔东西与南北!外间只说边芦雁,今我披图长太息!”任瑗(1693—1774年)题《泼墨图》云:“边叟从来淡荡人,劝之弹冠动即嗔。闭门煮水何酸辛,陶诗欧帖无点尘。余事水墨妙入神,飕飕腕底风雨声。须臾绢上物态新,捶床大叫掷冠巾。花啼鸟语真宰惊,一足倒屣倾公卿。吁嗟乎!豪气未除头已白,名高恐有人踪迹。”王文震题《泼墨图》云:“好古如君更好奇,睭崎历落不时宜。”曹学诗(1697—1773年)题《苇间书屋图》云:“荷花结屋蕙为宫,古树欹斜系短蓬。海内风尘闲韵客,客中岁月老英雄。半生活计鱼虾足,四面比邻雁鹜通。何处诗情偏淡远,残阳欲尽笛声终。”“濯缨何必觅沧洲,廉让中间筑室幽。鹤渚凫汀红蓼国,雨花风叶碧云秋。江湖空负澄清志,烟水聊为啸傲游。泼墨自多飞动意,轩窗鱼鸟各沈浮。”这些题咏者都是和边寿民交游唱酬的同时代人,有些还是好友、密友、同调、知音。这些题咏揭示边寿民的睭崎历落、睥睨啸傲、大叫狂歌的性格和风貌,指明水墨乃其余事,以绘画称非其初衷,“边芦雁”盛名未能尽其生平。这些题咏惋惜“英雄”老去,宏图“空负”,是对于边寿民的自伤自叹的印证,也为我们理解他的“壮志”“旷怀”等等提供注脚和线索。边寿民的家庭情况,记载甚少。原配夫人姓氏不详,似先逝,无所出。他有一阕《望湘人》记述晚年的遇合:笑鲰生老矣,未了情缘,白头红粉相聚。竹院清幽,茅斋冷落,雅称荆钗裙布。最爱焚香,颇知涤砚,解摊缣素。每教侬技痒神飞,多少墨花生趣。从此家园朝暮,把吴山楚水,都忘津渡。便兴发清游,也买画船同去。竹西歌吹,江南烟月,到处应多词赋。还记取泼墨图中,添写个、人眉妩。朱星渚(1658—?年)题《泼墨图》所云“姹女添香傍笔床”,“直教俊煞紫髯郎”,暗指“白头”画师获得“红粉”知己。边寿民身后,程晋芳作《偶过东城怀边苇间成七绝句》,有“弱妾孤儿夜哭哀”之句,“弱妾”当即此“红粉”知己,孤儿则谓边溶,自是伊人所出。

个人作品

边寿民擅诗词,然散佚未刊,诗名为画名所掩。《苇间老人题画集》乃百年以后有心人从画本录出者,计诗70首,皆题画作,词35首,其中17题17首为题画,另5题18首非题画作,乃录附于此者。非题画之作,想必甚多,年远自难于收辑。《苇间书屋词稿》虽系边寿民自辑,然仅晚年的某一时期的词稿,远非全貌 ,计词27首,其中15首为题画,12首非题画作。两集之外散见于画面者尚有一批。《满江红·自题苇间词集》一首显示了边寿民作诗的指导思想:老去填词,只不过一抒胸臆 。叹年来,家园冷落,客途萧瑟。楚水吴山都历遍,春花秋月都虚掷。借长声短调作愁吟,苇间集。那敢望,前秦少?那敢并,今朱十?况诗工半百,盛唐高适!红烛乌丝书也愧,燕钗蝉鬓图难得。算阶前古砌乱莎中,秋蛩唧。“只不过一抒胸臆”,“借长声短调作愁吟”,是其诗歌主张的总纲。现存边寿民诗作都是自抒胸臆的产物,回顾天涯羁旅、记述苇间佳境、乐道晚年快事之作,皆不假饰,真切感人,情溢乎辞。赠答、祝贺之作,如《满庭芳·寄答王汤又先生寄惠诗集并祝七十双寿》云,“苇斋寂寞,惊喜寄书鸿”,“惭愧草莱陋质,栖水曲,鸣似秋蛩”,同样亲切质实,含蕴一片真诚。为人题画之作,如《贺新凉·女史恽冰画菊》云,鲰生写菊平生喜。每狂来揎袖挥毫,渝糜满纸。颠倒欹斜篱落下,一味傲霜而已”,亦率真率性,表现苇间本色。至于自家题画之作,更大多抒写性情,显示独特风貌,举两首题《芦雁》诗以见一斑:秋风白雁下黄芦,要作无人看处图。廿载江湖边塞客,于今衰病息菰蒲。有人征画自携钱,宿食飞鸣要画全。老我孤踪少俦侣,只图只影落秋烟。《题篱菊》云:故园三径吐幽丛,一夜玄霜堕碧空。多少天涯未归客,借人篱落看秋风。《芦雁》云:带将秋影过湘潭,风景关河应早谙。只道随阳已得地,那知冰雪满江南!《沙塞子·雁》下云:一生踪迹与渠同,描写处凄惋无穷。看此幅荒江断雁,一片秋风。秋士而抱秋怀,随时随地,对景即物,自会触发忧思而作愁吟。所以《郑板桥集·诗抄·绝句二十三首·边维祺》有“笔头何限秋风冷,尽是关山离别情”之句。边寿民在创作中运用借喻、拟人、联想等手法俱得显著成功。《题双雁》云:菰米足疗饥,江寒泊最宜。天涯少俦侣,两两莫轻离。《题鳜鱼》云:春涨江南杨柳湾,鳜鱼泼刺绿波间。不知可是湘江种,也带湘妃泪竹斑?将自然景物与社会生活巧妙结合起来,形成耐人寻味的意境,是边寿民诗作的特色。边寿民子溶,未能传其业。甥薛怀,字季思,号竹居,桃源籍,居山阳,承舅氏画法,所作芦雁,几可乱真。边寿民画传世甚多,分藏于海内外博物院、馆及私家。印行者,仅有《边寿民花卉芦雁合册》(《神州画集增刊》本)、《边寿民鱼雁花卉册叶》(文明书局本)等少数单行本。
       心寄画情边寿民所绘花卉、禽鱼、果品、茶具,皆生动隽永,各极其趣,而用力最勤、享誉最高者,则为芦雁。他的芦雁在40岁(雍正元年1723年)以前,已名满南北,得“边芦雁”美称当不晚于康雍之际。雍正六年(1728年)徐葆光为题《泼墨图》已有“头衔自署边芦雁”之句,“头衔自署”云云指约定俗成,他本人也从俗默认或聊且自承而已,非谓迳以“边芦雁”作署名也。写意传神的花鸟画,历来以五代徐熙为宗,沈括《梦溪笔谈》说他“以墨笔为之,殊草草,略施丹粉而已,神气迥出,殊有生动之意”。大致说来,边寿民的画是近于落墨“草草”,“神气迥出”这样一种风格的。边寿民友人程晋芳在《勉行堂文集·淮阴芦屋记》中追记当年身经目击边寿民在苇间书屋作画的生动情景云:四方求者络绎至,则盘礴坐亭内,煮茶焚香,督童子磨大丸墨,注砚池中,杂研丹黄靛垩,舐笔伸纸,随意所作。雁拍拍循除鸣,掠檐回翔,影与画乱,荻风萧瑟,若驶笔声也。颐公目与心契,画与神契,以故人争宝之。近人邓实在为《边寿民花卉芦雁合册》所作跋中论边画云:写生之妙,不难得其似,而最难得其神。得其似者,画工优为边寿民师法前人,兼取众长,尤其用力于徐渭陈淳一派。他论画云:“画不可拾前人,而要得前人意。”亦要师法造化,熟悉描绘的对象。边寿民所居苇间书屋,周围芦苇成片,往来候雁,往往停憩于苇间水际。在长期接触观察当中,他对雁的形体、动作、情态、习性,了如指掌。他的难能可贵大过人处,在于他热爱关怀往来栖止的雁,视之如友朋,知情着意,体贴入微,从而构思顿生妙谛,下笔每聚深情。由此形成边氏芦雁的笔墨疏简、以形写神、写意传神、出神入化的特色。边寿民赋诗“只不过一抒胸臆”,作画“也只算自抒心绪”,在他,诗、画同样是抒情寄意的手段。就完整的画来说,其实是画、诗、书的综合艺术。过寿民的书法,远绍钟繇,古劲浑朴,使画面增辉,但诗画的配合和谐更具重要意义。诗画映照交融、争辉竞美,形成意境,也是边氏芦雁的重要特色。如一幅芦雁册页,左侧两三支芦苇横斜,右侧双雁蜷伏藏头作憩息状,左上题诗云:月冷风清洲北,沙明水碧汀西,得睡且须熟睡,莫近客舟乱啼。寥寥数语,使疏简静寂的画现平添意趣。另一幅芦雁册页,下方芦苇草草,一雁似在觅食,一雁昂首远望,左上题诗云:倦羽思寒渚,饥肠啄野田。稻粱留不住,老翅破江烟。边寿民对于雁的熟悉喜爱很不一般,他的关怀呵护迥非寻常。他经常以雁自喻,并反复声称:“一生踪迹与渠同”,“于今衰病息菰蒲”,甚至如痴如迷地表白“自度前身是鸿雁,悲秋又爱绘秋声”。他想像飞雁南归,只道南方温暖,“那知冰雪满江南”,为之伤感不安;他揣度乱苇寒沙,显得凄情,“犹恐雁嫌秋冷落,胭脂滴滴点芙蓉”,煞费一片苦心。笔者曾见两幅芦雁册页,留下深刻难忘的印象,一幅写芦边水际,双雁紧紧依傍,笔致疏简秀逸,情态亲切动人。左上题诗云:菰米足疗饥,江寒泊最宜。天涯少俦侣,两两莫轻离。另一幅写孤雁自高处飞向芦滩,但并不疾飞直下,颈后曲,目前视,意逡巡,着墨无多,用笔甚妙,一种瞻望却顾之态跃然纸上。左侧题诗云:孤飞随意向天涯,却傍江湖觅浅沙。恐有渔舟邻近岸,几回不敢宿芦花。两首题诗,切切低语,曲曲含情,所咏是人是雁,浑然莫辨,两幅册页,诗画交辉,含蕴着作者的拳拳深情,殷殷至意。边寿民熟悉热爱南来北往的候雁,引为同调,借以自慰自遣,他将自身社会遭际、人生咏叹、辛酸苦辣、悲感忧怀,一齐赋予候雁,写入诗画。世态炎凉,俦侣宜紧密相依,避免孤单无援之苦;人情险恶,不能不时时提防陷阱、网罗。这既是飞雁心态,究其实际,又不能不是饱经飘泊、忧患的边寿民自己的心态!这样,边寿民画中诗中的雁,就不仅人格化,而且社会化了。

English is introduced

BianShouMin
BianShouMin flower-and-bird paintings (1684-1752), the qing dynasty famous painter. H and d kei, early word, word gradually monk again, ink, reed between rove, sanyo (now huaian area), old age and number long-so large reed herein and old people, between the weng, old man, jiangsu huaian scholar. Good painting birds and flowers, fruits and vegetables, and landscapes, especially famous for painting LuYan jianghuai, LuYan "edge," said. The splash-ink LuYan, pale muddy vivid, park GuJiYi, extremely use up flying ring, board and lodging, swimming. Microstrip light ochre splash-ink, large amount of writing, vigorous in the very character. And the light ink dry CunCa sketch, more better. Because of his painting LuYan, said the "random among the reeds" in name. He poetry, the essence of Chinese calligraphy. And banqiao, "and others.
Personal experience
From any
Sanyo's side is the home of generations of elegant, but BianShouMin progenitor and father are no fame, belongs to rose. He have been intelligent, and poems calligraphy and painting, as referred to in the elderly, although poor situation trapped, but it can stick to those fuck. Allegedly, he is the same rich, tongli, strong men, not joy, Ann lean way, ACTS of the industry, with pen and ink adaptive text.
In kangxi 43 years earlier (1704) BianShouMin 20 years old, the entrance for ZhuSheng, but because of his despising chapters 1 of the enclosed, after having obtained the metropolitan examinations should not Chinese style, is more on poetry. He lived in sanyo beam vicious in the northeastern corner of the old city near the bridge, away from the downtown, quiet a quiet, surrounded by water, reedy, a view, autumn YouYi, colchicine ChengBi, white reed catkins, smartweed red flowers, recreation, meanwhile, the body such as in the drawing. He has a "good among yi jiangnan, reed" cloud:
Reed between good, Ming PuHuo west window. Grass on both sides of the Taiwan reed invasion rich water, a half-day purple green setting sun. The new moon to the corridor.
Good among the reeds, the best is the new eyes. Temple flower-beds after spring rain, ChengTou FanYing setting sun Ming. Alongside battlements line.
Reed, between early summer is the most close. Shallow water half pole of lotus leaf, waterfowl deep reed area. After the rain of mixed pre-pubescent.
Reed, between ninth rain started falling. Guest wear ancient red leaves, boat people take chrysanthemum. Wine cooked crab claw fertilizer.
Pour meet Wen Ru
No dust coat, huai Cheng Sili (ShuiNa, 1688-1744) poetry, calligraphy and painting, good friends. Home have willow garden (in the northwest city river town), the garden has QuJiangLou, days and scribes ChangChou party in it. BianShouMin will often participate in QuJiangWen, guild has "qujiang ten children," said. "Qujiang will class", a negative reputation. BianShouMin friends, intersect the thickest, Zhou Zhen (1687-1756), word Bai Min, Song beds, sanyo person; Liu Li (1689 -?), the word bamboo, sanyo also; People known as the "three people". Friends Shi Zhenlin as a "three people". "Hutchison" call ShouMin "grass pavilion, plaque yue 'lotus fairy boat", "soil order product moss, no common guest". ShouMin taste "the guest replied" common carries two: vulgar knauf, wen vulgar." Guest yue: "vulgarity is easy to know, wen also have common?" ShouMin yue: "gu for its slightly: ancient and rotted, today also and oil, if verbosity warts, set of words if the ball, and ask them if the search, if strong bian whew, steal depending on the eyes, false to nod, sufficient ready and steal, high air flotation, fishing places of hook, stab the spear, steps such as drag, sit like lock monkey." BianShouMin often rides and long rides, reflected in his poetry very much, about 60 years old were a Que readme life "patio spring", cloud:
Since, laughing minnows for fifty years, exactly? Only poetry sac suitcase, guest is bleak; Thin donkey exhausted horses, gallop road. The Yangtze river sea, fearful winds and dreadful waves, adventure intellectual man fit more than 20 years. True wonders, deathless, openly upon Tian Lu. Reed house as entertainment, between all three longitudinal diameter hand since the hoe. Love paper window wooden couch, flat near water; Beans GuaJia, tight backer hutch. Sell spare cash, all prices, guest dynasties day more than a word. What, out of more than decadent and dissolute, horses and cattle by call.
Return to settle down, built a new house for a Que since lyric conceive "between sacred · reed house" :
Thousands of miles to return, curtilage the bank over house MAO, the mensch chaifei, sand MingShuiBi, grass green pu green. Safe not sorrow and risks, but lonely like a phantasy. More tri-cities flowing a gate, and the boat people to practice. Spring the palate, scooped up. Urn wine beauty, wipes Lu. Only have a rhyme, unrestrained. Ambition with running water, kuang bosom not drift with one by one. Laugh my lu, smells like a monk Lao, anything.

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