王原祁

王原祁(1642年-1715年),明末清初画家。字茂京,号麓台、石师道人,江苏太仓人,王时敏孙。康熙九年(1670年)进士,官至户部侍郎,人称王司农。以画供奉内廷,
康熙四十四年奉旨与孙岳颁、宋骏业等编《佩文斋书画谱》,五十六年主持绘《万寿盛典图》为康熙帝祝寿。擅画山水,继承家法,学元四家,以黄公望为宗,喜用干笔焦墨,层层皴擦,用笔沉着,自称笔端有金刚杵。
与王时敏、王鉴、王翚并称“四王”,形成娄东画派,左右清代三百年画坛,成为正统派中坚人物。

  • 中文名王原祁
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏太仓(江苏苏州)
  • 出生日期1642年
  • 逝世日期1715年
  • 职业清代杰出画家
  • 主要成就与王时敏、王鉴、王翚并称“四王”
  • 所属年代明末清初
  • 茂京
  • 麓台、石师道人
人物简介

王原祁既承董其昌及时敏之学,又受清代最高统治者之宠,山水格局面目影响后世,弟子颇多,形成娄东派,与王时敏王鉴王翚合称“四王”,加上吴历恽寿平又称“清六家”。
登第后,专心画学。山水能继祖法,而于黄公望浅绛尤为独绝。熟不甜,生不涩,淡而厚,实而清,书卷之气盎然楮墨外。在“四王”中,王原祁年纪最小,但成就最高。王鉴见之谓时敏曰:“吾二人当让一头地。”时敏曰:“元季四家首推子久(黄公望),得其神者惟董思白(其昌),得其形者吾不敢让,若神形俱得,吾孙其庶乎?”鉴深然之。时虞山王翚以清丽之笔,名倾中外,原祁则以高旷之品突过之。客有举翚画为问曰:“太熟。”复举查士标为问曰:“太生。”盖以不生不熟自处也。尝自题秋山晴爽图卷略云:“不在古法,不在吾手,而又不出古法吾手之外。笔端金刚杵,在脱尽习气。”观此语其所至可知矣。康熙朝原祁以画供奉内廷,鉴定古今名画,四十四年(1705年)擢侍讲学士,转侍读学士,直南书房,充佩文斋书画谱纂辑官。与王时敏王鉴王翚并称“四王”。按原祁承董其昌及时敏之学,受清最高统治者之宠,肆力山水,领袖群伦,影响后世,形成娄东派,左右清代三百年画坛,成为正统派中坚人物。卒年七十四(一作七十)。
后世娄东画派,大都一味摹古,笔墨贫弱,格局平庸,千篇一律,无复清新气象,乃至晚清民国时期,遭遇被西化主张者全面否定之命运。

绘画风格

王原祁绘画主要受元代(公元1279--公元1368年)黄公望影响。作画喜用干笔,先用笔,后用墨,由淡向浓反复晕染,由疏向密,反复皴擦,干湿并用,画面显得浑然一体。
董其昌王时敏之学,受清最高统治者之宠,肆力山水,领袖群伦,影响后世,形成娄东派(王原祁是江苏太仓人,太仓也称娄东),左右清代三百年画坛,成为正统派中坚人物。主张好画当在不生不熟之间,自出心裁,不受古法拘束,熟不甜,生不涩,淡而厚,实而清,书卷之气盎然纸墨外。
清末娄东画派代表性画家与画论家秦祖永《恫荫论画》论王原祁:中年秀润,晚年苍浑。
纵观王原祁一生的画风,其早年跟随其祖父王时敏,山水画直接渊源于祖父而面貌更强烈,笔墨气味亦更醇厚,致力于摹古,形式变化丰富,但缺乏生活气息和真是感受。早期作品如《仿子久山水图》,为作者三十岁时作品,仿效黄公望笔意,出神入化。画面笔墨简淡,风格古秀。
王原祁中年时期作品,从摹古中脱出,笔墨秀润,以《富春山图》为代表,画面云山秀水,用笔秀雅脱俗,没色清淡圆润。后又受王鉴指导,六十岁时作画能够“熟而后生”,如七十岁所作《南山积翠图》,笔墨与设色境界高妙。其用笔锋颖幻化,真率而意韵高古,生涩之处见纯熟。其用色绛翠斑驳,是浅绛和青绿手法的极致运用与融合。画面中累见笔笔交叠,色色相浸之处,全然不拘小节而直渲天然真趣。

传世作品

康熙三十五年(1696年)作《仿高房山云山图》轴,藏上海博物馆;
四十二年(1703年)作《仿黄公望山水图》轴,藏上海博物馆;
三十九年(1700年)作《夏山图》轴,藏广东省博物馆;
四十年(1701年)作《子久画意图》轴,藏南京博物院;
四十四年(1705年)作《清溪绕屋图》轴,藏南京博物院;
四十四年(1705年)夏日作《山水图》轴,藏美国高居翰景元斋;
四十八年(1709年)作《秋林叠□图》轴,藏故宫博物院;
四十九年(1710年)作《西岭云霞图》卷,藏辽宁省博物馆;
五十三年(1714年)作《晴窗秋色图》轴,藏香港刘均量虚白斋;
五十三年(1714年)作《仿梅道人秋山图》轴、《江乡春晓图》轴,藏苏州市博物馆;
五十三年(1714年)作《仿巨然山水图》轴,藏沈阳故宫博物院。
著有《雨窗漫笔》、《罨画集》、《麓台题画稿》等。

历史沉浮

自晚清民国,由于陈独秀,徐悲鸿等主张西画思想,对四王为代表的古典绘画采取全面否定之态度,史家对王原祁评价不高,艺术市场的价格偏低。1988、1989、1990年两大拍卖行均有王原祁作品出售,价格都不超过5万美元。一般说来,王原祁临古山水立轴的价格在1~3万美元,扇面在5000~1万美元。
进入二十一世纪,因不满于当代国画浮躁浅薄之风,画界对娄东画派的古典绘画与笔墨成就重新认识,市场价格发生了较大变化:
王原祁 秋林远黛图 立轴 4140万2012
王原祁 仿梅道人溪山无尽 828万2012
王原祁 仿古山水册 2760万2011
王原祁 仿黄鹤山樵山水 862.5万2011
王原祁 己卯(1699) 839.5万2011
王原祁 仿黄公望陡壑密林 918.4万2010
王原祁 仿古山水册 907.2万2008
王原祁 湖山闲居839万

English is introduced

Wang Yuanqi (1642 - 1715), the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty painter. Word Mao Jing, No. Lu Taiwan, Shi Shi Taoist, Taicang, Jiangsu, Wang Shimin Sun. Kangxi nine years (1670) Scholars, officials to the Ministry of Lang Lang, who called the Secretary for agriculture. To paint the inner court,
Kangxi forty-four years with Sun Yue, Song Junye and other "Pei Wenzhai book painting", fifty-six years presided over the painting "Wanshou Festival map" for Emperor Kangxi birthday. Good painting landscapes, inheritance law, the school four to Huang Gongwang as the case, like with dry coke ink, layers of Cun rub, pen calm, claiming to have a Vajra pestle.
And Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and said "four kings", the formation of Lou Dong school, about three hundred years of the Qing D

Biography

Wang Yuanqi Dong Chengchang and Shi Min of the school, and by the Qing Dynasty, the highest ruler of the pet, the landscape pattern of the impact of future generations, many disciples, the formation of Loudong, and Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui collectively, "four kings" , Yun Shou-ping, also known as "Qing six."
Board after the first, concentrate on painting. Landscape can follow the ancestral law, and in Huang Gongwang shallow purple is particularly exclusive. Cooked not sweet, Health is not astringent, light and thick, real and clear, the scroll of the gas-chu ink outside. In the "Four Kings", Wang Yuanqi the youngest, but the highest achievement. Wang Kam see that the time Min said: "When I let one to two." When the Min said: "the first quarter of the four prime deduction sub-long (Huang Gongwang), was the gods but Dong Si Bai (Qichang) Shaped who I dare not, if the gods are all, my Sunshuqi almost? When Yushan Wang Hui to Qingli of the pen, the name of the dumping, the original Qi to Kuang Kuang of the goods suddenly. Guest has Hui painting for the asked: "too familiar." Replicate Chas marked as asked: "too raw." Covered with unfamiliar since the Department also. From the title of Qiu Shan Qing Shuang volume slightly cloud: "not in ancient law, not in my hand, but not outside the ancient method of my hand outside the pen side Vajra, in the off habit." View of the language to know it. Forty-four years (1705) to pull the bachelor of Bachelor, turn attendant reading, straight south study, filling Pei Wen Zhai painting compilation editorial officer. And Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and said "four kings." According to the original Qi Cheng Dong Qichang and Shi Min of the study, by the highest ruler of the pet, the force of landscape, leaderLun, influence later generations, the formation of Lou Dongpai, about three hundred years of the Qing Dynasty painting, become orthodox backbone. Years of seventy-four (one for seventy).
Later Loudong school, most blindly copy ancient, pen and ink weak, pattern mediocrity, monotony, no clear fresh weather, and even the late Qing Dynasty, Westernization advocates were encountered by a comprehensive negative fate.

Painting style

Wang Yuanqi Dong Chengchang and Shi Min of the school, and by the Qing Dynasty, the highest ruler of the pet, the landscape pattern of the impact of future generations, many disciples, the formation of Loudong, and Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui collectively, "four kings" , Yun Shou-ping, also known as "Qing six."
Board after the first, concentrate on painting. Landscape can follow the ancestral law, and in Huang Gongwang shallow purple is particularly exclusive. Cooked not sweet, Health is not astringent, light and thick, real and clear, the scroll of the gas-chu ink outside. In the "Four Kings", Wang Yuanqi the youngest, but the highest achievement. Wang Kam see that the time Min said: "When I let one to two." When the Min said: "the first quarter of the four prime deduction sub-long (Huang Gongwang), was the gods but Dong Si Bai (Qichang) Shaped who I dare not, if the gods are all, my Sunshuqi almost? When Yushan Wang Hui to Qingli of the pen, the name of the dumping, the original Qi to Kuang Kuang of the goods suddenly. Guest has Hui painting for the asked: "too familiar." Replicate Chas marked as asked: "too raw." Covered with unfamiliar since the Department also. From the title of Qiu Shan Qing Shuang volume slightly cloud: "not in ancient law, not in my hand, but not outside the ancient method of my hand outside the pen side Vajra, in the off habit." View of the language to know it. Forty-four years (1705) to pull the bachelor of Bachelor, turn attendant reading, straight south study, filling Pei Wen Zhai painting compilation editorial officer. And Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and said "four kings." According to the original Qi Cheng Dong Qichang and Shi Min of the study, by the highest ruler of the pet, the force of landscape, leaderLun, influence later generations, the formation of Lou Dongpai, about three hundred years of the Qing Dynasty painting, become orthodox backbone. Years of seventy-four (one for seventy).
Later Loudong school, most blindly copy ancient, pen and ink weak, pattern mediocrity, monotony, no clear fresh weather, and even the late Qing Dynasty, Westernization advocates were encountered by a comprehensive negative fate.

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