黄慎

黄慎生于清康熙二十六年(1687年)五月五日(6月14日),乾隆三十五年(1770年)84岁时尚在,卒年不详。中国清代杰出书画家。初名盛,字恭寿,恭懋,躬懋、菊壮,号瘿瓢子,别号东海布衣,扬州八怪之一。汉族,福建宁化人。

人物关系
  • 中文名黄慎
  • 别名东海布衣
  • 民族
  • 出生日期1687年6月14日
  • 逝世日期不详
  • 职业画家
  • 主要成就扬州八怪之一
  • 代表作品《十二司月花神图》、《商山四皓图》
  • 所属年代清代
  • 恭寿,恭懋,躬懋、菊壮
  • 瘿瓢子
人物生平

黄慎生于清康熙二十六年(1687年)五月五日(6月14日),乾隆三十五年(1770年)84岁时尚在,卒年不详,幼丧父,以卖画为生,奉养母亲。初随上官周学画,后离家出游,曾多次在扬州卖画。方十八九岁,寄身萧寺,昼为画,夜无所得烛,从佛光明灯下读书。其艺既擅,出游豫章,历吴、越,康熙五十八年(一七一九)至扬州鬻画,人争客之。雍正五年(一七二七)以母垂老,不欲远离,乃奉居扬州,又三年乃返闽,郑燮赠以诗。乾隆三十三年(一七六八)年八十二,尚作花卉册。慎工草书,法怀素。画人物,多取神仙故事为题材,初学上官周,后用狂草笔法作画。笔姿放纵,气象雄伟,深入古法,亦偶有笔过伤韵者。间作山水、花鸟,得荒率之致。所画多历史人物、佛道、樵夫渔父,早年工细,后参以怀素草书笔法,所作人物用笔粗犷,顿挫转折,纵横排奡,气象雄伟。花鸟笔法洗练,形象概括,画风泼辣;山水境界开阔,注重诗意的表达。

代表作品《十二司月花神图》、《商山四皓图》、《伏生授经图》、《醉眠图》、《芦鸭图》、《蛟湖诗草》等。
 

艺术特色

黄慎擅长人物、山水、花鸟,并以人物画最为突出,题材多为神仙佛道和历史人物,也有一些现实生活中的形象,多从民间生活取材,不少作品塑造了纤夫、乞丐,流民、渔民等下层人物形象,如《群乞图》取材现实生活,描写灾荒年中,乞丐们流落街头,受人欺凌的悲惨画面,表现出他对人民疾苦的同情。画神仙佛道如《醉民图》,多操大幅,用笔设色,泼辣大胆,于迷离扑朔中见形象神韵。描绘文人生活的有《东坡玩砚图》,用笔迅疾,衣纹顿挫,线条硬折 结,墨公浓淡相间,人物轩昂、富有气势,为其成熟后的代表画风。
他的花鸟画宗法徐渭,亦纵逸泼辣挥洒自如,如《瓶梅图》、《菊蟹图》等。他的山水虽“不以山水名”,但山水画有一定的造诣,大幅和小景都各尽其妙,潇洒有致,山水代表作如《渔归图》,两株柳树,“姿态婀娜劲挺,耸立奇峭山岩,淡墨轻赭横扫出沙滩,中景两只渔船,一笔勾出船舷,船中人物,神态右辨,画面左角草书题画诗三行,诗、书、画、印紧相配合,自然贴切。
黄慎擅草书,书法学“二王”,更得怀素笔意,从章草脱化而出,其栖劲运笔亦用于绘画之中,故画面多干枯、飞白和迅疾之迹,黄慎的草书,点画纷披,散而序,评者说它象疏景横斜,苍藤盘结,具有“字中有画”之趣,他的书法出于章草,颇难认识,故而仿效者不多,但他不趋时尚,敢于标新立异。 他的草书不昧古法,又难辨古人踪迹,不强调章法的疏密聚散,而以方折顿挫的笔法,忽断忽连,顾盼呼应,凸显铿锵有声的点画节奏感,呈现一幅落英缤纷珠丸跳荡逸趣迭生的画面感。其代表作《草亭飞万竹诗草书轴》章法奇异如松柏之剪影,点画浓淡如花叶之缠枝,真非书非画,亦书亦画,堪称奇观。
黄慎书画流传较多,大多藏于国内各大博物馆内。民间也较多。北京故宫藏有多幅,如《漱石捧砚图》;天津艺术博物馆藏的《醉眠图》册页;秦岭珍藏阁藏的《十二司月花神图》大幅横轴;《伏生授经图》轴;扬州博物馆藏的《渔归图》等。

个人成就

黄慎的诗文、狂草书法,绘画被称三绝。曾先后三次到扬州,居留较长,与郑板桥、李(善)等往来友善,为“扬州八怪”之一。
他年方十八、九时寄身萧寺,白天作画,夜间从佛光明灯下刻苦读书,技艺大进。人物、花鸟、山水、楼台、虫鱼等,无一不能,但他并不以这些为满足,一次看他先生的作品说:“吾师绝技难以争名矣,志当自立以成名,岂肯居人后哉!”
他自己总结一生走过的道路,感慨地说到:‘余自十四、五岁时便学画,而时时有鹘突于胸者,仰然思,恍然悟,慨然曰:‘余画之不工,以余不读书之故。’于是折节发愤,取毛诗、三礼、史汉、晋宋间文,杜韩五言诗及中晚唐诗,熟读精思膏以继晷,而又于昆虫草木四时推谢荣枯,历代制度衣冠礼器,细而致于夔 蛇凤,调调刁刁,罔不穷厥形状,按其性情,豁然有得于心,应之于手,而后乃今始可心言画矣。”正是这种凝思结想、废寝忘食、苦攻不辍,黄慎才从一个小画工成长为一位“诗画名大江南北”的名家。
郑板桥为诗赠之:“家看古庙破苔痕,惯写荒涯乱树根,画到精神飘没外,更无真相有真魂。”
黄慎还是一位诗才画艺俱全的艺术家,他的诗作,情韵清远,如 岩绝 ,烟凝霭积,能非境,并著有《蛟湖诗钞》一书传世。
黄慎早年师从上官周,多作工笔。山水宗元黄公望倪瓒、中年以后,吸取徐渭笔法,变为粗笔写意,并草书章草,尝以狂草书法入画笔姿放纵,气象雄伟深入古法,但也有笔过伤韵者。

作品行情

黄慎书画流传较多,大多藏于国内各大博物馆内。北京故宫院藏有多幅,如《漱石捧砚图》,天津艺术博物馆藏的《醉眠图》册页;《伏生授经图》轴,扬州博物馆藏的《渔归图》等。  黄慎的绘画创作在雍正年间说名扬于世,“尺纸容缣,世争宝之”。可见他的作品在当时已有较高的价格,另外黄慎对自己的绘画,常作分类自评,最得意者题上诗,次者则识以岁月,再次者只署“瘿瓢”二字。 现今黄慎作品流入市场是比较多的,80年代末即开始拍卖,以后每年都出现过,价格起伏不大,比较稳定,但不太高,与八怪中其他画家水平相当,低于吴门四家

社会评价及影响

黄慎曾出游豫章(今南昌),遍历吴、越。他的成绩受到他的老师上官周的热情赞扬和高度评价,他说:“吾门有黄生,犹右军之后有鲁公也。”

作为画家的黄慎,对后世的影响——清代的闵贞、近代上海的王震、广东的苏六朋、福建的李霞、李耕和辽南的李楚材都曾师法黄慎齐白石也非常倾心黄慎——“余在黄镜人处获观《黄瘿瓢画册》,始知余画犹过于形似,无超然之趣。决定从今大变。人欲骂之,余勿听也;人欲誉之,余勿喜也”。“前朝之画家,不下数百人之多,瘿瓢、青藤、大涤子外,皆形似也。惜余天资不若三公,不能师之”。

黄慎四上扬州的故事

 黄慎是扬州画派的代表人物之一。他擅长人物画,用笔稳健、笔致工整。在他刚到扬州时,有懂画的人看来他的画劝他:“工笔人物,古人画得好的甚多,人们也看习惯了,你再走这条路子,怎能出人头地呢?不妨走写意人物的路子。”黄慎听了,虽心里不太舒服,但觉得有理,便立即回乡,埋头苦练了三年写意画,自觉大有进步,于是二上扬州。果真他的画被大加赞赏。不多时,有人提出:“你是画写意的,但你画上的字体还写得过于端正,字和画不相称。”他领会了,又折返闽南练了三年的草书。当他带着字画三上扬州时,画名已大增了。一回,一位读书人来买他的画,看后说:“人物造型大胆夸张、落款笔势生动有力,只是画上只有年号,缺少诗词文章,似乎美中不足。”黄慎不愧是虚怀若谷的人,他又束装归里,攻研三年诗文,在他四上扬州的时候,已是“诗书画”三绝了。

Artistic characteristics

Huang Shen is good at characters, landscapes, flowers and birds, and the most prominent figure paintings, themes and more for the immortal Buddhist and historical figures, there are some real-life image, drawn from folk life, many works to shape the trackers, beggars, , Fishermen and other lower-level characters, such as "group map" drawn from real life, depicting the famine years, beggars living on the streets, bullying by the tragic picture, showing his sympathy for the people suffering. Painting immortal Buddha Road, such as "drunk people map", more drills, pen color, bold and pungent boldly, in the blur of seeing the image of charm. Describing literati life, "Dongpo play Yan-map", pen swiftness, Zhuangwen setback, the line of hard-knot, the ink thick and white, the character imposing, full of momentum, for its mature representative style.
His painting of flowers and birds patriarch Xu Wei, but also the vertical and horizontal Shuai spicy freely, such as "Bottle map", "crab map" and so on. His landscape though "not to the landscape name", but the landscape painting has certain attainments, sharp and small King has done their best, chic has caused, landscape masterpiece such as "fishing to map", two willow, "graceful gesture, The two sides of the fishing boat, a hook out the side of the ship, the characters in the boat, the right to distinguish the air, the left corner of the screen painting Caoshu poem three lines, poetry, books, paintings, India closely match, naturally appropriate.
Huang Shen cao cursive, calligraphy "two kings", but also Huai Su pen meaning, from ZhangCao desalination, its habitat is also used in the painting pen, so the picture is dry, white and swift trace, yellow Shen Cursive, cursive, scattered and order, critics say it like Shujing horizontal, Cangtan knot, with "the painting" interest, his calligraphy out of chapter grass, quite difficult to understand, therefore, But he does not tend to fashion, dare to unconventional. His cursive not ignorant of ancient law, but also difficult to trace the ancient traces, do not emphasize the density of the collection of scattered, and to the frustration of frustration in the brushwork, suddenly off even, stare echoes, highlighting the sonorous sound dotted rhythm, showing a Falling colors of the beads Chuanyudian Yi Yi-sheng of the screen sense. The masterpiece "Cao Ting Fei Wan Zhushi cursive axis," Zhang Yifeng, such as the pines and cypresses of the silhouette, dotted flowers and leaves of the twist, really non-book non-painting, also book painting, called spectacle.
Huang Shen calligraphy and painting spread more, mostly hidden in the domestic major museums. Folk also more. Beijing Museum of Art has a number of pieces, such as "Sose stone holding a map"; Tianjin Art Museum collection of "drunken sleep map" album; Qinling collection of possession of the "12 divisions of God on the map" substantial horizontal axis; Figure "axis; Yangzhou Museum of" fish to map "and so on.

Personal achievement

Huang Shen's poetry, cursive calligraphy, painting, said the three must. Has three times to Yangzhou, a longer stay, and Zheng Banqiao, Li (good) and other exchanges and friendly, "Yangzhou eight strange" one.
He was eighteen, nine when the body Xiao Temple, during the day painting, at night from the Buddha light hard study, skills into. All the people, flowers and birds, landscapes, buildings, insects and fish, etc., can not, but he does not meet them, a look at his work, said: "My division stunt difficult to fight the name men, self-reliance to fame, Kenju people after Zai! "
He summed up his life through the road, said with emotion: 'Yu since fourteen, five years old when they learn to draw, and always have the fist in the chest, Yang Ransi, suddenly realized, generously said:' I painted Not work, so I do not read the book. 'And then break the anger, take Mao Shi, three rituals, the history of the Han Dynasty, Jin and Song Dynasties, Du Han five-character poem and late Tang poetry, familiar with fine sesame paste to continue the sundial, but in insects, According to their temperament, suddenly have the heart, should be in the hand, and then this is the beginning of the beginning of the heart can be painted carry on.. ?? .. The system of dress ritual, thin and in the Kui snake phoenix, tone Diao Diao, indiscriminately not poor Jue shape. "It is this kind of meditation, sleepless nights, bitter attack stopped working, Huang Shen from a small painting to grow into a" painting of the major north-south "masters.
"Zheng Banqiao for the poem gift:" home to see the temple broken moss marks, used to write wasteland roots, painting to the spirit of drifting, but no real soul. "
Huang Shen is a poetic artist, his poems, Qingyun Qingyuan, such as rock absolutely, smoke condensate Ai product, can be extraordinary environment, and a "Jiaohu Poem" a book handed down.
Huang Shen's early years under the Shangguan week, more for the meticulous. In the middle of the year, he absorbed Xu Wei's brushwork and turned it into a rough brushwork. He also wrote a cursive calligraphic book. He used the cursive calligraphy to indulge himself in painting. The majestic meteorology went deep into the ancient method.

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