居廉

居廉(1828年9月22日-1904年5月5日),广东省番禺县隔山乡(今属广州市海珠区)人,字士刚,号古泉、隔山樵子、罗湖散人,因别号隔山樵子,晚号隔山老人。居廉是中国近代岭南地区著名的国画画家,善画花鸟、草虫及人物,尤以写生见长。和其从兄居巢并称“二居”  。他初时学宋光宝和孟丽堂,后吸收各家之长,自成一家。笔法工整,设色妍丽,在继承和发展恽寿平没骨画法基础上,广泛运用了撞水和撞粉法,继承、发展和完善了“居派”艺术。

  • 中文名居廉
  • 性别
  • 祖籍广东省番禺县
  • 出生地广东省番禺县隔山乡(今属广州市海珠区)
  • 出生日期1828年9月22日
  • 逝世日期1904年5月5日
  • 职业画家
  • 主要成就继承、发展和完善了“居派”艺术
  • 代表作品《十二分春色》
  • 所属年代清代
  • 士刚
  • 古泉、隔山樵子、罗湖散人隔山老人因别号隔山樵子,晚号隔山老人
人物简介

居廉原籍为江苏扬州宝应县,先辈来粤做官,遂落籍番禺。父亲名樟华,又名键,字少楠,为闽清县知县。居廉生于清朝道光八年(1828年)9月22日,排行第七。自幼从堂兄居巢学画,十岁左右时随居巢赴广西,后又随居巢成为张敬修的军师,因军功奖掖,赏戴花翎。其间临习过宋光宝、华岩、金农恽寿平、八大山人、徐渭等人作品。
清道光二十八年(1848)又随其赴广西,在那里度过8年。咸丰六年(1856)春返粤,在张氏的“可园”客居10载。到47岁才返番禺,筑“啸月琴馆”设帐课徒。[1]
居廉在广西“环碧园”受教于江苏籍画家宋光宝和孟觐乙。宋和孟的画技均被其融汇吸收。从桂林回来后,东莞张家南方庭园特异的花草鱼虫、翎毛蜂蝶,又成了摹拟写生刻意创作的对象,并得以尽情发挥,造就成了既有坚实传统笔墨功夫,又具妙俏自然形象的艺术效能。还在没骨画中创造了撞水撞粉的表现新方法,对于同时代偏向以临仿前人为准则的画坛习气,是一种特别活脱、移风易俗的新流源。

1855年,张敬修因浔城失守落职,次年返回东莞老家,而“二居”也返回家乡广州。之后,居氏兄弟又数次应张敬修及其侄张嘉谟之邀同赴东莞,断断续续分别于张敬修的可园和张嘉谟的道生园客居了近十年时间,专心从事艺术创作活动[3]。这段期间居廉醉心写生,画艺大进,同治三年(1864年)张敬修在可园病卒后,居廉随兄居巢返回故里,不久开始筑建供自己作画和授徒的“十香园”(因种了素馨、瑞香、夜来香、鹰爪、茉莉、夜合、珠兰、鱼子兰、白兰、含笑等十种香花,故名),专心作画以卖画为生,并设馆授徒,声名日彰,桃李甚众。[3]
他悉心培养出一批遍及两广的学生,如广西的杨元晖,福建的陈芬,广东的高剑父陈树人等。曾活跃于20世纪的伍懿庄、张纯初、容祖春、关蕙农都出自他的门庭。高(剑父)后来成了“五四”以后首倡中国画革新的先导,被称为“岭南画派”的主要创始人,技法与画风曾直接受过居廉的传授和影响。

艺术成就

居廉所画仕女翎毛草虫花卉,设色妍丽,笔致严整,莫不精工,绘有百花百果长卷,皆钜作。大幅山水亦舒卷有气势。长揞头画,尝作二十四番花信图。道光间,临川李芸甫(秉绶)聘孟丽堂(觐乙)、宋藕塘(光宝)来粤教授作花卉。丽堂以意笔挥洒,上追陈道复,藕塘设色写生,明丽妍秀。粤画遂开二派。杜洛川、邓荫泉,丽堂派也。张鼎铭、宋子熙,藕塘派也。巢廉兄弟出,初犹学藕塘,后乃自成一家,居氏花卉又开一生面矣。《绿水园读画记、寒松阁谈艺琐录、五百石洞天挥麈、头斋书画录》《中国历代书画家集》 苏文 编绘
弟子杨元晖,陈芬,李鹤年,陈鉴,伍懿庄,张纯初,容祖椿,梁鹤巢,关蕙农,高剑父陈树人等,皆享名当世。

English is introduced

Gulian (September 22, 1828 - May 5, 1904), Guangdong Province, Panyu County Township (this is a Haizhu District of Guangzhou City) people, the word Shi Gang, No. Guquan, Gesanchuan, Lo Wu scattered people, because No. Geshan Qiaozi, late old man across the mountain. Gu Lian is a well-known traditional Chinese painter in the modern Lingnan area of China. He is good at painting flowers and birds, grass insects and characters, especially in painting. And its brother from the nest and said "two home." He initially studied Song Guangbao and Meng Liting, after absorbing the long, self-contained. It has been widely used in the inheritance and development of Yun Shou-ping's art of painting and painting, inheriting, developing and perfecting the art of "Habitat School".

Biography

Gu Lian origin for the Jiangsu Yangzhou Baoying County, ancestors to Guangdong officer, then fall from the Panyu. The father of Zhang Hua, also known as the key, the word little Nan, Minqing county magistrate. Gu Lian was born in the Qing dynasty eight years (1828) on September 22, ranked seventh. Since childhood from the cousin home nest painting, about ten years old with the nest to go to Guangxi, and then with the nest as Zhang Jingxiu's military adviser, due to military merit, reward Dai Ling. During the study of Song Guangbao, Hua Yan, Jinnong, Yun Shouping, Badashanren, Xu Wei, who works.
Qing dynasty twenty-eight years (1848) and went to Guangxi, where spent eight years. Xianfeng six years (1856) spring back to Guangdong, in Zhang 's "garden" guest 10 contained. To 47 years old to return to Panyu, built "Xiao Yue Qin Museum" set up account for the disciples. [1]
Ju Lian in Guangxi "ring Bi Park" by the Jiangsu painter Song Guangbao and Meng Kun B. Song and Meng's painting techniques are absorbed by its integration. After returning from Guilin, Dongguan Zhang South Garden flowers and insects and insects, feathers butterfly butterfly, has become a mock painting deliberately creative object, and to play, has become both a solid traditional ink, but also a wonderful natural The Artistic Effect of Image. But also in the painting did not create a collision of water powder hit the powder performance of the new method, for the contemporary bias to theimitation of the former criteria of the art of painting habits, is a special live off, the new stream of easy flow.In 1855, Zhang Jingxiu due to the fall of Xun city, the next year returned to Dongguan home, and "home" also returned home in Guangzhou. After several times, his brother and several times should be Zhang Jingmo Zhang Jingmo and his nephew invited to go to Dongguan, intermittently, respectively, in Zhang Jingxiu Park and Zhangjia Mo Dawson Park guest for nearly a decade, to concentrate on artistic creation activities [3]. During this period inexpensive painting, painting great progress, Tongzhi three years (1864) Zhang Jingxiu can be in the garden after the death, the home with the nest return home, and soon began to build their own painting and apprenticeship of the "ten (Due to the planting of ten kinds of fragrant flowers, hence the name), to concentrate on painting to sell paintings for a living, and set up a garden of flowers, Hall apprenticeship, the famous Akira, peaches and plums very public. [3]
He carefully cultivated a number of students across the Guangdong and Guangxi, such as Yang Yuanhui in Guangxi, Fujian, Chen Fen, Guangdong's high-founding father, Chen Shu people. Wu Yizhuang, Zhang Chunchu, Rong Zuchun and Guan Huinong, who had been active in the 20th century, came out of his courtyard. Gao (Jianfu) later became the forerunner of Chinese painting innovation after the May Fourth Movement. He was known as the founder of the Lingnan School of Painting, and his technique and style were directly influenced by Ju Lian.

Artistic achievement

Gu Lian painted ladies feathers grass flower insects, set color Yan Li, pen to Yan Zheng, Seiko, painted with flowers and fruit rolls, are huge for. Significant landscapes Yi Shu volume momentum. Long 揞 first painting, taste for twenty-four fan letter map. Daoguang, Linchuan Li Yunfu (Bing Shou) employed Menglitang (Kun B), Song Ou Tang (Lite) to Guangdong Professor for flowers. Li Tong Yi Yi sway, on the chase Chen Dao Fu, lotus pond color painting, Ming Li Yan show. Cantonese painting then opened two factions. Du Luochuan, Deng Yinquan, Lai Church also. Zhang Dingming, Song Zixi, lotus pond also sent. Chao Lian brothers out, at the beginning of the study of lotus pond, is a self-after, the home of the flowers and open life surface carry on. "Green Water Park to read the painting in mind, Han Song Ge on the art of trivial, five-day cave cave Shou, the first vegetarian painting recorded" "Chinese painting and calligraphy set" Su text
His disciples Yang Yuhui, Chen Fen, Li Henian, Chen Jian, Wu Yi Zhuang, Zhang Chunchu, Rong Zuchun, Liang Hechao, Guan Huinong, Gao Jianfu, Chen Shuren and so on.

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