王时敏

王时敏,明末清初画家(1592—1680年),初名赞虞,字逊之,号烟客,自号偶谐道人,晚号西庐老人等,江苏太仓人。大学士王锡爵之孙,翰林编修王衡之子。
王时敏主张摹古,笔墨含蓄,苍润松秀,浑厚清逸,构图较少变化。其画在清代影响极大,王翚、吴历及其孙王原祁均得其亲授。王时敏开创了山水画的“娄东派”,与王鉴、王翚、王原祁并称四王,外加恽寿平、吴历合称“清六家”。
晚清娄东画派代表画家与评论家秦祖永之《桐阴论画》评王时敏:运腕虚灵,布墨神逸,随意点刷,丘壑浑成。
 

  • 中文名王时敏
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏太仓(江苏苏州)
  • 出生日期1592年
  • 逝世日期1680年
  • 职业明末清初画家
  • 代表作品《杜甫诗意图》《仙山楼阁图》《南山积翠图》
  • 所属年代明末清初
  • 初名赞虞
  • 逊之
  • 烟客,自号偶谐道人,晚号西庐老人
人物简介

王时敏少时即聪慧伶俐,《国朝画征录》中就有记载:“姿性颖异,淹雅博物,工诗文,善书法,尤长于八分,而于画有特惠。”于是其祖父就嘱托董其昌来指导王时敏。在董其昌的指导下,他少年就开始从摹古入手,深究传统画法,对黄公望山水,刻意追摹。
由于家里古书、名画收藏丰富,且大都是名迹,像当时很少传世的李成的画他都能够见到,这对他的影响是深远的。根据当时规定,由于祖先功劳显赫,子孙可不经科考而继承之,王时敏在24岁时就出任尚宝丞,就是管理皇帝玺印的官,后又升太常寺少卿(掌宗庙祭祀礼乐),仍兼管尚宝司事。
游历时光
曾奉命至山东、湖广、江西、福建一带巡视封藩,有机会游览名山大川,观赏各地名画真迹。对董源巨然作品收藏的集大成者、江北收藏大家睢阳袁枢(大司马袁可立子)尤为推重,其曾为袁枢绘工笔肖像,自拔盛赞道:“环翁使君,既工盘礴,又富收藏。李营邱为士大夫之宗,米南宫乃精鉴之祖。故使荆关,董、巨真名迹归其家。乃犹勤向鄙蒙索其点染,荏苒一年,未有一应。盖时见公墨沈,不觉小巫气索,欲下笔而辄止者数四。兹于其轺车戎装,聊仿一峰老人笔意,作小幅丐郢。昔人所谓“恒似似人”之语,转觉学步之难为工也,特书以志吾愧。关门紫气幻云烟,大石寒山列两边。割取一峰深秀色,可堪移入米家船。”(《烟客题跋·题自画关使君袁环中》)”
由于他淡于仕途,更喜笔墨,因此于崇祯五年(1632年)称病辞官,隐居西田别墅,潜心绘画研究与创作。
晚年归隐
十二年后,明朝被起义军推翻。后,清军入关,王时敏归顺,保住性命,继续归隐山林,潜心习画,且着力培养子孙辈之学业。其膝下九子,多在清廷为官,八子王掞(颛庵)官至文渊阁大学士兼礼部尚书,直经筵,典会试。其孙王原祁康熙九年成进士后,深得康熙喜爱,入值南书房,充《佩文斋书画谱》总裁,主持绘制《万寿盛典图》。康熙十九年(1680年)王时敏卒于家中,时年89岁。
 

绘画特点及作品

王时敏的山水画多是仿古之作-学倪云林,学黄子久,学董源,亦学董其昌。他一生以临元画为主,并得董其昌亲自指点,受董影响极深。其临古水平之高,令人生叹。其“一意摹古,反对创新”的思想对清代中国画的发展影响深远。
王时敏主张恢复古法,反对自出新意,曾自白道:“迩来画道衰,古法渐湮,人多自出新意,谬种流传,遂至邪诡不可救挽。”王时敏早年多临摹古画,均按宋元古画原迹临写而成,笔墨精细淡雅,已见临摹功力。早中期风格比较工细清秀,如37岁作的《云壑烟滩图轴》,现存上海博物馆,干笔湿笔互用,兼施以醇厚的墨色,用黄公望而杂以高克恭皴笔,具有苍浑而秀嫩的韵味。42岁时的《长白山图卷》,则用笔细润,墨色清淡,意境疏简,更多董其昌笔韵。至晚年,以黄公望为宗,兼取董、巨和王蒙诸家,更多苍劲浑厚之趣。如72岁的《落木寒泉图》,75岁的《仙山楼阁轴》,84岁的《山水轴》,均藏北京故宫博物院内,峰峦数叠,树丛浓郁,勾线空灵,苔点细密,皴笔干湿浓淡相间,皴擦点染兼用,形成苍老而又清润的艺术特色。
王时敏的传世作品有《仿山樵山水图》、《层峦叠嶂图》、《秋山图》、《雅宜山斋图》等,并著有《西田集》、《疑年录汇编》、《西庐诗草》等。王时敏兼工隶书,榜书亦负盛名。王时敏的作品在立意、布局、运笔、色彩、线条等方面都达到了登峰造极的地步,是中国画海中一朵瑰丽奇葩。

人物轶事

画作疗疾
清代王石谷的《秋山红树图》画得甚好,王时敏观后大加赞赏并欲留下。怎奈王石谷不肯割爱,时敏老人只好在画上题词作罢:“石谷此图虽仿山樵,而用笔措思全以右丞为宗。故风骨高奇,逾出山樵规格之外。春晚过要,携以见视,余被欲留之,知其意颇自珍,不忍递夺,每为怅怅然。余时方苦嗽,得此饱累日,霍然失病所在,始知者昔人檄愈头风,良不虚也。庚戊谷雨后一日西卢老人王时敏题。”由此得知时敏老人欣赏王石谷的《秋山红树图》后,痛苦的咳嗽竟然消失。因此有感而发,题了上面一段话。
苍天清客
太仓人王时敏,子孙众多,且又都贤能。王时敏尤其钟爱儿子颛庵(王掞,第八子),孙子麓台(王原祁,王时敏次子王揆之子)。康熙九年(1670年),两人都以20岁年龄高中进士,当时喜报交互送至。正赶上吴伟业在座,这位大文人吴梅村先生就开玩笑说道:“那个老天爷啊 ,应当是您家门下的清客吧?”王时敏感到惊骇,就问说的是什么意思。吴伟业说:“善于探听到主人所想要的而巧妙趋奉,让主人事事如意的,就是门下的清客啊。如今的老天爷正好接近于此。”王时敏不觉微笑。[1]

代表作品

王时敏真迹,拍卖场中无多见,多藏于国内外各大博物馆中。
杜甫诗意图》:纸本设色,纵39厘米,横25.7厘米。北京故宫博物院藏。此图共12页,每幅隶书杜诗二句,后幅页又自跋云:“见其所写景物,瑰丽高寒,历历在眼,恍若身游其间,辄思寄兴盘礴。适旭咸甥以巨册属画,寒窗偶暇,遂拈景联佳句,点染成图,顾以肺肠枯涸,俗赖填塞,于作者意惬飞动之致,略未得其毫末。诗中字字有画,而画中笔笔无诗,漫借强题,钝置浣花翁不少,惭愧!西庐老人王时敏。”上册页画巫峡弈棋,松云绝壁,山村春色,藤月荻花。用笔颇为潇逸,满纸墨韵,非常生动。
《仙山楼阁图》:图轴,纸本,墨笔,纵:133cm,横:63.5cm。现藏台北故宫博物院。
此图是王时敏74岁时的作品,系为友人陈静孚之母方太君70寿辰而作。王时敏以元黄公望画法写此图,画面上峰峦叠嶂,林木葱郁,流泉曲绕,长松挺立。山谷中点缀着茅亭草舍,环境清幽。图中烟岚起伏,云雾环山,增加了画面的高远感与深远感,同时产生虚实对比,使全图笼罩在朦胧飘逸的氛围之中,宛若仙境。其笔墨画法尤见精绝超逸,是画家晚年精品之一。
《南山积翠图》:绢本设色,纵147.1厘米,横66.4厘米,藏于辽宁省博物馆。
这是画家为人贺寿之作。画家绘高山逶迤、苍松秀健,以此祝寿,有“寿比南山”之意。画面重峦叠嶂,主峰高耸,烟岚浮绕,林木葱茏,瀑布飞流;在各山岭之间,房屋、宅院若隐若现,可游可居。近景山坡上,苍松挺立,大概也隐喻“高寿”之意。整幅作品构图繁复,行笔缜密,水墨淋漓酣畅,云气升浮,生动地描绘了清润自然的山间林野景象。
《南山积翠图》为画家晚年所作,画面布置有序,层次井然,笔墨清隽秀润,沉静淡雅,毫无躁气,具有温厚而博大之美。王时敏早年多临摹古画,并且按照宋、元古画原迹进行临摹,故其此时的作品淡雅温润,工整精细,清润有余而苍茫不逮。他不仅以古法进行创作,而且还将它作为评判作品的标准,主张“论蹊径,宛然古人,而笔墨神韵,一一寻真”。王时敏中年多取法董其昌,笔墨皴染空灵,用笔细腻,运墨明净洒脱。晚年,王时敏则以黄公望为宗,兼取董源巨然王蒙等诸家,作品更多体现出苍劲浑厚之趣。70岁后,王时敏生活安定,得以潜心绘事,艺术上更是日臻妙境。

English is introduced

Wang Shimin, painter of the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty (1592-1680), the beginning of the name of praise, the word Johnson, the number of cigarettes, since the number of even-channel, late Xilu elderly, Jiangsu Taicang. Wang Xi-jue, the grandson of the grandson, Hanlin editing Wang Heng's son.
Wang Shimin advocates m ancient, ink implicit, Cang Run Songxiu, vigorous Qing Yi, composition less change. The painting in the Qing Dynasty great influence, Wang Hui, Wu Li and his grandchildren were the pro-Wang Qi. Wang Shimin created a landscape painting "Lou East School", and Wang Jian, Wang Hui, Wang Yuanqi and said four kings, plus Yun Shouping, Wu Li collectively known as "Qing six".
The late Qing Dynasty Lou Dong painting representative painter and critic Qin Zuyong's "Tong Yin painting" Comment Wang Shimin: Yun wrist virtual spirit, cloth ink God Yi, random brush, Qiu Hun into.

Biography

Wang Shimin that is clever and clever, "the Korean painting collection" in the record: "posture Ying Yi, flood Ya Museum, work poetry, good calligraphy, especially in eight minutes, while painting a privileged." So his grandfather To entrust Dong Qichang to guide Wang Shimin. Under the guidance of Dong Qichang, he began to start from the mogu teenager, look at the traditional painting, the landscape of Huang Gongwang, deliberately to copy.
As the family of ancient books, paintings rich collection, and most of the tracks, as was rarely handed down the Li Cheng's paintings he can see, this impact on him is far-reaching. According to the provisions of the time, due to the ancestral meritorious illustrious, descendants can not inherit the scientific expedition, Wang Shimin at the age of 24 as Shang Baocheng, is the management of the emperor Yin India officials, and then rose too often Temple Shaoqing (palm temple worship Music), still Shangbao Secretary.
Travel time
Has been ordered to Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian area inspection fan, have the opportunity to visit famous mountains and rivers, watch the famous paintings authentic. On the Dong Yuan, Ju Ran works collection master, Jiangbei collection of all Suiyang Yuan Shu (Dasima Yuan Keli) is particularly heavy, which was Yuan Shuo painted meticulous portrait, self-enriching praise: "ring Weng Jun, both work Bo, Li Ying Qiu for the literati of the case, Minami Palace is the essence of fine ancestors, so that the Jing Guan, Dong, giant real name to his home. Is still diligent diligent to its point of dyeing, blew a year, no one should be When the cover see the public ink sink, feel a little Wu Qi cable, want to write and then the number of four .Ziri in its car uniforms, chatting imitation of a peak for the elderly, for small beggars .People called "constant like" Close the Purple Magic cloud, on both sides of the rocky mountain, cut a peak deep Xiuse, can be moved into the meters of the family boat. "(" Tobacco Postscript Postscripts "), Title self-painting Guan Jun Yuan ring ")"
Because of his short career, more hi ink, so in Chongzhen five years (1632) called illness resign, seclusion West Tin villa, painstakingly painting research and creation.
Hermitage in his later years
Twelve years later, the Ming Dynasty was overthrown by the rebel army. After the Qing Dynasty, Wang Shimin submission, keep their lives, continue to Hermitage Forest, painstakingly studied painting, and efforts to train their descendants of the academic. The nine under the knee, and more in the Qing court as official, eight sub-Wang (Zhuan Um) official to the Wen Yuange University Bachelor and Rites minister, straight by feast, the Code will try. His son, Wang Kangxi the original nine years into the examination, won the Kangxi love, into the value of the South study, filling "Pei Wen Zhai painting" President, presided over the drawing of "Wanshou Festival map." Kangxi nineteen years (1680) Wang Shimin died at home, when he was 89 years old.

Painting characteristics and works

Wang Shimin's landscape paintings are mostly antique works - learn Ni Yunlin, learn Huang Zijiu, learn Dong Yuan, also learn Dong Qichang. His life to Lin Yuan-based painting, and Dong Qichang personally pointing, affected by Dong profound. Its high level of temporary ancient, people sigh. The idea of ​​"one intention to copy ancient and oppose to innovation" has far - reaching influence on the development of Chinese painting in Qing Dynasty.
Wang Shimin advocated the restoration of ancient law, against the new ideas, has confessed: "Recently to draw bad road, ancient method gradually annihilation, many people from the novelty, fallacy spread, then to the evil sly can not save." Painting, according to the original painting of the Yuan and Yuan Dynasty written by writing, fine ink elegant, have seen copy skill. Early and mid-style style is relatively fine, such as the 37-year-old "Yunhe beach map axis", the existing Shanghai Museum, dry pen wet pen interchange, and impose mellow ink, with Huang Gongwang and miscellaneous Gao Ke Gong crack pen, with Cang muddy and delicate charm. At the age of 42, "Changbai Mountain Volume", the pen fine run, ink light, artistic simplicity, more Dong Qichang pen rhyme. To his later years, with Huang Gongwang as cases, and take Dong, giant and Wang Meng Zhujia, vigorous vigorous interest. Such as the 72-year-old "cold winter map", 75-year-old "Mountain Pagoda axis", 84-year-old "landscape axis", are hidden in the Beijing Palace Museum, the number of peaks and ridges, thick trees, hook line ethereal, moss point fine, Pens wet and dry, light and dark, Cun wiping point dyeing and use, the formation of old and Qingrun artistic characteristics.
Wang Shimin handed down the works of "imitation mountain Qiao landscape map", "layers of overlapping peaks map", "Akiyama map", "Ya Yi Shanzhai map", and a "Nishida set", "suspects recorded compilation", "Xilu Poetry grass "and so on. Wang Shimin and official script, book list is also renowned. Wang Shimin's work has reached a climax in the conception, layout, pen, color, lines, etc., is a magnificent work of Chinese painting in the sea.

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