《梅鹤图》（虚谷 立轴 纸本 设色 纵1248厘米 横121.7厘米 北京故宫博物院藏）
Xu Gu (1823 ~ 1896), the Qing Dynasty famous painter, one of the four sea, "the late Qing Dynasty painting the first" reputation. Common name Zhu, the name of Huairen, monk name virtual white, the word virtual valley, alias Ziyang mountain people, tired crane, room name feel non-Um, Cooper grass, thirty-seven peak cottage. Ji Xin (now Anhui Shexian), ranking Guangling (now Jiangsu Yangzhou). The beginning of the Qing army will fight with the Taiping, Italy has feelings, after the monk as a monk. Landscape, flowers, animals, birds, especially in painting squirrels and goldfish. Also good portrait, work official script. Painting with Cangxiu of interest, coloring fresh, vivid shape, put pen to paper cooling, unique style. Eccentric, non-get along with those who can not get their paper. Early academic painting, after good at painting and fruit, poultry, landscape famous. Style Qiao novel, embroidered Ya fresh, without a lag phase, Jiangxinduyun, unique. Also poetry, there are "virtual valley monk poems recorded." Handed down works of "plum goldfish map", "pineapple map", "gourd map", "Cymbidium Ganoderma map", "loquat map" and so on.
Virtual Valley Anhui Xin'an (now Shexian) South Ziyang concept, after moving to Jiangsu Yangzhou. Painting work with Cang show interest, color fresh, vivid shape, put pen to paper, unique style. He is characterized by exaggerated description of the characteristics of animals, and to fight the lines to describe its shape. Eccentric, non-get along with those who can not get their paper. His life had a very hard life, twenty-two years Guangxu (1896) in the West of Shanghai Guandi Temple passed away, or his disciples disciples of Suzhou Shilin Abbot Tian Xuan to Shanghai, only his Linghu back Suzhou Guangfu buried.
He had to do the Qing Dynasty Senate, because he did not want to be ordered to play the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and monks. Virtual Valley "does not vegetarian vegetarian, rude Buddha", also "never Zhuo tin monk temple". Tongzhi, Guangxu years living in Shanghai, often in Shanghai, Suzhou, Yangzhou - band, to sell paintings for a living, since that "free to write three thousand, begging for earth meal money. And Ren Bo, Gao Yongzhi, Hu Gongshou, Wu Changshuo, Ni Meigeng and other famous sea-friendly. His paintings for the all-rounder, the early years of academic painting, workers portrayal. Good at landscape, flowers, animals, birds, especially in painting squirrels and goldfish. Also good portrait, work official script. He inherited the Xin'an faction gradually Jiang, Cheng-style painting and up the Song and Yuan Dynasties, but also by the impact of Yangzhou painter, such as Xinluo, painting and writing sophistication and odd clumsy. The use of dry pen to the front, color to light-based color, occasionally with a strong contrasting color, style, chilly novelty, Jun Ya fresh, no lag phase, ingenuity, issued a grid, Shanghai master Wu Changshuo praise it as " To this day. "
The famous late Qing Dynasty flowers and birds painter, and Ren Bo, Pu Hua, Wu Changshuo known as the "late Qing four sea-style."
Xu Gu of the painting artist Hong Ren, Cheng speed off the vigorous all the way, good for the line of strokes, a lot of almost white sketch draft, and then apply to the light color. Yun Qing neat, with a sense of rhythm. He made good use of side pen contrarian, line Xiu Jin and see, like a knife down, healthy and not slippery. Xu Gu this clear vigorous use of pen method, not only in landscape painting, also used in the creation of flower and bird painting, to flower a new style of painting. Xu Gu 's paintings are the common side of the ink paintings by the painters of the Shanghai School, but the most valuable ones are still the sensibility of his physical appearance. Whether weeping willow, Qiulin, or squirrels, goldfish, often able to seize the most essential objects of the body and expression. The dynamic image of the object in his painting is not a truthful reflection, but through the artistic creation of a beautiful deal. He learned from his predecessors to observe things and how to show the strengths, inherited Hongren's fresh, Silla's skills, the simple farmers. Xu Gu painted many flowers and fruits, are very small format, shape is very simple. But his pen color delicate and moving, not only pay attention to physical properties and attention to the rhythm of the screen and the new rules, so his paintings can be transcendent as, the thought-provoking. The treatment of the imaginary form is similar to that of the European modern painting, Cezanne, who paid attention to the volume sense of the object. The difference is that his artisan has the character of oriental art. Of course, the form is the key to the performance of the art of painting, but it must come from the painter in the objective reality of the real world of new feelings, ink varies with the times and new. Follow the beaten track is also a manifestation of formalist creative methods.
Xu Gu 's character modeling peculiar, tricks are different. He is good at conditioning to grasp the rules of the partial, positive, flat Qi, the actual situation, severity, possession of dew and cloth white. So that the screen empty, there is a strong sense of space. This is particularly evident in the long frame, horizontal oblique arrangement of clever, imposing, dare to break the routine. Ping Qiuqi, so as to achieve static in the dynamic, the actual situation of Health, business abundant.
Xu Gu 's rich and interesting paintings, good at clever exaggeration, deformation is one of his great creation. At the same time we can also from the true, homes, straight three aspects to appreciate his art. "True" is to grasp the essence of things can be based on the subjective exaggeration to be bold, in order to achieve a more expressive artistic realm. "House" is a bold choice of modeling, virtual Valley of the homes, to relentless, homes Miao, clever way. "Straight" is a virtual valley with a pen with a clear line of the characteristics of its concise lines solemnly, see the combination of the straight, so similar to the kind of transmission, rather than the shape. His painting line with the line is rather not round, suddenly see the power, see the edge see angle, write affirmative, has a strong personality.
Virtual Valley elegant color, focusing on the unity of color and simple beauty. He is also good at the use of white paper on the ancient paper, so that the white lotus, cranes, and white powder with stone green almond blossom orchid, appear lifelike.
Xu Gu's art practice proved that the exploration of life is the key to the development of artistic form, he painted a flower, giving a fresh form of beauty. Here is the understanding of the traditional, more objective nature of the real heart of the Department. The flowers, animals, goldfish, squirrels, cranes, fruits and lively fresh, dynamic, concise exaggeration, highly personalized and decorative taste, unique in the Shanghai school.
Xu Gu often exchanges in Shanghai, Suzhou, Yangzhou area, to sell paintings for a living, since that "free to write three thousand, begging for earth meal money." Its and Ren Bo, Gao Yong, Hu Gongshou, Wu Changshuo, Ni Meigeng and other famous sea-friendly. Painting and calligraphy for the all-rounder, early academic painting, a portrait of workers. Good flowers and fruits, poultry, landscape, goldfish, squirrel is particularly famous, calligraphy is also exquisite. Inheritance Xin'an faction Jiang, Cheng-style painting and up to the Song and Yuan Dynasties, but also by the impact of the Yangzhou painter, such as Xinluo, painting and writing sophistication and odd clumsy. The use of dry pen to the front, color to light color, even with a strong contrasting color, style Qiao novelty, Jun Ya fresh, no lag phase, Jiangxinduyun, issued a grid, Shanghai Master Wu Changshuo praise it as "punch break To this day. "
Xu Gu is a painter of the Qing Dynasty painting unique. Its landscape flowers, fruits and vegetables birds are widely studied, especially good at wisteria goldfish. Wistaria under the pen, lush new leaves, flowers bloom, rendering a rich image of the spring. Wisteria dendrites and leaves, mostly geometric patterns, is the "side" pen with the results. Xu Gu's Wisteria goldfish map, are "purple ribbon gold chapter" as the title. The so-called "Purple Ribbon Gold Chapter" is a glorification of dignitaries and success, the fortune of auspicious words, and here, Xu Gu a "purple" a "gold" color and emotion, the performance of nature and life of the main Exuberant atmosphere, apparently far from the pursuit of fame and fortune of its original meaning. Not only that, Xu Gu painted goldfish, in the ink and ink used in the way of writing, rather personalized to write a round side, to Zhuo Qiaoqiao to reverse the potential, can be described as Chromic, pen and deformation blend.
Xu Gu 's rich and interesting paintings, good clever exaggeration, deformation is a major creation. On the basis of the nature of the grasp can be bold subjective exaggeration, in order to achieve a more vivid artistic realm of the superb, bold choice of modeling, line concise and concise, see the combination of the straight, do not like the shape of the spirit. The painting line with a line rather than round Ning Fang, suddenly see the power, see the edge see angle, write affirmation, filled with a strong personality. Elegant coating color, emphasis on color unity and simplicity. Its good at the ancient paper on the use of white paper, making it a white lotus, cranes and white powder with stone-green orchid branches, etc., appear lifelike. Xu Gu in the painting sector has great achievements, the representative works such as "Ruilian put reference map", "reconstruction of Guangfu Temple panorama", is the boundary painting, the traditional painting of the integration of the gods. These and the benefit of Huizhou hometown of ancient art heritage is not unrelated. Gu Heyi said his painting "clean and not dry, dense and not chaos."
Xu Gu 's character modeling peculiar, tricks are different. Good at conditioning to grasp the rules of the partial, positive, flat odd, the actual situation, severity, possession of dew and cloth white. So that the screen empty, there is a strong sense of space. This is particularly evident in the long frame, horizontal oblique arrangement of clever, imposing, dare to break the routine. Ping Qiuqi, so as to achieve static in the dynamic, the actual situation of Health, business abundant.
Its handed down works are "plum goldfish map", "Songhe map", "chrysanthemum map", "gourd map", "Cymbidium Ganoderma map", "loquat map" and so on.
He took ink and ink, the monk loaded, "leisure to write three thousand, beg for human cooking money", wandering the world, the poor world but ink world, his trip wide, painting as much as has been rare. He inherited the ancient innovation, another shortcuts, extensive material, hard Ken, as a generation of giant. Early years of academic painting, the representative works such as "Ruilian put reference map", "reconstruction of Guangfu Temple panorama", etc., in particular, he is the South China Sea Putuoshan Xiji Temple painting twelve real landscape album, is traditional painting Fusion of the gods. These and the benefit of Huizhou hometown of ancient art heritage is not unrelated.
After a good painting Huaguo, poultry, landscape famous. Style Qiao novel, embroidered Ya fresh, without a lag phase, Jiangxinduyun, unique. Also poetry, there are "virtual valley monk poems recorded." There are many works such as Plum Blossom Goldfish, Plum Chrysanthemum Figure, Gourd Picture, Cymbidium Ganoderma and Loquat Figure, as well as Chunbo Fish Figure, , "Cat", "fish to wear flowers", "squirrels", "plum blossom goldfish axis", "cat daisy wan fan" and so on.
Xu Gu also good poetry, such as "Dongmei" poem, saying "full of plum from the occasional, Tiancheng Han Mei any deals. Leisure to write three thousand, begging for human food money." 3000 is not an exaggeration of the words, Is his passion for the art of love. Before his death, also wrote a poem: "the sound of firecrackers next door, every household cheers Qinghua-Hua. Tomorrow at this time the new year, the spring is still plum" and so on, the pain is still pouring hot Of life nostalgia. His calligraphy Weijun Gaoge, cold Qiao in the breath of fortitude, also like to use the coke ink dry pen, the actual situation Zhasheng see spirits, King as its people, the author of "Xu Gu monk poetry recorded."