郎世宁

郎世宁(Giuseppe Castiglione,1688年7月19日—1766年7月16日)是意大利人,原名朱塞佩·伽斯底里奥内,生于米兰,清康熙帝五十四年(1715)作为天主教耶稣会的修道士来中国传教,随即入宫进入如意馆,成为宫廷画家,曾参加圆明园西洋楼的设计工作,历任康、雍、乾三朝,在中国从事绘画达50多年。

  • 中文名郎世宁
  • 外文名Giuseppe Castiglione
  • 别名朱塞佩·伽斯底里奥内
  • 性别
  • 国籍意大利
  • 出生地意大利米兰
  • 出生日期1688年7月19日
  • 逝世日期1766年7月16日
  • 信仰天主教
  • 职业传教士、宫廷画家
  • 毕业院校热那亚耶稣会
  • 主要成就参与圆明园设计
  • 代表作品《瑞谷图》《聚瑞图》、《嵩献英芝图》、《百骏图》、《弘历及后妃像
  • 所属年代清代
简介

清康熙帝五十四年(1715)作为天主教耶稣会的修道士来中国传教,11月获康熙皇帝召见。当时康熙61岁,酷爱艺术与科学,虽然不赞成郎世宁所信仰的宗教,却把他当做一位艺术家看待,甚为礼遇。康熙对他说:“西方的教义违反中国正统思想,只因为传教士懂得数学基本原理,国家才予以聘用。”他又表示诧异道:“你怎能老是关怀你尚未进入的未来世界而漠视现实的世界?其实万物是各得其所的。”旋即派郎世宁为宫廷画师,不给他传教的机会。
宫廷画师每日清晨从北京东华门附近的寓所步行进宫,七时向宫门禁卫报到
 

人物经历

康熙时代
在一所坐落于庭院与御花园之间的画室内作画,直到下午五时为止。这间屋子夏天炎热,冬天严寒,画师必须把一缸缸颜料放在小炭炉上烘着以免凝结。除绘画外他们还得修习汉文与满文。
康熙不喜欢油画,因为年代久了就会变得黑乎乎的,模糊不清。于是郎世宁与其他欧籍画师学习使用胶质颜料在绢上作画的艰难技巧。一笔下去就不能再加第二笔,也不容修改润饰。笔触偶有踌躇,或下笔太重,那幅画就毁了。
宫廷画家都依照宋人郭熙定的原则作画:“山水画中,画山盈丈,树木盈尺,马盈寸,人物盈十分之一寸。”平行线条就是不折不扣地平行下去。在郎世宁看来,中国绘画的远近配合观念彻底错误。他向康熙建议设立一所绘画学校,不获采纳。后来他帮助旗人年希尧出版了一本《视学》。一幅画中山水庭园表现不同的视点与角度不过,在许多中国人看来,用几何学的透视原理来处理空间问题,是虚伪的,非艺术化的。中国画中对物的视点不止一个而是几个,视线的角度不是固定的,所以画家在同一幅画中能对山水或庭园表现不同的视点与角度。郎世宁的作画题材由皇帝指定。人像必须画平板板的正面,不能画阴影,人们以为像上的阴影“好似脸上的斑点瑕疵”。

雍正时代
1722年康熙驾崩,皇四子胤禛即位,即雍正继位,传教士皆逢厄运,唯有在宫廷服务的教士受到特殊礼遇,向中国的皇帝和宫廷画家展示了欧洲明暗画法的魅力。作于雍正元年(1723年)的《聚瑞图》轴、雍正二年(1724年)的《松献英芝图》轴和雍正六年(1728年)的《百骏图》卷等画幅,都显示了郎世宁坚实的写实功底,体现了他早期绘画的特色和面貌,具有浓厚鲜明的欧洲绘画风格和情调。
在雍正年间,郎世宁根据皇帝的旨意,向中国的宫廷画家斑达里沙、八十、孙威凤、王珓、葛曙和永泰等人传授欧洲的油画技艺,从此,纯属欧洲绘画品种的油画,在清朝的宫廷内也开始流行。从清代内务府造办处的档案中得知,在这段时间里,郎世宁创作了不少作品,但是保存至今的只是其中的一部分,大多已经失传了。
雍正二年(1724年),皇帝开始大规模地扩建圆明园,这为郎世宁提供了发挥其创作才能的极好机会。他有较长一段时间居住在这座东方名园内,画了许多装饰殿堂的绘画作品。其中既有欧洲风格的油画,还有在平面上表现纵深立体效果的欧洲焦点透视画。雍正皇帝对于这位洋画师的作品十分赞赏,曾经对一幅人物画的图稿做了如下评语:“此样画得好!”(见清·内务府造办处档案)
在宫廷之外,郎世宁还与雍正皇帝的几个同父异母弟弟关系颇为密切,如怡亲王允祥、果亲王允礼、慎郡王允禧等,为他们作画,并有多件作品流传至今。如《果亲王允礼像》页(北京故宫博物院收藏)、《八骏图》横幅(江西省博物馆收藏)、《马图》册(上海博物馆收藏)等。这些作品和这一现象,一方面说明了郎世宁在宫廷之外频繁的艺术活动,另一方面也说明了在当时的满洲贵族圈子里,玩赏欧洲风味的艺术品是一种流行的时尚。
乾隆时代
雍正在位13年,由乾隆继承大统。乾隆皇帝雅好书画诗文,在位期间重视宫廷绘画的发展,所以从康熙时就入宫的画家郎世宁仍然得到重用,成为宫廷画家中的佼佼者。乾隆登基时年24岁,每日必去画室看郎世宁作画。而且从现存的郎世宁作品上看,弘历在即位前任宝亲王期间,就与郎世宁相识,并有颇多接触,关系甚为密切。即位后的乾隆皇帝多次颁赐钱和实物奖赏宫廷画家,几乎每次都有郎世宁的份儿,与宫廷画家中的元老冷枚唐岱等人待遇相同。后来乾隆皇帝还为郎世宁举行了非常隆重的七十岁寿辰祝寿仪式,赏赐寿礼甚丰,并亲笔书写了祝词。 这时郎世宁已77岁,谙习内廷事务,于是教会高级人士令他向皇帝呈递奏折,此举很危险。某日乾隆照常来看他作画,郎世宁匍匐跪下,说了几句有关“我们的神圣教律”遭受谴责之类的话后,就从怀中掏出一卷用黄绸包裹的耶稣会奏折呈上。当时内廷太监看见郎世宁的大胆举动,都吓得心惊胆战,乾隆却温和地说:“朕并没谴责你们的宗教,朕只是禁止臣民皈依罢了。”从此以后,郎世宁每晨入宫必受搜查,以保证他的确没有怀带什么奏折。
1746年有5名本笃会传教士判处死刑。一日乾隆命郎世宁呈一幅新画的画稿时,他又跪下说:“求陛下对我们忧伤戚戚的宗教开恩。”乾隆面有愠色,不置答复,皇帝的决定是不能更改的。不过郎世宁在宫中也有轻松的时刻。某日乾隆见妃嫔环绕左右时郎世宁颇感局促不安,就问他:“卿看她们之中谁最美?”郎世宁答道:“天子的妃嫔个个都美。”乾隆又追问:“昨天那几个妃嫔中,卿最欣赏谁?”“微臣没看她们,当时正在数宫殿上的瓷瓦。”“瓷瓦有多少块?”郎世宁回答:“30块。”皇上命太监去数,果然不错。此后郎氏就没再受作弄。不过他还是奉命描绘一幅帝后及11名妃嫔在一起的图像,画题是:“心写治平”。这是郎世宁所绘二百幅人物中最著名的一幅。乾隆仅在该画完竣、七十万寿及让位时看过此画三次。随即将画密封于盒内,旨谕有谁窃视此画,必凌迟处死。
郎世宁身为宫廷画师,将乾隆一生中的大事都一一入画——战争的场面,壮观的狩猎,喜庆宴会等。他最好的作品之一为“哈萨克贡马图”,整个绢卷轴中笔触挥洒自如,景色生动逼真。

圆明园设计

乾隆要修建圆明园为夏宫,郎世宁又秉旨设计图则。乾隆命郎世宁起草建筑图样进说:“就采用欧夷的样式吧。”从那幅带有巍峨壮丽巴洛克风格的蓝图中,可以见到建筑上的主要旨趣,大理石圆柱以及意大利式豪华富丽的螺旋形柱头装饰。
不过,屋顶上金碧辉煌的琉璃瓦和用兽形装饰的飞檐,却是中国传统式样。这项工程于1747年至1759年间进行。

康熙、雍正、乾隆三朝的百余年间,清朝中央政权与西北蒙古族各部和维吾尔族回部争战频繁,终于在乾隆中期平定了蒙古族厄鲁特部和回部的叛乱,使得西北的边境有了一个相对安定的和平局面。为此乾隆皇帝在宫廷画家中挑选了以郎世宁为首的中外画家,创作了一系列史诗般的画幅。乾隆十九年(1754年),厄鲁特蒙古族的杜尔伯特部首领车凌、车凌乌巴什、车凌孟克(合称为三车凌)以及厄鲁特蒙古族的辉特部首领阿睦尔撒纳,相继归顺清朝,乾隆皇帝特地在承德的热河行宫避暑山庄举行盛大仪式表示庆贺。时年66岁的郎世宁和另外两位欧洲传教士画家王致诚艾启蒙等一起,赶赴承德,画了一批蒙古族归顺首领的油画人物半身肖像。后来又根据此行搜集的素材,郎世宁和其他中外画家共同完成了两幅大型的历史画:《乾隆万树园赐宴图》横幅(北京故宫博物院收藏)和《乾隆观马术图》横幅(北京故宫博物院收藏)。这两幅画完成之后,张贴在避暑山庄内“卷阿胜境”殿的东西墙上。郎世宁描绘这一主题的绘画作品还有《阿玉锡持矛荡寇图》卷(台北故宫博物院收藏)、《玛瑺斫阵图》卷(有两幅,台北故宫博物院和德国柏林东亚美术馆收藏)、《哈萨克贡马图》卷(法国巴黎吉美博物馆收藏)等。
从乾隆二十七年,(1762年)开始,郎世宁王致诚艾启蒙安德义一起为铜版组画《乾隆平定准部回部战图》册(又称《乾隆平定西域战图》册,北京故宫博物院等很多博物馆中均有收藏)绘制图稿。这套十六幅的图稿后来通过广州粤海关将其送往法国巴黎镌刻成铜版刷印,成为宫廷艺术的珍品之一。铜版画草稿主要是由郎世宁负责,他画了其中的若干幅,还用拉丁文和法文写了具体说明。遗憾的是当这套铜版组画竣工从法国运回中国时,郎世宁已经因病去世了。后来清朝宫廷仿照《乾隆平定准部回部战图》绘刻了一系列表现征战场面的铜版组画,这些画幅是由清宫内供职的中国画家制作的,它们成为中国最早的铜版画作品,其中郎世宁的开创之功不可没。
参与长春园欧洲式样建筑物的设计和施工。郎世宁除了作画外,还于乾隆十二年(公元1747年)参与了圆明园内长春园欧洲式样建筑物(俗称西洋楼)的设计和施工。大概就在郎世宁为修建长春园工作期间,一度担任过掌管皇家园林工作的奉宸苑苑卿的职务,官职为正三品。

绘画成就

郎世宁在宫廷内作画,获得了许多荣耀,不但超过了其他欧洲传教士画家,而且令众多供奉宫廷的中国画家也无法望其项背。但郎世宁在为中国皇帝服务时,其身份仅是一个宫廷画家而已,并无优越条件。他的欧洲伙伴王致诚曾在写往欧洲的信件中说起他们作画的情形:“吾人所居乃一平房,冬寒夏热。视为属民,皇上恩遇之隆,过于其他传教士,但终日供奉内廷,无异囚禁……作画时颇受掣肘,不能随意发挥。”其作画场所及条件都十分艰苦,郎世宁的荣誉来之不易。争议:郎世宁后又被皇帝赏赐官服并升官,与上方存在争议,并且,郎世宁被奖赏的原因为:为圆明园的欧洲艺术区给予设计,以及30年的忠心。

乾隆三十一年六月初十日(公元1766年7月16日),郎世宁在他七十八周岁生日的前三天,病逝于北京,其遗骸安葬在北京城西阜成门外的欧洲传教士墓地内。乾隆皇帝对于郎世宁的去世甚为关切,特地下旨为其料理丧事。郎世宁的墓碑上刻着皇帝旨谕:“乾隆三十一年六月初十日奉旨:西洋人郎世宁自康熙年间入值内廷,颇著勤慎,曾赏给三品顶戴。今患病溘逝,念其行走年久,齿近八旬,著照戴进贤之例,加恩给予侍郎衔,并赏给内务府银叁佰两料理丧事,以示优恤。钦此。”墓碑的正中下方为汉字:“耶稣会士郎公之墓”,左边为拉丁文的墓志。
郎世宁自康熙五十四年(公元1715年)来华,至乾隆三十一年(公元1766年)去世,在中国共度过了五十一年。他为二百多年前中国与欧洲的文化艺术交流作出了重要和积极的贡献。由于郎世宁的一生几乎都是在中国度过的,他的艺术创作也都以中国的人和事为题材,所以郎世宁的生平和艺术,已经成为了中国美术史的一个组成部分来加以叙述和评价了。
郎世宁于1766年去世,年78岁,丧礼备极哀荣,葬于城外数公里御赐的一块土地上,乾隆还亲撰墓志铭,以示对这位高年教士永远怀念。

郎世宁死后被赐予侍郎之衔,在总计536卷的《清史稿》里,对他的全部记述是:“郎世宁,西洋人。康熙中入值,高宗(乾隆)尤赏异。名马,珍禽,异草。辄命图之,无不栩栩如生。设色奇丽,非秉贞等所及。”爆料文学脚本原是悲剧基调
湖南电广传媒节目分公司制作总监吴毅介绍,该剧改编自旅居英国华裔作家苏立群的传记小说《郎世宁传》。与原作相比,电视剧最大的不同是改变了总体风格。小说用第一人称描写了郎世宁在清宫不得不改变自己的艺术风格,来迎合帝王的趣味和需要。他的内心痛苦惶惑,是一个悲剧人物。
吴毅说,一旦进入电视剧改编,就发现用悲剧风格来编剧本很困难。一方面电视剧首先是一种大众的文化娱乐品,另一方面影视作品无法反复阅读、咀嚼。经过研究,最终选取以一个外国人的独特视角,来审视康、雍、乾盛世如何盛极而衰,以及中西文化在交融中无法避免的激烈碰撞。风格最终定位为亦正亦邪的轻喜剧,和清宫正剧、和“戏说”都有所不同。
争议1 大山像不像郎世宁
正方:外貌不是主要因素
之前有媒体报道该剧选角经历了一些困难,最终敲定了与郎世宁有几分相似的大山。
“外貌的考虑不是主要因素。主角人选最初有两个,一个是大山,另一位是美国演员。”吴毅说,最终选择大山最主要是他身上的喜剧色彩和电视剧的基调契合,当然也考虑到他在中国的知名度。

吴毅说,虽然是首次“触电”,但大山非常投入,特别是有一场郎世宁被打板子的戏,打的就是大山本人。
反方:人物外貌气质都不对
“我对大山演郎世宁有意见,外貌、气质都不对。”目前国内研究宫廷美术以及郎世宁最权威的专家、故宫博物院研究员聂崇正说,虽然没有任何郎世宁的画像,但郎世宁是意大利人,头发应该是黑色的,和作为加拿大人的大山外形区别很大。
“凭着多年的研究,我的印象中的郎世宁应该是个身材偏瘦、个性平和的人。因为他是个传教士,需要有亲和力。”聂崇正说。
争议2 郎世宁可曾有养女养子
正方:为了丰富人物血肉
电视剧里,郎世宁不仅收养了小叫花小弟,后来还和舒畅扮演的养女有一种若有若无的情感。吴毅说,这两个人物都是虚构的,是为了让郎世宁这个人物更有血肉、更立体。
“我们在完成的时候,将他和养女之间的那段感情大大地削弱了。”吴毅说。
反方:没有任何关于亲友的记载
聂崇正说,没有任何资料显示郎世宁的交友、爱好的记载。史料记载,郎世宁住在现王府井东堂,即王府井天主堂,每天穿过东华门上班。
不过,故宫档案馆的相关资料曾记载了这样一件趣事:夏天到了,郎世宁的画室很热,便上书请求在画室外搭个凉棚。不久后便被批准实施。
争议3 剧中画作是否有历史根据

正方:《隔代传位图》有历史依据
片尾出现了好几幅郎世宁代表作,有《嵩献英芝图》、《八骏图》等;片中也出现了很多作品,如《隔代传位图》和为十四阿哥画的《僭越像》。剧中,康熙带孙子弘历射杀了一只大熊,四阿哥杀了一只老虎。康熙让郎世宁将两件事画在一幅图上。实际上,这是一幅隔代传位图。康熙想传位给四阿哥,也希望四阿哥传位给弘历。吴毅说,像《隔代传位图》、《僭越像》是有历史根据的。
反方:现存没有雍正时期画像

“康熙末年,27岁的郎世宁来到中国;但现存他最早的画是雍正二年,并没有雍正时期的作品,大量的作品产生在在乾隆时期”。聂崇正说,历史上并没有《隔代传位图》、《僭越像》这一提法。
经查阅,记者发现郎世宁曾画过《弘历击熊图》、《弘历刺虎图》,电视剧中的《隔代传位图》是将后者的主角“换”成雍正,并将两画合一;而《僭越像》中的人物也不是十四阿哥,而是乾隆,作品名为《乾隆皇帝大阅图》。

绘画贡献

聂崇正认为,虽然郎世宁的绘画可谓中西合璧,实际上主要的画法还是西方的,只是根据中国人的审美习惯在光线利用上进行了调整。欧洲的肖像画,比如荷兰伦勃朗,经常将人物置于侧光环境中,人脸就会半明半暗,但这在当时,中国人是接受不了的,认为是“阴阳脸”,被画脏了脸。郎世宁就借鉴中国人像写真,让人脸尽量接受正面光,避免侧面光,同时在人物的鼻翼两侧、鼻子、脖子下,稍稍加重,这样五官就更清晰、立体。
郎世宁对于透视法在中国的引进也起了很大作用。雍正时期的学者、大名鼎鼎的总督年羹尧的哥哥年希尧写过中国最早介绍透视法的著作《视学》,文中就曾提到该书是和朗学士多次交谈、探讨才写成。里面附有很多介绍欧洲透视法的木刻图。
在还没有照相机的年代,郎世宁还用他的画笔记录了很多重要人物和重要事件,如乾隆皇帝在承德避暑山庄接见归顺的少数民族头领的场景。
郎世宁和西洋楼
对美术不熟悉的人可能不太熟悉郎世宁,但他参与设计的圆明园西洋楼可谓无人不知。聂崇正认为,曾被英法联军掠走,前几年被购回的大水法12生肖部分兽头,有些极可能出自郎世宁之手。虽然没有任何资料可以证明这一点,但很多地方都明显看到“郎式风格”。
郎世宁作品市场
聂崇正介绍,现存郎世宁的作品分为两种,一种是有明款的,画上题有“臣”字,都是为皇帝画的,大概有六七十幅;另外还有一部分作品虽然没有他的题款,但西洋风格很浓,也能达到郎世宁绘画水平。两者加起来可以过百。
郎世宁的作品现主要存于故宫博物院和台北故宫博物院,上海博物馆、江西省博物馆、镇江市博物馆、沈阳故宫、天津艺术博物馆也藏有一两幅。美国克里夫兰博物馆、德国柏林的东亚美术馆也藏有个别作品。
聂崇正此前曾为马晋收藏的《百骏图》稿本进行鉴定,该作品在皇城艺术馆展出、并将于2006年6月15日-17日上拍北京鸿正春季书画拍卖会。聂崇正介绍,美国大都会博物馆也藏有同样一件稿本。在古代,重要作品都要先画图稿经皇帝过目才能正式创作,所以档案里常有“成稿预览”的记载。[6]
聂崇正说,郎世宁的作品在艺术品市场上的价格很不规律,但总的来说,升值的空间很大,因为郎世宁的作品流失在民间和海外的很少。几年前,《苹野鸣秋》、《秋林群鹿》两幅作品在海外拍出了很好价格,自己曾为之鉴定。法国也拍过一幅半身妃子像,但因为没有明款,成交价很低。
郎世宁画作拍卖过亿人民币:
2008年,在北京中嘉国际拍卖有限公司秋季拍卖会上,清代乾隆年间郎世宁绘“雍正十二月圆明园行乐图”十二块,以1.44亿元(不含佣金)勇夺全场头筹。

学术评价

新体画郎世宁一生的业绩来看,他的主要贡献在于大胆探索西画中用的新路,熔中西画法为一炉,创造了一种前所未有的新画法、新格体,堪称郎世宁新体画。郎世宁来到中国后仔细研习了中国画的绘画技巧,他画的中国画具有坚实的写实功力,流畅地道的墨线,一丝不苟的层层晕染,外加无法效仿的颜色运用,中西合璧,焕然一新。以其独创的新画体博得了皇帝的赏识和信任。从现存的郎世宁亲笔画迹来看,它既有欧洲油画如实反映现实的艺术概括,又有中国传统绘画之笔墨趣味,确有较高的艺术感染力。 在1724年所绘为雍正祝寿的《禽献英芝图》中,郎世宁充分展示了他的西画功底。此图造型准确、精细,以素描和明暗效果使图中物象具有比较强烈的凹凸立体感。弯曲盘旋的松树枝叶掩映,树皮斑驳,居中挺立的白鹰则极为突出,羽毛的质感很强,呼之欲出。中国画并不仅是将山水动植物当作自然存在之物,而是要赋予所绘对象某种喻意。图中所绘苍松、雄鹰、灵芝、山石、流水,在中国文化中多寓意强健、长寿和吉祥。在色彩上,鹰白、松绿、芝棕红、土坡绛色和藤萝花粉紫,也是不同于中国传统的郎世宁风格的鲜明、绚丽和浓重。 郎世宁以严谨扎实的写实功底、注重明暗效果的绘画特色,以及作品整体上浓厚的欧洲绘画风格和情调,确立了自己在官廷画师中的地位。
铜版画铜版画是欧洲版画的一个品种,距今已经有近六百年的历史,因其所用的底版以金属材料铜为主,故称之为铜版画。铜版画的制作要求精致细腻,故耗费人力物力较多,在欧洲也被视为名贵艺术品。铜版画在康熙年间传入中国。而乾隆时由郎世宁为主创作的《平定准部回部.钱图》则是铜版画的佳作。此后,清宫廷仿照《平定准部回部战图》又绘制了一系列表现征战场面的铜版画。这些画幅是根据郎世宁等人所传授的铜版画技法而制作的,可以视为中国最早的铜版画作品。清代第一套战图《平定准部回部战图》,共十六幅,是郎世宁奉命与西洋传教士画家王臻诚、艾启蒙、安得意等起稿共同完成的。它描绘了清兵平定西北战事的主要战线及其始末,是一套有关战史的组画。根据郎世宁的建议将图稿分批寄往法国巴黎,聘请著名雕刻家李巴刻成铜版画,压印200份,寄回内廷。这套铜版组画具有极其浓厚的西洋风味,成为中外博物馆的珍藏品。
历史价值以惊人的艺术表达能力,创造了大量具有高度的历史价值和艺术价值的作品,也使清代宫廷纪实绘画的数量与水平远超前代。这些绘画以精彩的笔墨记录了中华帝国最辉煌的历史,栩栩如生地表现了盛世的恢宏光荣。 据文献记载,郎世宁的画法被称作“线画法”,代表当时宫廷的主流画派。郎世宁来到中国以后,画有大量作品,存世的有近百幅。 虽然郎世宁的绘画并不能代表那时欧洲绘画的最高水平,但是他擅于采纳中国绘画技巧而又保持西方艺术的基本特点,融中国工笔绘法和西洋画三维要领为一体,从而形成了自己独有的风格,创作了新的画风。在一定程度上代表了西方文化和中国文化的汇通。郎世宁所作的油画人物肖像画,在造型上都相当严谨,注重解剖结构和立体感的表达,但是在光线的运用上则与欧洲画法有所区别。欧洲画家喜欢表现人物脸部在特定的光线照射下分明的凹凸感,而传统的中国写真技艺,则要求被画者是处在不受光线变化常态下的相貌。从清宫的肖像上可以看到,欧洲画家来到中国后,为适应中国观者的欣赏习惯,而在画风上作了微妙调整。 郎世宁新体画中最受乾隆喜爱的则是“御容”肖像画。所谓“御容”肖像画不仅包括皇帝正襟危坐的全身或半身的肖像画,也包括各种行动中的皇帝像。
西洋绘画技巧焦点透视画是产生于欧洲的一个画种,它运用几何学、物理学、光学等,为的是在平面的画幅上更真实地表现出自然界立体状貌。这种与中国传统技法迥异的绘画方法也随欧洲传教士进入了清朝内廷,郎世宁对于这一绘画方法的传播起了极为主要的作用。雍正年间学者年希尧在郎世宁的帮助下,出版了首次在中国介绍西画焦点透视法的专著《视学》,序言中特别说明曾受益于翰林院画院的“郎学士”。
艺术贡献1724年,郎世宁还曾参加过圆明园、长春园西洋风格建筑物的设计与施工,为装饰殿堂楼阁绘制了大量图画,有西洋油画,也有在平面上表现深远效果的焦点透视画(线画法)。海宴堂前铜铸的十二生肖动物头像,也应有他的功劳,为此郎世宁一度担任了奉哀苑卿(正三品)的官职。郎世宁的艺术风格影响深远,特别是雍正和乾降时期的官窑粉彩瓷器上的构图布局、绘画主题,多得于郎氏绘画。郎世宁代表了当时的宫廷艺术品位。

English is introduced

Giuseppe Castiglione (Giuseppe Castiglione, July 19, 1688 - July 16, 1766) is an Italian, formerly known as Giuseppe Gaspinal, born in Milan, the Qing emperor Kangxi fifty-four years (1715) as Catholic Jesuit missionaries to China to teach, then enter the palace into the Ruyi Museum, a court painter, has participated in the Yuanmingyuan Western House design work, Kang, Yong, dry three dynasties, engaged in painting in China for 50 years.

Qing emperor Kangxi fifty-four years (1715) as a Catholic Jesuit monks to China missionary, in November by Emperor Kangxi summoned. Kangxi was 61 years old, love of art and science, although not in favor of Castiglione religion, but he regarded as an artist, very courteous. Kangxi said to him: "The Western doctrine violates Chinese orthodoxy only because the missionaries understand the basic principles of mathematics, the state only to be employed." He also expressed surprise: "How can you always care about the future you have not yet entered the world and ignore The real world? In fact, all things are their own. "Immediately sent Lang Shining for the court painter, do not give him the opportunity to preach.
Palace painter every morning from Beijing Donghua Men's apartment near the house to wal

People experience

Kangxi times
In a painting room, situated between the courtyard and the Imperial Garden, until 5 pm. This room is hot in summer, cold in winter, the painter must put a cylinder of paint on a small charcoal stove baking to avoid condensation. In addition to painting they have to practice Chinese and Manchu.
Kangxi does not like oil painting, because the age will become dark, blurred. So Castiglione and other European painters to learn the use of colloidal paint in the silk painting difficult skills. A pen can not add a second pen, nor modify the retouching. Sometimes the brush strokes are hesitant, or the pen is too heavy, and the painting is destroyed.
The court painter in accordance with the principles of the Song Dynasty Guo Xixing painting: "landscape painting, painting Shan Ying Zhang, trees Ying Chi, Ma Ying-inch, characters one-inch inch." Parallel lines is parallel to the letter down. In Castiglione's view, the concept of distance between Chinese and foreign painting completely wrong. He proposed to Kangxi to set up a painting school, not be adopted. Later, he helped banner year Xi Yao published a "inspection". A landscape painting garden landscape performance different point of view and perspective However, in the eyes of many Chinese people, with the perspective of geometry to deal with the problem of space, is hypocritical, non-artistic. Chinese painting in the point of view of more than one but a few, line of sight angle is not fixed, so the artist in the same painting can landscape or garden performance different point of view and angle. Castiglione's painting theme by the emperor designated. Portrait must be painted flat plate front, can not draw shadows, people think that the shadow on the "like the spot blemishes."

Yongzheng era
In 1722 Kangxi Jiabeng, Emperor four son Yin zhen ascended the throne, namely the Yongzheng throne, the missionaries are bad luck, only in the court service priest received special courtesies to the Chinese emperors and court painters show European charm painting and calligraphy . For the first year of the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723), the axis of the poly-ritu was illustrated by the axis of the "Songxian Yingzhi" in the Yongzheng two years (1724) and the "Baijun figure" of the Yongzheng six years (1728) , Have shown Lang Shining a solid foundation of realism, reflecting his early paintings of the characteristics and outlook, with a strong distinctive European painting style and mood.
During the reign of Emperor Yongzheng, in accordance with the will of the emperor, Castiglione taught European painting techniques to the Chinese painters of the court, such as Bodarisha, 80, Sun Weifeng, Wang, Ge and Yongtai. From then on, purely European paintings, Qing Dynasty palace also began to pop. From the archives of the Office of the Imperial Household Office in the Qing Dynasty that, during this time, Castiglione created many works, but preserved so far is only one part, most have been lost.
Yongzheng two years (1724), the emperor began a large-scale expansion of the Yuanmingyuan, which Castiglione provided an excellent opportunity to play to their creative talents. He has a longer period of time living in this famous Oriental Park, painted a number of decorative hall paintings. Which both European-style paintings, as well as in-depth performance on the plane three-dimensional perspective of the European perspective. Yongzheng Emperor for the works of the foreign painter is very appreciated, once a picture of the manuscript made the following comments: "This is a good painting!" (See the Qing government to create the Office of the file)
In the court, the Lang Shining also with the Emperor Yongzheng's half-brother relationship is quite close, such as Yi Wang Yunxiang, fruit Prince Yunli, Shen Jun Wang Yunxi, for their painting, and a number of works spread so far . Such as the "Prince Yunli like" page (Beijing Palace Museum collection), "Eight Chun map" banner (Jiangxi Provincial Museum), "Matou" (Shanghai Museum collection). These works and this phenomenon, on the one hand that Lang Shining outside the frequent art of the court activities, on the other hand also shows that at the time of the Manchu aristocratic circles, enjoy European-style works of art is a popular fashion.
Qianlong era
Yongzheng reigned for 13 years, by the Qianlong inheritance. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, he paid great attention to the development of the palace painting, so the painter Lang Shining from the reign of Emperor Kangxi was reused and became the outstanding painter of the court. Qianlong ascended the throne at the age of 24, will go to the studio every day to see Lang Shining painting. And from the existing works of Castiglione see, Hong Li in the throne before any Po Prince, met with Lang Shining, and a lot of contact, the relationship is very close. After the emperor ascended the throne after the emperor repeatedly awarded money and in-kind award palace painter, almost every time has Castiglione's sake, and the court painter in the old cold, Tang Dai et al. Later Emperor Qianlong also held a very solemn birthday ceremony for the seventy-year-old birthday, reward Shou Li Feng, and handwritten a congratulatory message. At this time Castiglione was 77 years old, familiar with the affairs of the inner court, so the church senior who made his memorial to the emperor, this is very dangerous. One day, as usual, Emperor Qianlong looked at his paintings, Castiglione prostrate kneel down, said a few words about the "sacred law of our condemnation of the kind of words, from the arms and took out a roll wrapped in yellow silk Jesuit memorial on. At that time, the inner court eunuchs to see the courageous actions of Castiglione, are scared frightened, Qianlong but gently said: "I did not condemn your religion, I just ban subjects conversion." Since then, Castiglione every morning into the palace will be subject to search, To ensure that he did not harbor any memorial.
In 1746 five Benedictine missionaries were sentenced to death. On the first day of Emperor Qianlong's reign, when he was presented with a new painting, he knelt down and said, "Your Majesty is pleased with the sadness of our religion." Emperor Qianlong's decision was irrevocable. But Castiglione in the palace also has a relaxing moment. One day, see the concubine around Qianlong Shi Lang Shi Ning quite uncomfortable, asked him: "Qing see them among the most beautiful?" Shi-Ning replied: "The emperor's concubines are all beautiful." Qianlong asked: "Yesterday that a few "" Wei Chen did not see them, when the number of porcelain tile in the palace. "" How many pieces of porcelain tile? "Castiglione replied:" 30. "Emperor ordered eunuchs to a few, really Yes. Since then no longer make fun of Lang. But he was ordered to depict a Queen and 11 concubines with the image, the picture is: "heart write Zhiping." This is one of the most famous of the 200 figures painted by Castiglione. Qianlong only finished in the painting, seventy thousand life and let the time to read this painting three times. Then the picture will be sealed in the box, intended to enlighten anyone who stole the painting, will be executed later.
Lang Shi-ning as a court painter, Qianlong's life will be one by one into the painting - the scene of the war, spectacular hunting, festive banquet. One of his best works is "Kazak Gomatu", the whole scroll in the scroll of the brush freely, the scenery vivid.

Painting achievements

Nie Chongzheng that, although the painting can be described as Castiglione Chinese and Western, in fact, the main painting or the West, but according to the Chinese aesthetic habits in the use of light on the adjustment. European portraits, such as Rembrandt of the Netherlands, often put the characters in the side light environment, the face will be half-dark, but at the time, the Chinese people can not accept that "Yin and Yang face" Dirty face painted. Castiglione draw on Chinese portrait, let the human face as far as possible to accept the positive light, to avoid side light, while the characters on both sides of the nose, nose, neck, slightly heavier, so facial features clearer, three-dimensional.
Lang Shining for the introduction of perspective in China also played a significant role. Yongzheng scholars, the famous governor of Nian Gengyao's brother Xi Yao wrote China's earliest introduction perspective works "inspection", the text has mentioned that the book is and Long Bachelor several times to talk to explore only written. Which is accompanied by a lot of introduction of the European perspective of the woodcut diagram.
In the absence of the camera's age, Castiglione has also used his brush to record a number of important people and important events, such as Emperor Qianlong in Chengde Mountain Resort met with the submission of the minority leader of the scene.
Lang Shining and Western floor
People who are not familiar with the art may not be familiar with Castiglione, but he participated in the design of the Yuanmingyuan Western House can be described as no one does not know. Nie Chongzheng that has been taken away by the British and French coalition forces, a few years ago to be purchased back to the water of the Lunar New Year 12 part of the beast head, some very likely from the hands of Castiglione. Although there is no information to prove this point, but many places are clearly seen "Lang style."
Lang Shining works market
Nie Chongzheng introduction, the existing Castiglione's works are divided into two kinds, there is a Ming paragraph, painting on the title of "minister", are painted for the emperor, about sixty or seventy; in addition to some works, although not His title, but the Western style is very strong, but also to achieve the level of painting Lang Shining. The two can add up to a hundred.
His works are mainly stored in the Palace Museum and Taipei Palace Museum, the Shanghai Museum, Museum of Jiangxi Province, Zhenjiang City Museum, Shenyang Palace Museum, Tianjin Art Museum also has one or two. The Cleveland Museum of Art in the United States and the East Asian Art Museum in Berlin, Germany, also hold individual works.
Nie Chongzheng had previously Ma Jin collection of "100 Chun" manuscript identification, the works in the Imperial City Museum of Art exhibition, and will be held June 15, 2006 - 17 on the auction Beijing Hongzheng spring auction . Nie Chongzheng introduction, the United States Metropolitan Museum also holds the same manuscript. In ancient times, important works have to be drafted by the emperor to look at the official creation, so the file often "into a preview" records. [6]
Nie Chongzheng said that the works of Mr. Castiglione in the art market prices are very irregular, but in general, the appreciation of the space is very large, because the Castiglione works lost in the civil and overseas rarely. A few years ago, "Ping Ming", "Qiu Lin Qun" two works in overseas to shoot a very good price, he has been identified. France also filmed a bust of a concubine, but because there is no money, the transaction price is very low.
Lang Shining painting auction over billions of RMB:
In 2008, at the autumn auction of Beijing Zhongjia International Auction Co., Ltd., the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong painted 12 pieces of "Yongzheng December Yuanmingyuan", with 144 million yuan (excluding commission) won the first prize.

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