髡残

髡[kūn]残(1612-1692),清画家。本姓刘,出家为僧后名髡残,字介丘,号石溪、白秃、石道人、残道者、电住道人。湖广武陵(今湖南常德)人。与石涛合称“二石”,又与大山人,弘仁,石涛合称为“清初四画僧”。好游名山大川,后寓南京牛首山幽栖寺,与程正揆交往密切。擅画山水,师法王蒙,喜用干笔皴擦,淡墨渲染,间以淡赭作底,布置繁复,苍浑茂密,意境幽深。善书法,能诗。存世作品有《层岩叠壑图》《卧游图》《苍翠凌天图》等。

  • 中文名髡残
  • 性别
  • 民族
  • 祖籍湖南
  • 出生地湖南常德
  • 出生日期1612
  • 逝世日期1692
  • 职业画家
  • 主要成就石涛合称“二石”,清初四画僧
  • 代表作品《层岩叠壑图》《卧游图》《苍翠凌天图》
  • 所属年代清代
  • 介丘
  • 石溪、白秃、石道人、残道者、电住道人
人物简介

幼年丧母,遂出家为僧。法名髡残,字石溪,一字介丘,号白秃,一号残道者、电住道人、石道人。他削发后云游各地,43岁时定居南京大报恩寺,后迁居牛首山幽栖寺,度过后半生。性寡默,身染痼疾,潜心艺事,与程正揆(程正揆,号青溪道人)交善,时称二溪,艺术上与石涛并称二石,善画山水,亦工人物、花卉。山水画主要继承元四家传统,尤其得力于王蒙黄公望。构图繁复重叠,境界幽深壮阔,笔墨沉酣苍劲,以及山石的披麻皴、解索皴等表现技法,多从王蒙变化而来;而荒率苍浑的山石结构,清淡沉着的浅绛设色,又近黄公望之法。他还远宗五代董源巨然,近习明代董其昌文徵明等,兼收并蓄,博采众长。在学习传统基础上,重视师法自然,自谓“论画精髓者,必多览书史。登山寡源,方能造意”。一生中大部分时间都在山水中度过,经常驻足于名山大川,流连往返。他“僻性耽丘壑”、“泉石在膏肓”,主观的情感、性灵与客观的景物、意境相感应、交融,使其山水画景真情切,状物与抒情成为一体。所作山水,在平淡中求奇险,重山复水,开合有序,繁密而不迫塞,结构严密,稳妥又富于变化,创造出一种奇辟幽深,引人入胜之境,生动地传达出江南山川空□茂密、浑厚华滋的情调。他喜用渴笔、秃毫,苍劲凝重,干而不枯,并以浓淡墨色渲染,使得笔墨交融,形成郁茂苍浑、酣畅淋漓的情趣,使画面产生雄浑壮阔、纵横蓬勃的气势。存世代表作有《报恩寺图》,绘南京聚宝门外报恩寺,通过概括提炼,表现了金陵名胜的磅礴、奇异气象。《云洞流泉图》、《层岩叠壑图》和《雨洗山根图》(均藏故宫博物院),以繁密的布局、苍劲的用笔、郁茂的景致、幽深的境界,显现出石溪鲜明的艺术特色。

髡残自幼就爱好绘画,年轻弃举子业,20岁削发为僧,云游名山。30余岁时明朝灭亡,他参加了南明何腾蛟的反清队伍,抗清失败后避难常德桃花源。战争的烽火迫使他避兵深山,关于他这段在古刹丛林的经历,程正揆《石溪小传》有载:“甲申间避兵桃源深处,历数山川奇辟,树木古怪与夫异禽珍兽,魈声鬼影,不可名状;寝处流离,或在溪涧枕石漱水,或在峦猿卧蛇委,或以血代饮,或以溺暖足,或藉草豕栏,或避雨虎穴,受诸苦恼三月,”艰险的丛林生活虽使他吃尽了苦头,但倒给了他一次感受大自然千奇百怪的好机会,充实了胸中丘壑,为后来的山水画创作积累了丰富的素材,这一点,在他的不少题画诗中,都明显可见。

艺术特点

髡残扇面擅画人物、花卉,尤精山水。师法黄公望王蒙,尤近于王蒙。其画章法严密,笔
法苍劲,喜用秃笔渴墨,层层皴擦勾染,厚重而不板滞,郁茂而个迫塞,善写平景致,平淡中见幽深。与石涛弘仁朱耷并称“清四僧”。 工诗文、书画,擅山水、花卉。山水师法王蒙黄公望,并汲取董源巨然董其昌文徵明等人画法。博采众长,加以发展变化,又能师法自然,于游历中观赏体验名山大川的万千景象。所画山水,构图饱满,重山复水,繁密中见疏灵,善用秃锋渴笔画山石树木,以浓淡墨渲染,苍劲凝重中透出丰润秀逸之致,意境奇僻幽深,得江南山水空濛茂密、浑厚华滋之质。其绘画在当时名重一时,对后世亦有很大影响,后人将其与石涛并称二石,又与渐江、朱耷、石涛合称清初四僧。有《报恩寺图》、《云洞流泉图》、《层岩叠壑图》、《雨洗山根图》等传世。在绘画论画云:“董华亭(其昌)谓:‘画和禅理共旨,不然禅须悟,非工力使然,故元人论品格,宋人论气韵,品格可力学而至,气韵非妙悟则未能也。”在提倡勤学的同时,也主张作画须有“妙悟”,并非下死力就可得画之神韵。

影响评价

髡残在明末遗民中享有很高的声望,他的画也为世人所瞩目。当时著名的文人兼大鉴赏家周亮工就十分景仰、看重髡残的人品和画学,在《读画录》中为他写小传,谓:“人品笔墨俱高人一头地……绘事高明,然轻不为人作。”张怡在髡残的《仿米山水册》中是这样评价这位心灵相契的老友的:“举天下言诗,几人发自性灵?举天下言画,几人师诸天地?……此幅自云效颦米家父子,正恐米家父子有未到处,所谓不恨我不见 髡残古人,恨古人不见我耳。”他认为髡残的诗,是写出了自己的性灵;髡残的画是直师造化,甚至比宋代米芾父子还好;髡残的佛学是直指本心,而没有出家人开堂说法的那种俗套。张庚《国朝画征录·髡残传》云:“石□工山水,奥境奇辟,缅邈幽深,引人入胜。笔墨高古,设色精湛,诚元人之胜概也。此种笔法不见于世久矣!”这段话说明髡残的画深得元季四大家的精髓。总之,三百多年来,髡残一直以其人品与画品并重的高华之气,影响着画坛,成为画家心目中的丰碑。

 

English is introduced

髡 [kūn] residual (1612-1692), the painter. The surname Liu, a monk named after the residual, the word refer to Qiu, No. stone Creek, white bald, stone Taoist, Wandao who, electric live Taoist. Huguang Wuling (now Hunan Changde) people. And Shi Tao collectively known as "two stone", but also with the Bada Shanren, Hongren, Shi Tao collectively known as the "four early Qing monk." Good swim famous mountains and rivers, after nesting Nanjing Niushoushan secluded monastery, and Cheng Zhengkui contacts closely. Good painting landscape, teacher Wang Meng, likes to use dry pen Cun rub, light ink rendering, with light ocher for the end of the complex layout, dark and lush, mood deep. Good calligraphy, can poetry. Surviving works of "stacked rock map" "lying map" "green Lingtian map" and so on.

Biography

Childhood lost mother, then monks as monks. Law name 髡 residual, the word stone Creek, word Jieqiu, white bald, a wicket, electric live Taoist, stone Taoist. He shaved after the tour around, 43-year-old settled in Nanjing Great Temple, then moved to Niu Shoushan secluded temple, spent the rest of his life. (Cheng Ching-kui, No. Qingxi Taoist) pay good, when said two Creek, art and Shi Tao and said two stone, good painting landscape, but also workers, flowers and plants. Landscape painting is the main inheritance of four traditional, especially effective in Wang Meng, Huang Gongwang. The complexity of the composition of overlap, the realm of deep magnificent, ink deep intoxicated vigorous, and the rocks of the Phi Ma Cun, such as Cun crack performance techniques, and more from the Wang Meng change from the rate of dark muddy rock structure, light calm dark purple color, And near the Huang Gong of the law. He also Yuan Zong five generations of Dong Yuan, Ju Ran, near the Ming Dynasty Dong Qichang, Wen Zhengming, eclectic, Bocaizhongchang. On the basis of learning tradition, attach importance to the nature of the division of law, since that "the essence of painting, will be more history of the book. Mountain climbing source, in order to create meaning." Most of the time spent in the landscape, often stop in the famous mountains and rivers, wandering back and forth. His "secluded temples", "spring stone in the ointment", the subjective feelings, the spirit and the objective scenery, mood, induction, blend, landscape landscape really cut, shape and lyrical into one. The mountains and rivers, in the plain Qiqiu, heavy mountains re-water, opening and closing an orderly, dense and not stopper, structured, secure and full of change, to create a strange deep, fascinating, vividly convey Jiangnan mountains and dense air, vigorous Hua Zi atmosphere. He likes to use the thirsty pen, bald cents, vigorous dignified, dry and not dry, and the rendering of ink with thick and light, making ink blend to form Yu Mau Cang muddy, hearty taste, the screen produces magnificent, vertical and vigorous momentum. Survival masterpiece "Temple map", painting Nanjing Jumbo outside the Temple of ex-gratitude, through the general refinement, the performance of the Jinling attractions majestic, exotic weather. "Cloud creek flow map", "layer of rock overlapping map" and "rain wash mountain map" (both possession of the National Palace Museum), with a dense layout, vigorous pen, Yu Mao landscape, deep realm, showing a stone The distinctive art of the river.

髡 remnant childhood love painting, young abandoned Juzai industry, 20-year-old cut hair monk, wandering mountains. More than 30 years of age when the demise of the Ming Dynasty, he participated in the Nanming He Tengjiao the anti-Qing team, anti-Qing Changde after the failure of refuge. The war of the beacon forced him to avoid the mountains, about his experience in this ancient jungle jungle, Cheng Zhengkui "Stone Brook Biography" set: "Jia Shen between Taoyuan escaped soldiers, enumerating the mountains Chitty, strange trees and strange birds Or in the blood, or to drowning warm feet, or by grass hog column, or shelter from the tiger's tiger's hole, or to avoid the rain, , By the distress where March, "dangerous life of the jungle, although he suffered a lot, but gave him a feeling of nature a strange opportunity to enrich the chest Qiuhe for the subsequent creation of landscape painting has accumulated a wealth of Material, which, in many of his paintings poem, are clearly visible.

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