刘墉

刘墉(1719年 — 1804年),字崇如,号石庵,清朝政治家、书法家。祖籍安徽砀山,出生于山东诸城 ,家族是当时的名门望族,其曾祖父刘必显是顺治年间进士,祖父刘棨曾担任四川布政使,父亲刘统勋则是乾隆朝的一代名臣。刘墉成长在名门相府,家族成员世代为官,自小受到良好的教育。乾隆十六年(1751年)中进士,历任翰林院庶吉士、太原府知府、江宁府知府、内阁学士、体仁阁大学士等职,以奉公守法、清正廉洁闻名于世。刘墉的书法造诣深厚,是清代著名的帖学大家,被世人称为“浓墨宰相”。 嘉庆九年十二月(1805年1月)病逝,谥号文清。

 

  • 中文名刘墉
  • 性别
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍安徽砀(dang)山
  • 出生地山东诸城
  • 出生日期1719年
  • 逝世日期1804年
  • 职业清朝政治家、书法家
  • 主要成就历任翰林院庶吉士、太原府知府、江宁府知府、内阁学士、体仁阁大学士等职
  • 代表作品《石庵诗集》
  • 所属年代清代
  • 崇如
  • 石庵
  • 被世人称为浓墨宰相
  • 谥号文清
人物生平

初入仕途

乾隆十六年(1751年),刘墉因为父亲关系,以恩荫举人身份参加当年会试和殿试,考中二甲第二名进士,被授予翰林院庶吉士,在散馆担任编修,不久又升迁为侍讲,成为其步入仕途的起点。乾隆二十年(1755年)十月,刘墉的父亲刘统勋因为办理军务失宜被下狱,刘墉受牵连也被惩治。后来父子得到宽释,刘墉被降为翰林院编修。
乾隆二十一年(1756年)起,刘墉被外放为地方官,此后20余年主要在地方为政,先后担任过安徽学政、江苏学政、太原知府和江宁知府等职。为官期间,刘墉基本秉承了父亲刘统勋的正直干练与雷厉风行,对科场积弊、官场恶习进行了力所能及的整顿,为百姓做了实事。同时积极贯彻皇帝意旨,查禁书、捉拿会党,得到皇帝赞许。
乾隆二十一年(1756年)六月,刘墉担任广西乡试正考官,十月被提拔为安徽学政。刘墉前往安徽赴任前,乾隆还特意召见并赐诗,其中有“海岱高门第,瀛洲新翰林”之句,意思是希望刘墉能够不辱门楣、有所建树。刘墉在任期间针对当时贡生、监生管理混乱的状况,上疏“请州县约束贡监,责令察优劣”,并提出切实可行的补救办法,得到皇帝肯定。
乾隆二十四年(1759年)十月,刘墉调任江苏学政,赴任前乾隆皇帝仍有诗相赠,可见其对刘墉抱有厚望。刘墉也不辱使命,为政严肃认真,出任学政时按试扬州,因为把关严格,使得一些想以作弊蒙混过关者最后不敢入场。他还上书皇帝称:“生监中滋事妄为者,府州县官多所瞻顾,不加创艾。(行政官员)既畏刁民,又畏生监,兼畏胥役,以致遇事迟疑,皂白不分,科罪之后,应责革者,并不责革,实属阘茸怠玩,讼棍蠹吏,因得互售其奸。”这一看法深刻又切中时弊,深受乾隆皇帝赏识,称赞其“知政体”。 刘墉先后两次提督江苏学政,后期为官处事风格由峻厉刚急转为平和舒缓,但严肃认真是一以贯之的。

宦海沉浮

乾隆二十七年(1762年),刘墉被任命为山西太原知府。乾隆三十年(1765年)升任冀宁道台。第二年,刘墉因失察所属阳曲县令段成功贪侵国库银两,按律革职被判极刑。但乾隆皇帝爱其才,加恩诏免,仅发配军台效力赎罪,第二年被赦免后在修书处担任行走。
乾隆三十四年(1769年),刘墉因父亲的缘故被重新起用,授予江宁知府。刘墉十分珍视这次机会,为政公正清廉,声名远播,百姓叹服刘墉的品行,将其比为宋朝的包拯。[8-9]  后来嘉庆初年的弹词《刘公案》,就是以刘墉在江宁知府任上决断疑案、为民做主的故事为蓝本改编而成。
乾隆三十七年(1772年),刘墉调任陕西按察使。第二年父亲刘统勋病故,刘墉辞官回家服丧。乾隆四十一年(1776年),刘墉服丧期满还京,清廷念刘统勋多年功绩,诏授内阁学士,任职南书房。十月又任《四库全书》馆副总裁,并派办《西域图志》及《日下旧闻考》总裁。次年七月,充江南乡试正考官,不久后复任江苏学政。在任期间,刘墉曾劾举秦州举人徐述夔著作悖逆,要求按律惩办,年底因办事有功和督学政绩显著,迁户部右侍郎,后又调吏部右侍郎。
乾隆四十五年(1780年),刘墉升任湖南巡抚。当时湖南多处受灾,一些无灾州县盗案迭起,贪官污吏猖獗。刘墉到任后一面查明情由,据实弹劾贪官污吏,建议严办。一面稽查库存,修筑城郭建仓储谷,赈济灾民。仅一年余,库银充实,民粮丰足,刘墉得到当地百姓爱戴。
乾隆四十六年(1781年),刘墉升任为都察院左都御史,次年三月任职南书房,不久又充任三通馆总裁。此时,御史钱沣弹劾山东巡抚国泰结党营私,刘墉奉旨偕同和珅审理山东巡抚舞弊案。刘墉至山东假扮成道人,步行私访,查明山东连续三年受灾,而国泰邀功请赏,以荒报丰。征税时对无力缴纳者一律拿办,并残杀进省为民请命的进士、举人9人。刘墉如实报奏朝廷,奉旨开仓赈济百姓,捉拿国泰回京。此时皇妃已为国泰说情,有的御史也从旁附和,和珅亦有意袒护国泰。刘墉遂以民间查访所获证据,历数国泰罪行,据理力争,终使国泰伏法。后来民间曾据此事写成通俗小说《刘公案》,对这位“包公式”的刘大人大加颂扬。
乾隆四十七年(1782年),刘墉奉调入京出任左都御史,在南书房行走。当时和珅炙手可热,刘墉也只能“委蛇其间,惟以滑稽悦容其间”,表现出其为人和为官的另一面:面对和珅专宠于乾隆,刘墉只好静默自守,滑稽模棱取容。

官声渐晦

乾隆四十八年(1783年),刘墉升任直隶总督、吏部尚书,兼理国子监事务。
乾隆五十一年(1786年),任职玉牒馆副总裁。但在此后数年里,刘墉不断犯错,官声渐不及从前,并多次受到皇帝责备。
乾隆五十二年(1787年)初,刘墉因为漏泄与皇帝关于嵇璜、曹文埴的谈话内容而受到申饬,被罢免了大学士职务。八月,乾隆委托刘墉主持祭拜文庙,却因没有按规定行一揖之礼受到太常寺卿德保的参劾。乾隆五十三年(1788年)夏,刘墉兼理国子监期间发生乡试考生馈送堂官的贿赂案,被御史祝德麟弹劾,刘墉受到处分。乾隆五十四年(1789年)四月,上书房的师傅们久不到书房,刘墉做为总师傅而不予纠正,被降职为侍郎。乾隆五十八年(1793年),刘墉担任当年会试主考官,却安排失当阅卷草率,导致违制与不合格的卷子很多。[12]
嘉庆元年(1796年),皇帝破格增补户部尚书董诰为大学士,而资历更深的刘墉却被排斥在外。皇帝向刘墉询问新选知府戴世仪可否胜任,结果刘墉说可以,实际上戴世仪十分庸劣难以胜任。
嘉庆二年(1797年)四月,刘墉被授予体仁阁大学士,但仍被皇帝指责向来不肯真心实意做事,干活懒散。并称是因为没有其他人了,所以才提拔刘墉。[13-14]  五月,刘墉奉旨偕同尚书庆桂到山东办案,察看黄河决口的情况,刘墉上书请求在决口处筑坝,下游疏导分流,朝廷采纳了意见。[15]
善始善终
嘉庆四年(1799年)三月,刘墉被加封为太子少保,奉旨办理文华殿大学士和珅植党营私、擅权纳贿一案。刘墉再次展现出不畏权势的一面,查明和珅及其党羽横征暴敛、搜刮民脂、贪污自肥等罪行20条,奏报朝廷。嘉庆随即处死和珅。嘉庆四年(1800年)底,刘墉上疏陈述漕政,对漕运中的漏洞体察至深,忧国忧民之情溢于言表,嘉庆皇帝看后,深以为然。嘉庆六年(1801年),刘墉充任会典馆正总裁。嘉庆七年(1802年),皇帝驾幸热河,命刘墉留京主持朝政。此时刘墉已八十有余,却轻健如故,双眸炯然,寒光慑人。
嘉庆九年十二月二十五日(1805年1月),刘墉于北京驴市胡同家中逝世,享年85岁。去世当天,他还曾到南书房值班,晚上开宴会招待客人,当晚去世。而据《啸亭杂录》记载,刘墉死时“鼻注下垂一寸有余”,暗合佛语中善于解脱之意,可说是寿终正寝、功德圆满。死后赠太子太保,谥号文清,入祀贤良祠,谕祭葬。

主要成就

政治刘墉出身名门相府,祖上数辈都是进士出身。父亲刘统勋更是官居宰相,深得乾隆皇帝倚重,因此刘墉走上仕途具备深厚的家族渊源。刘墉一生为官五十余载,宦海沉浮,几经起落,官职最高时做到体仁阁大学士,总体而言清正廉洁,继承了父亲刘统勋的衣钵,成为乾隆、嘉庆朝的重要大臣。[17]
书法刘墉不仅是政治家,更是著名的书法家,是帖学之集大成者,
被誉为清代四大书法家之一(其余三人为成亲王、翁方纲、铁保)。清朝徐珂称赞刘墉:“文清书法,论者譬之以黄钟大吕之音,清庙明堂之器,推为一代书家之冠。盖以其融会历代诸大家书法而自成一家。所谓金声玉振,集群圣之大成也。其自入词馆以迄登台阁,体格屡变,神妙莫测。”[18]  刘墉是一位善学前贤而又富有创造性的书法家,师古而不拘泥。刘墉书法的特点是用墨厚重,体丰骨劲,浑厚敦实,别具面目。刘墉之书尤善小楷,后人称赞其小楷不仅有钟繇、王羲之颜真卿苏轼的法度,还深得魏晋小楷风致。刘墉还兼工文翰,博通百家经史,精研古文考辨,工书善文,名盛一时。[19]
收藏刘墉嗜好藏书,家中藏书既广且博,除经史子集四部之外,对于佛、道、类书、碑帖、字画、戏曲、小说、弹词、曲谱、平话之类无不收藏,此外收藏奇石、砚台、毛笔、古琴等也均称名一时。
族谱清乾隆四十八年癸卯岁(公元1783年)体仁阁大学士刘墉的《刘氏家谱集注》,审定源明公至广传公的客家世系共147世。
 

轶事典故

“罗锅”传说:刘墉与纪昀、和珅并称为乾隆朝三大中堂,相传其人聪明绝顶、为官刚正,在民间有着“刘罗锅”的称呼。然而历史上的刘墉是否真是个罗锅,又是否曾中状元,并无确凿史据可考。据一些杂文笔记记载,刘墉于清乾隆十六年(1751年)中进士,相传当年殿试前十名卷册被递到乾隆皇帝面前,刘墉卷本来列为第一,但乾隆想提拔一位平民才俊,刘墉由于出身相门而被降格,与状元失之交臂。[20]  此后民间有传言刘墉个子很高,常年躬身读书写字,背看上去有点驼,因此产生了“刘罗锅”的说法。也有史料指出,嘉庆皇帝曾称刘墉为“刘驼子”而成为“刘罗锅”说法的出处。不过刘墉当时已是年届80岁的老人,有些驼背弯腰本在情理之中,并不能成为刘墉是“罗锅”的证据。[21]
此虱勿杀:一次,刘墉受到乾隆皇帝的召见,一只虱子顺着刘墉的衣领爬上去,一直爬到他的胡须边上,乾隆帝忍住笑什么也没说,而刘墉还不知道这件事。等到刘墉散会回到府邸,虱子被他的仆人看见,仆人请示是否要把虱子去掉。刘墉听了仆人的话,直摇头:“这虱子一直待在宰相我的胡子上,皇帝已经见过了,有福分,千千万万捉不得。”

人物评价

《清史稿》:“墉工书,有名于时。”
《湖南通志》:“(刘墉)政简刑清,吏民畏服。尝劝捐州县社仓谷十二万石,民以为便”。
《诸城县志》:“(刘墉)砥砺风节,正身率属,自为学政知府时,即谢绝馈贿,一介不取,遇事敢为,无所顾忌,所至官吏望风畏之。”
张维屏:“刘文清书,初从赵松雪入,中年后乃自成一家,貌丰骨劲,味厚深藏,不受古人宠拢,超然独出。”
袁枚:“初闻(刘墉)领丹阳,官吏齐短脰。光风吹一年,欢风极老幼。先声将人夺,苦志将人救。抗上耸强肩,覆下纡缓袖。”
萧一山:“以刘石庵墉、王惺园杰之纯谨,洪亮吉则讥为当场鲍老指刘,刚愎自用指王,余可知矣。嘉庆初年,刘以名相之子,继正揆席,王以先朝殊眷,恩宠有加,足与二人鼎立者,朱珪而已。”
纪连海:“历史上的刘墉不是状元,也不驼背。他的官位确实数经起落,不过他并没有跟和珅斗一辈子。相反,历史上的刘墉虽然也是个清官,但在那个复杂的历史背景下,他也做了一些随波逐流的事。”

家族成员

曾祖父刘必显:清顺治朝进士,曾任户部广西司员外郎。
祖父刘棨:清康熙朝进士,历任陕西羌州知州、四川布政使等职。[30]
父亲刘统勋:清雍正朝进士,历任刑部尚书、工部尚书、吏部尚书、内阁大学士、翰林院掌院学士、军机大臣等职,乾隆年间宰相。
弟弟刘堪:刘统勋次子,刘墉之弟。

后世纪念

清朝乾隆年间宰相刘墉的故居在驴市胡同(今礼士胡同)西头129号,
现已部分成为私人住房,单从外观上看还保留着当年的豪华气派。其街南墙上曾有一横石,上刻“刘石庵先生故居”。石庵是刘墉的号,但这块横石现已不存在。据清朝末年震钧所著《天咫偶闻》记述:“刘文清公故地在驴市胡同西头,南北皆是。”即刘家府邸位于礼士胡同西边最头处,占地面积比较大,南北院落均是。而根据清朝礼亲王昭梿所著《啸亭杂录》记述,清朝原规定内城为八旗辖区,汉官住在外城,但皇帝会特批一些受宠信的官员在内城居住,并赏赐宅院,称为“赐第”。刘统勋、刘墉父子的住宅就是典型“赐第”。

English is introduced

Liu Yong (1719 -1804 years), the word Chongru, Shihum, Qing Dynasty politician, calligrapher. The ancestral home of Anhui Dangshan, was born in Shandong Zhucheng, the family was a prominent family, the great-grandfather Liu Bixian was Junji Jinshi, grandfather Liu served as Sichuan governor, father Liu Tongxun is Qianlong dynasty generation. Liu Yong grew up in the door with the government, the family members from generation to generation official, was a good education. Sixteen years of Qianlong (1751) in the Scholars, served as the Imperial Academy Shuji Shi, Taiyuan prefect, prefect Jiangning, Cabinet Bachelor, body Ren Court, and other staff to law-abiding, clean and well-known in the world. Liu Yong's calligraphy attainments is profound, is the Qing Dynasty famous post school we, was the world known as "thick ink prime minister." Jiaqing nine years in December (1805 January) died, posthumous title Wenqing.

Major achievements

Politics Liu Yong was born in the name of the door, ancestors are Jinshi generations of origin. Father Liu Tongxun is the official residence of prime minister, won the Qianlong emperor relied on, so Liu Yong took to have a deep family career origin. Liu Yong's official life more than fifty years, officialdom ups and downs, ups and downs, after several ups and downs, the highest official do Ren Renge Bachelor, overall clean and honest, inherited his father Liu Tongxun mantle, as Qianlong, Jiaqing important minister. [17]
Calligraphy Liu Yong is not only a politician, is a famous calligrapher,
Known as the Qing Dynasty one of the four calligraphers (the remaining three as Prince, Weng Fang Gang, Tiebao). The Qing Dynasty Xu Ke praised Liu Yong: "Wen Qing calligraphy, on the analogy of those with Huang Zhongda Lu sound, Qing Temple of the device, pushed for the generation of calligrapher.Covered with its integration of the ancient calligraphy and self-contained. [18] Liu Yong is a good Yinxianxian and creative calligrapher, division of the ancient but not rigidly adhere to the rules of the ancient Chinese calligraphy and calligraphy. Liu Yong calligraphy is characterized by thick ink, body bone strength, vigorous Dunshi, unique features. Liu Yong's book, especially good Xiaokai, later praised the lower case not only Zhong Yao, Wang Xizhi, Yan Zhenqing and Su Shi's testimony, but also won the Wei Jin Xiaoke style. Liu Yong and the work of John, Broadcom hundred history, fine textual research, good book, name Sheng 1:00. [19]
Collection of Liu Yong hobby books, home collection both broad and Bo, in addition to the four parts of the history collection, the Buddha, Road, books, rubbings, calligraphy and painting, opera, novels, songwriters, music, Pinghua like all collection, in addition to collection stone, inkstone, , Guqin, also known as a moment.
Genealogy Qing Emperor Qianlong forty-eight years Guimao-year-old (AD 1783) body benevolence Court Liu Yong's "Liu genealogy Annotations", the source of the public to the public to verify the public Hakka line of a total of 147 world.

Officials ups and downs

Twenty-seven years of Qianlong (1762), Liu Yong was appointed prefect of Shanxi Taiyuan. Thirty years of Qianlong (1765) was promoted to Jining Road station. The second year, Liu Yong due to oversight of the Yangqu County magistrate section successfully corrupt the treasury silver, according to the law was dismissed sentenced. But the emperor Qianlong love its only, Jiaen Chao, only issued with the effectiveness of atonement, the second year after being pardoned in the repair office as walking.
Qianlong thirty-four years (1769), Liu Yong for his father's sake was re-use, awarded Jiangning prefect. Liu Yong very cherish this opportunity, for the government just honest, reputation, people admire Liu Yong's conduct, compared to the Song Dynasty Bao Zheng. [8-9] Jiaqing later years of the storytelling "Liu Gong case", is to Liu Yong in Jiangning prefect on the decision of the suspect, the story of the people for the blueprint adapted from.
Thirty-seven years of Qianlong (1772), Liu Yong was transferred to the Shaanxi provincial judge. The second year of his father Liu Tongxun died, Liu Yong resigned to go home mourning. Forty-one years of Qianlong (1776), Liu Yong mourning overdue also Beijing, Qing Tong Liu Tongxun read many years of merit, Zhao granted cabinet, serving the South study. October also served as "Si Ku Quan Shu" Museum vice president, and sent "Western map" and "the old news test" president. The following year in July, charge Jiangnan test is the examiner, soon after the re-appointment of Jiangsu Xuezheng. During his tenure, Liu Yong Zeng impeachment Qinzhou lifts Xu Shu Kui rebellious writings, requiring punishments by the law, by the end of meritorious service and inspector performance significantly, moved to the Ministry of the right assistant minister, and then transferred to the Ministry of Personnel right assistant minister.
Qianlong forty-five years (1780), Liu Yong was promoted to Hunan governor. At that time many disasters in Hunan, a number of no disaster state robbery case, corrupt officials rampant. Liu Yong after the arrival of one side to find out the reason, according to impeach corrupt officials, the proposed strict. One side of the inventory, build the city Jiancang Valley, relief victims. Only more than a year, library silver enrichment, abundance of grain, Liu Yong loved by the local people.
Forty-six years of Emperor Qianlong (1781), Liu Yong was promoted to the Imperial College of Censor left, March the following year in the Southern study, soon served as president of three links. At this point, the Censor Qian Feng impeachment of Shandong governor Guotai party guards, Liu Yong served together and Shen trial Shandong governor of the case of fraud. Liu Yong to Shandong posing as a Taoist, walking private visit to identify the three consecutive years of suffering in Shandong, and Cathay Pacific invited to reward the reward to the shortage reported abundance. Taxation of those who can not afford to pay to do, and kill the people into the province of Jinshi, lifts nine people. Liu Yong truthfully reported playing the court, ordered to open up relief to the people, to capture Cathay back to Beijing. At this point the princess has been Cathay to intercede, and some censor from side by side, and Shen also intended to cover Cathay Pacific. Liu Yong then obtained the evidence of private visits, enumerate Cathay Pacific crimes, argue, and finally make Cathay method. Later, according to the matter was written into the popular novel "Liu Gong case", the "package formula" of Liu adults and praise.
Qianlong forty-seven years (1782), Liu Yong was transferred to Beijing as the left are censor, walking in the South study. At that time, and Shen hot, Liu Yong can only "during the snake, but to funny Yue Rong", showing the man and the other side: the face and Shen special favor of Qianlong, Liu Yong had to be silent, funny Take capacity.

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