冷枚

冷枚(1669年-1742年)清代宫廷画家字吉臣,号金门画史,山东胶州人,焦秉贞弟子,善画人物、界画,尤精仕女,画法得力西画写生,工中带写,点缀屋宇益精细如界画,笔墨洁净,赋色韶秀,典丽妍雅,颇得师传。自康熙到乾隆末,糅合中西技法之画风在画院内颇为盛行,而且影响到民间艺术,枚为此技法之积极推行者。

  • 中文名冷枚
  • 性别
  • 祖籍山东
  • 出生地山东胶州
  • 出生日期1669年
  • 逝世日期1742年
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《万寿图》《避暑山庄图》《东阁观梅图》、《桐阴刺绣图》、《罗汉册》、《梧桐双兔图》
  • 所属年代清代
  • 吉臣
  • 金门画史
人物简介

冷枚在胶州的一世祖即元末的著名画家冷超岩,因为他为元顺帝画肖像有功,顺帝赏给其胶州黄埠岭土地若干顷,遂居焉。其祖上原居之黄埠岭在胶州城西,离城约三里许,在冷枚之前的几代已迁居胶州城之分水岭街(今青岛市胶州中心医院驻地)。
冷枚大约于康熙三十五年(1696)前由其师焦秉贞引荐入宫,时“秉贞奉敕绘《耕织图》,枚复助之”,此图由两人分别绘制而成,共46幅,表现民间的“村落风景,田家作苦,曲尽其致,深契圣衷”。由于冷枚一生大部分时间生活在内廷,所以外间对他的情况知之甚少。冷枚进入内廷后,在康熙晚年的绘画创作最有名的是《万寿图》和《避暑山庄图》等。
《增修胶志》载:冷枚“工丹青,妙设色,画人物尤为一时冠”。曾作“《桐叶封弟图》尤著名于时,有数本,盖因仁皇帝友爱庄亲王而作”。据清人张庚《国朝画征录》载,清代早期出自山东的四大画家“唯秉贞与枚及胶州人法若真、高凤翰四人而已”。冷枚天资聪颖,加上勤奋好学,其扎实的绘画功力,很快得到皇上的赏识,在康熙五十年(1711)左右,他已成为内廷画院的领班人物。这可从他为首的14位著名宫廷画家合作的康熙六旬《万寿图》的卷末署名看出:“康熙五十六年春正月臣冷枚……徐名世奉敕恭画。”《万寿图》始作于康熙五十二年(1713),初由宋骏业主持。成稿后,康熙又命王原祁总裁。两年后王病逝,全部绘事由冷枚领衔。从卷上题款可知此图是记录康熙“六旬万寿”的庆祝场面,“依辇路经行之处,绘为图画”,把从神武门内起经西直门至长春园的长达数十里的庆祝场面如实地记录下来,从现场速写到绘制完成,其工程是何等的浩大与艰巨。

艺术成就

冷枚在绘画技巧上的突出表现,受到康熙的赏识。但到了雍正时期却受到了冷落,被逐出宫廷画院,雍正在位的十三年中,清宫档案中没有了冷枚的名字。冷枚离开宫廷,成为一名在野的画家。此时冷枚多寄居于宝亲王弘句府中,曾为宝亲王绘制一幅《指挥如意天花落》,该画上方正中位置盖有“奉恩辅国公之章”,即可佐证他的这种经历。冷枚在此期间创作的《农家故事册》、《得果图》、《成衣图》、《拥炉图》、《采桑图》、《纸鸢图》等作品,在这些画中没有了“臣”字款,而钦有“金门画史”朱文印,这是他在宫外作画时的专用印章。有关专家分析,欧洲传教士画家带来的西方绘画技法,中西合璧的画风,在传统画风之外,虽然别具风格,但也是冷枚被逐出画院的真正原因。雍正不喜欢华人作画掺以西洋画法,而冷枚与其师焦秉贞等人正是吸收了西方绘画技法的代表人物。与冷枚同时被逐出画院的还有徐名世等画家,同时在画院供职的郎世宁的徒弟查什巴、傅弘、王文志等也被遣回本旗。

乾隆是一位慧眼识才的帝王。在他登上宝座之前,已经注意到冷枚的作品了。所以在他当权后,清宫造办处活计档中又突然出现了冷枚的名字,而且屡见不鲜,多达数十条。最早的一条是:“乾隆元年(1736)正月初九日,内大臣海望奉上谕将画画人冷枚传来,照慈宁宫画画人赏给钱粮。”所食钱粮每月银11两。这在当时画画人中是最高的(乾隆朝画院画家待遇:一等11两,二等9两,三等7两,不入等画画人6两以下。乾隆初期1两银可买一石米)。

乾隆交给冷枚的第一个任务就是命他去画圆明园殿宇,每处画图一张,绘总图一张(清《造办处清档》)。这样,整整一年多的时间,冷枚均在圆明园从事建筑、园林的写生与创作。他不顾年老体衰,振作精神,画了《圆明园四十景》等巨幅作品。

乾隆对冷枚的生活照顾非常周到,据清宫《造办处清档》记载:乾隆元年(1736)正月十二日“因冷枚家口甚众,钱粮不足度用”,每月再给饭银3两。这样,冷枚所食钱粮实际上多至14两。由于冷枚年迈,乾隆又安排他的儿子冷鉴协助冷枚画画。同年二月二十三日乾隆又准给冷鉴三等钱粮及衣服银两;第二年四月十一日,乾隆又赏冷枚官房数间居住;乾隆六年(1741)正月赏冷枚宝蓝两则、大缎两匹;至七年(1742)七月二十三日,乾隆又赏给冷枚银50两。这些都说明乾隆对冷枚非常器重,给他的生活待遇也是非常优厚的。

乾隆不仅对冷枚在生活上关心,在工作上也是尽量照顾,让他不至于太劳累,又能充分发挥其长处。有时只让冷枚起画稿,然后让冷枚的儿子或徒弟去完成。有时让冷枚只画重要部位,其余让别人代画。如乾隆四年(1739年)正月初七日“传旨冷枚现画《圣明帝王图》、《养正图》上,面像着冷枚画,其余另着人画……嗣后冷枚所画之画,面像俱着伊画,其余着人画,钦此”。这是冷枚晚年在画院活动的一般情况。

人物生平

冷枚晚年在造办处的美术活动,到乾隆七年(1742)似告完结。如,乾隆六年(1741年)十二月十六日传旨,“着冷枚画画一张,先起稿呈览,准时再画,年节要得。钦此”。说明冷枚在乾隆六年(1741年)年底还在受命创作,而且指定要在年节前完成。到乾隆七年(1742年)有关档案中就不再出现“传旨着冷枚画画”的句子了。

宫廷画家通常作画都要经过以下几道程序:皇帝出题目,画家画出样稿呈览,经过皇帝同意,然后才能再画。出于对冷枚的信任与偏爱,乾隆有时不再出题目,而是让冷枚愿意画什么就画什么,这样画家发挥的自由度就大一些。如乾隆元年(1736年)三月初七日,太监毛团传旨“着将画绢给冷枚八块,令伊随意画画。钦此”。冷枚对皇上的信任与特殊关照感恩戴德,接到八块画绢后,很快画成了《惜花春早起》、《爱月夜眠迟》、《相马图》、《万寿图》、《雪艳图》、《海天旭日》等八件,由沈源分五次进呈乾隆。

冷枚晚年在乾隆初期造办处内创作的作品与画稿约有五六十件(套)以上,其题材非常广泛,有人物、佛道、鸟兽、马龙、建筑园林、宫廷器皿、历史故事等等。冷枚可谓是一个全能画家,否则在康熙时期不会成为领衔画家,到乾隆时也不会受到如此特殊的恩遇和重视。冷枚在宫廷近半个世纪的绘画活动中,由于才能突出,成绩卓著,颇受最高统治者的器重和赏识,所以清人说冷枚“以画供奉内廷最久”。他既是一位多产画家,又是一位长寿画家,在我国宫廷画院史上占有重要地位。因此,清代绘画评论家总把冷枚焦秉贞、沈喻三人并提,视为康熙晚期三个著名的宫廷画家。冷枚供奉画院经历了康、雍、乾三代皇帝,且为圆明园奉旨作画多年,可惜的是,冷枚当年在圆明园的诸多精心遗作,都随着英法联军的抢掠与焚烧,在一场空前洗劫中化为灰烬了!

传世作品

曾画《东阁观梅图》、《桐阴刺绣图》、《罗汉册》、《梧桐双兔图》、《圆明园四十景图》,有吴带当风、曹衣出水之妙。《避暑山庄图》是他的代表作之一。康熙四十二年(1703)仿仇英《汉宫春晓图》,雍正三年(1725)作《九思图》轴,山东省博物馆还藏有他另一幅《麻姑献寿图》。这幅《献寿图》,应作于雍正九年(1731)正月。

《避暑山庄图》作于康熙五十二年(1713年)以前。此图描绘了河北承德避暑山庄以热河离宫后苑30景为主题的平原与湖区的全貌。此轴巨幅风景画画心长2.548米,宽1.725米。冷枚在这仅有4平方米多一点的细绢上,将宽旷开阔的山庄后苑和远山列岫全部纳入画幅中。据知,避暑山庄占地面积约560万平方米,是我国罕见的大型园林,冷枚不仅把园林全景压缩进画幅中,而且把园外环山庄之群山的雄姿风貌也尽情地表现了出来,把人的视线扩展到百千里之外的无限的空间中去。显示出他具有高度的概括能力和精湛的艺术表现技巧。此图设色淡雅,格调明快,富有装饰趣味,笔法多变,灵秀和谐,不仅是一幅具有高度艺术造诣的风景画,同时又是一幅避暑山庄的建筑图样。避暑山庄后经多次改建,原貌变化很大,但他为后人留下了这幅清代早期较原始的皇家园林图样,是极为珍贵的。

作品大多流失海外,国内山东博物馆存其画作——《麻姑献寿图》。《春江玉兰》曾被国民政府收藏,后散落民间,现被某高官收藏。
 

English is introduced

Leng mei(1669 - 1742) Qing court painter Ji Chen, Jinmen painting history, Shandong Jiaozhou, Jiao Bingzhen disciples, good painting figures, circles painting, especially fine ladies, painting effective Western painting, , Dotted the house as fine as the border painting, ink clean, Fu color Shao show, the Code Lai Yan Ya, quite a division. Since the Kangxi to the Qianlong end, blend of Chinese and Western techniques of painting style in the painting is quite popular, but also affect the folk art, pieces for the active promotion of this technique.

Biography

Cold in Jiaozhou in the first generation of the famous painter cold rock, because he was a portrait of Emperor Shun Shun active merit, along with the emperor to give him a number of Jiaozhou Huangbu Ling land, then home Yan. Its ancestors Huangpu Ling in the west of Jiaozhou City, about three years from the city, before the cold pieces of several generations have moved to Jiaozhou City, the watershed Street (now Qingdao Jiaozhou Central Hospital resident).
Cold pieces of about Kangxi thirty-five years (1696) before the introduction of his division Jiao Bingzhen into the palace, "Bing Cheng Feng Chi painting" farming weaving map ", pieces of assistance", this figure by two drawn, A total of 46, the performance of the folk "village scenery, Tian Jia Zuoku, the best of its music, Shen Qi deep heart." As the cold pieces of life most of the time living in the court, so outside the little is known about his situation. Cold pieces into the inner court, in the Kangxi later years of painting is the most famous "Wanshou map" and "summer resort map" and so on.
"Addendum Chi" contains: cold pieces of "Gong Danqing, wonderful color, painting characters, especially the moment crown." Once for "" Tong Ye Feng brother map "especially famous at the time, there are several of this, because the king of friendship and love for the king. According to the Qing Dynasty Zhang Geng, "the Korean painting collection" set, the early Qing Dynasty, four painters from Shandong, "Wei-ching and the only gold and Jiaozhou law if the true man, Gao Fenghan four only." In the Kangxi fifty years (1711) or so, he has become a forerunner of the Court of painting in the court.... This can be from his famous 14 leading palace painter cooperation Kangxi sixty "Wanshou map" at the end of the volume to see: "Kangxi fifty-six years of spring lunar month cold pieces ...... Xu Ming Shi Feng Zhi Gong painting." "Wanshou map" Beginning in fifty-two years of Kangxi (1713), the beginning of Song Chun industry presided over. After the manuscript, Kangxi also ordered Wang Yuanqi president. Wang died two years later, all painted things led by the cold pieces. From the volume on the title we can see that this figure is recorded Kangxi "sixty thousand years of life" celebration scene, "according to chariot road line, painting for the picture", from the Shenwu Men from Xizhimen to Changchun Park up to dozens In the celebration scene truthfully recorded, from the scene to complete the sketch to write, the project is how vast and arduous.

Artistic achievement

Cold pieces in the painting on the outstanding performance skills, by Kangxi appreciated. But in the Yongzheng period has been neglected, was expelled from the court, the Yongzheng reign of thirteen years, the Qing archives in the name of the cold. Lengmei left the court and became a painter in the field. At this point the cold pieces of multi-dwelling in the Prince of Hong Kong sentence in the house, had to draw a Prince of Prince, "command wishful ceiling," the top position of the painting covered with "Feng Enguo Gongzhang chapter", to support his This experience. During this period, the works such as "Farmhouse Storybook", "Gouguo Tu", "Garment Picture", "Ou Lu Tu", "Cai Sang Tu" and "Paper Kite" "And the" Jinmen painting history "Zhu Wenyin, this is his special painting in the palace when the seal. The expert analysis, the European missionary painter to bring Western painting techniques, Chinese and Western style, in the traditional style, although the style, but also the cold pieces were expelled from the real reason. Yongzheng did not like Chinese painting mixed with Western painting, and cold pieces and their teacher Jiao Bingzhen, who is absorbed in the Western painting techniques representative. At the same time, Xu Shiming, a painter who was also expelled from the academy, was also sent back to his bachelor.

Qianlong was an eminent emperor. Before he ascended the throne, he had noticed the works of Leng Mei. So after he was in power, the Office of the Qing Dynasty to create a living file in the file suddenly appeared in the name of cold gold, but not uncommon, as many as dozens. The earliest one is: "the first year of Qianlong (1736) the first month on the 9th, the Minister of the sea will be served on the encyclical will be painted cold man came, according to the Cining Palace painting reward to the money and grain. 11 two. This is the highest in the painting of the people (the Qianlong dynasty painting painter treatment: first-class 11 two, two 9 two, three two 7, not into the painting and other people under the two 6. Qianlong early two silver can buy a stone Meter).

Qianlong to cold pieces of the first task is to order him to draw the Yuanmingyuan temples, each drawing a picture, drawing a total map (clear "made clear"). In this way, more than a year's time, the cold are in the Yuanmingyuan in the construction, landscape painting and creation. He ignored the old and feeble, cheer up the spirit, painting the "Yuanmingyuan 40 King" and other huge works.

Qianlong on the cold pieces of life care is very thoughtful, according to the Qing Dynasty, "Office of the Office of clearing" records: the first year of Qianlong (1736) lunar January 12 "due to cold pieces of household population, lack of money and grain with" Silver 3 two. In this way, the cold pieces of food and food actually eat up to 14 two. As the cold pieces of old, Qianlong arrangements for his son cold cold to help cold-painted. The second year on April 11, Emperor Qianlong and reward a few official room to live a few years; Qianlong six years (1741) the first month to enjoy the cold pieces of blue treasure chestnut Two, large satin two; to seven years (1742) on July 23, Emperor Qianlong and reward the silver silver 50 two. These are the Emperor Qianlong very attentive to the cold pieces, to his life is also very favorable treatment.

Qianlong is not only concerned about the cold pieces in life, at work is to take care of, so he will not be too tired, but also give full play to its strengths. Sometimes only let the cold paint a draft, and then let the cold pieces of the son or apprentice to complete. And sometimes let the cold pieces of painting only an important part of the rest for others to paint. Such as the four years of Qianlong (1739) the first month of the seventh day of the "cold-painted pieces of the current painting," Sheng Ming emperors "," Yang Zheng map "on the surface like a cold painting, the other painting ... ... Painting the painting, where all the paintings are painted with Iraq, the rest of the people painting, Qin this. This is the general situation of the late years in the painting studio activities.

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