虚谷

虚谷(1823~1896),清代著名画家,海上四大家之一,有“晚清画苑第一家”之誉。俗姓朱,名怀仁,僧名虚白,字虚谷,别号紫阳山民、倦鹤,室名觉非庵、古柏草堂、三十七峰草堂。籍新安(今安徽歙县),居广陵(今江苏扬州)。初任清军参将与太平军作战,意有感触,后出家为僧。工山水、花卉、动物、禽鸟,尤长于画松鼠及金鱼。亦擅写真,工隶书。作画有苍秀之趣,敷色清新,造型生动,落笔冷消,别具风格。性情孤僻,非相处情深者不能得其片纸。早年学界画,后以擅画花果、禽鱼、山水著名。风格冷峭新奇,绣雅鲜活,无一笔滞相,匠心独运,别具一格。亦能诗,有《虚谷和尚诗录》。传世作品有《梅花金鱼图》、《松菊图》、《葫芦图》、《蕙兰灵芝图》、《枇耙图》等。

  • 中文名虚谷
  • 别名朱怀仁
  • 性别
  • 祖籍新安(今安徽歙县)
  • 出生日期1823
  • 逝世日期1896
  • 信仰佛教
  • 职业清代著名画家
  • 主要成就海上四大家之一,晚清画苑第一家
  • 代表作品《梅花金鱼图》、《松菊图》、《葫芦图》、《蕙兰灵芝图》、《枇耙图》
  • 所属年代晚清
  • 僧名虚白
  • 虚谷
  • 别号紫阳山民、倦鹤,室名觉非庵、古柏草堂、三十七峰草堂
简介

虚谷安徽新安(今歙县)城南紫阳观人,后移居江苏扬州。工作画有苍秀之趣,敷色清新,造型生动,落笔冷消,别具风格。他的特色是夸张描写动物的特点,而以战劲的线条来描其形状。性情孤僻,非相处情深者不能得其片纸。他一生过着相当清苦的日子,光绪二十二年(1896年)在上海城西关帝庙里过世,还是他的释门弟子苏州狮林寺方丈恬宣来沪,才把他的灵枢运回苏州光福安葬。
他曾做清朝参将,后因不愿奉命打太平天国而出出家为僧。虚谷“不茹素,不礼佛”,也“从不卓锡僧寺”。同治、光绪年间寓居上海,常往来于上海、苏州、扬州—带,以卖画为生,自谓“闲来写出三千幅,行乞人间作饭钱”。与任伯年、高邕之、胡公寿、吴昌硕、倪墨耕等海上名家友善。他书画为全才,早年学界画,工人物写照。擅山水、花卉、动物、禽鸟,尤长于画松鼠及金鱼。亦擅写真,工隶书。他继承新安派渐江、程邃画风并上溯宋元,又受华新罗等扬州画家影响,作画笔墨老辣而奇拙。运用干笔偏锋,敷色以淡彩为主,偶而亦用强烈对比色,风格冷峭新奇,隽雅鲜活,无一带滞相,匠心独运,开具一格,海派大师吴昌硕赞其为“一拳打破去来今”。
晚清民国时期著名花鸟画家,与任伯年蒲华吴昌硕齐名为“清末海派四杰”。
 

绘画风格

虚谷的绘画师法弘仁、程速清脱苍劲一路,好用于笔画线,很多几乎是白描起稿,然后敷以淡彩。运笔清劲利落,具有节奏感。他善用侧笔逆势,行线秀劲并见,犹如刀削而下,刚健而不流滑。虚谷这种清脱苍劲的用笔方法,不单表现在山水画里,也运用在花鸟画的创作上,给花乌画一种崭新的格调。虚谷的画有海派画家所共有的笔墨清新的一面,然而最可宝贵的还在他表现物象形体的敏感上。无论垂柳、秋林,或是松鼠、金鱼,往往能抓住对象最为本质的体态和表情。对象的形象动态在他画里不是如实反映,而是经过艺术创造上一种美的处理。他吸取前人观察事物和如何表现的长处,继承了弘仁的清劲,新罗的技巧,金农的朴实。虚谷画的许多蔬果花卉,幅式都很小,造型极为简略。但他的用笔设色细腻动人,既注意物性又注意画面的节奏和章法上的新颖,因而他的画能够超然象外,耐人寻味。虚谷对物象形体的处理,很近似欧洲现代绘画之父塞尚,很注意对象的体积感,不同的是他的意匠具有东方艺术的性格特色。固然,形式是绘画艺术表现的关键,但它必须来自画家在客观具象世界真实的新感受,笔墨因人而异,当随时代而新。因循守旧也是形式主义创作方法的一种表现。
虚谷的人物造型奇特,章法与众不同。他善于调理把握章法的中、偏、正欹、平奇、虚实、轻重、藏露与布白。使画面空灵,有强烈的空间感。这在长条画幅上表现尤为明显,横斜排列巧妙,气势浩大,敢于突破常规。平中求奇,从而达到静中有动,虚实相生,生意盎然。
虚谷的画富有趣味,善于巧妙的夸张,变形是他的一大创造。同时我们还可以从真、舍、直三方面来赏析他的艺术。“真”就是在对本质的东西把握基础上又能加以大胆的主观夸张,以达到更传神的高超的艺术境界。“舍”就是对造型的大胆取舍,虚谷的舍,来得狠,舍得妙,手法高明。“直”又是虚谷用笔用线的一个明显特点,其简练的线条凝重,见直方组合,做到神似、传种,而不是形似。他作画行笔用线是宁方勿圆,顿中见力,见棱见角,下笔肯定,有着强烈的个性。
虚谷敷色淡雅,重视色调的统一与淳朴的美感。他还善于在色纸古金笺上使用白粉,使其白色荷花、仙鹤毛片和白粉含石绿的折枝兰花等,显得栩栩如生。
虚谷的艺术实践,证明了对生活的探索感受是艺术形式能够发展的关键,他画的一花一木,给人清新的形式美。这里有对传统的理解,更有对客观自然真实的会心之处。精花鸟动物,所作金鱼,松鼠,仙鹤,花果活泼清新,富于动感,简练夸张,极富个性和装饰趣味,在海派中独树一帜。
虚谷常往来于上海、苏州、扬州一带,以卖画为生,自谓“闲来写出三千幅,行乞人间作饭钱”。其与任伯年、高邕之、胡公寿、吴昌硕、倪墨耕等海上名家友善。书画为全才,早年学界画,工人物写照。擅花果、禽鱼、山水、金鱼、松鼠尤为著名,书法亦精妙。继承新安派渐江、程邃画风并上溯宋元,又受华新罗等扬州画家影响,作画笔墨老辣而奇拙。运用干笔偏锋,敷色以淡彩为主,偶用强烈对比色,风格冷峭新奇,隽雅鲜活,无一带滞相,匠心独运,开具一格,海派大师吴昌硕赞其为“一拳打破去来今”。
虚谷是清代画坛独树一帜的画家。其对山水花卉、蔬果禽虫广有涉猎,尤擅长紫藤金鱼。笔下紫藤,新叶茂盛,繁花盛开,渲染出浓郁的春天意象。紫藤的枝蔓和叶子,多为几何图形,是“侧锋”用笔的结果。虚谷的紫藤金鱼图,均以“紫绶金章”为题。所谓“紫绶金章”本是颂扬达官贵人功成名遂、升官发财的吉祥话,而在此处,虚谷以一“紫”一“金”的色调与情韵,表现自然与生命主体的勃勃气息,显然已经远远别于其追求功名利禄的原始含义。不只如此,虚谷画金鱼,在运笔用墨方面又独辟蹊径,颇为个性化地是以方写圆、以拙取巧、以逆取势,可谓是艳色、枯笔与变形的交融。
虚谷的画富有趣味,善于巧妙的夸张,变形是其一大创造。在对本质的把握基础上能加以大胆的主观夸张,以达到更传神的高超艺术境界,对造型能大胆取舍,线条凝重简练,见直方组合,做到神似而非形似。其作画行笔用线宁方勿圆,顿中见力,见棱见角,下笔肯定,充溢着强烈的个性。敷色淡雅,重视色调的统一与淳朴。其善于在色纸古金笺上使用白粉,使其白色荷花、仙鹤毛片和白粉含石绿的折枝兰花等,显得栩栩如生。虚谷在界画方面也有很大成就,其代表作如《瑞莲放参图》、《重建光福寺全景图》等,是界画、传统画融合的神品。这些与受益徽州家乡的古代艺术遗产不无关系。顾鹤逸称其作画“清而不枯,密而不乱”。
虚谷的人物造型奇特,章法与众不同。善于调理把握章法的中、偏、正欹、平奇、虚实、轻重、藏露与布白。使画面空灵,有强烈的空间感。这在长条画幅上表现尤为明显,横斜排列巧妙,气势浩大,敢于突破常规。平中求奇,从而达到静中有动,虚实相生,生意盎然。
其传世作品有《梅花金鱼图》、《松鹤图》、《菊图》、《葫芦图》、《蕙兰灵芝图》、《枇杷图》等。

成就

他携笔墨、着僧装,"闲中写出三千幅,行乞人间作饭钱",云游四海,清贫于世却笔墨人间,他行程之广、画作之多,己为当时罕见。他承古创新,另辟捷径,广集素材,勤奋垦作,终成一代巨擘。早年学界画,其代表作如《瑞莲放参图》、《重建光福寺全景图》等,尤其是他为南海普陀山中的昔济寺画十二帧写实山水册页,是界画、传统画溶合的神品。这些与受益徽州家乡的古代艺术遗产不无关系。
后以擅画花果、禽鱼、山水著名。风格冷峭新奇,绣雅鲜活,无一笔滞相,匠心独运,别具一格。亦能诗,有《虚谷和尚诗录》。传世作品有《梅花金鱼图》、《松菊图》、《葫芦图》、《蕙兰灵芝图》、《枇耙图》等,还有《春波鱼戏图》、《松鼠伏砚图》、《猫》、《游鱼戴花》、《松鼠跳踯图》、《梅花金鱼图轴》、《猫菊纨扇》等。
虚谷亦擅诗,如《冬梅》诗,曰“满纸梅花起偶然,天成寒眉任周旋。闲时写出三千幅,行乞人间作饭钱。”三千幅并非夸张之词,是他对艺术热爱的肺腑之情。他临死前,还写过一首《除夕》诗:“儿声爆竹隔邻家,户户欢呼庆岁华。明日此时新岁月,春风依旧度梅花”等等,痛苦之中依然倾吐炽热的生活留恋之情。他的书法伟峻高格,冷峭中刚毅的气息,亦喜用焦墨干笔,虚实札生见神采,景如其人,着有《虚谷和尚诗录》。

代表作品

《梅鹤图》(虚谷 立轴 纸本 设色 纵1248厘米 横121.7厘米 北京故宫博物院藏)
顾鹤逸曾称虚谷作画“清而不枯,密而不乱”。这一幅梅鹤图就充分体现了虚谷的用笔特点。梅树始以湿笔淡墨写出,后以干笔复加勾点,线条断续顿挫,笔段而气连苍劲而松绣形成清虚的韵味。梅花以圆笔勾画,瓣似珠玉,稚拙古朴。鹤用笔极简用浓墨写头尾羽。画面设色清淡,鹤顶却以朱红重色点醒,使整幅画冷俊之中又富变化,质朴而又耐人寻味。
 

English is introduced

Xu Gu (1823 ~ 1896), the Qing Dynasty famous painter, one of the four sea, "the late Qing Dynasty painting the first" reputation. Common name Zhu, the name of Huairen, monk name virtual white, the word virtual valley, alias Ziyang mountain people, tired crane, room name feel non-Um, Cooper grass, thirty-seven peak cottage. Ji Xin (now Anhui Shexian), ranking Guangling (now Jiangsu Yangzhou). The beginning of the Qing army will fight with the Taiping, Italy has feelings, after the monk as a monk. Landscape, flowers, animals, birds, especially in painting squirrels and goldfish. Also good portrait, work official script. Painting with Cangxiu of interest, coloring fresh, vivid shape, put pen to paper cooling, unique style. Eccentric, non-get along with those who can not get their paper. Early academic painting, after good at painting and fruit, poultry, landscape famous. Style Qiao novel, embroidered Ya fresh, without a lag phase, Jiangxinduyun, unique. Also poetry, there are "virtual valley monk poems recorded." Handed down works of "plum goldfish map", "pineapple map", "gourd map", "Cymbidium Ganoderma map", "loquat map" and so on.

Biography

Virtual Valley Anhui Xin'an (now Shexian) South Ziyang concept, after moving to Jiangsu Yangzhou. Painting work with Cang show interest, color fresh, vivid shape, put pen to paper, unique style. He is characterized by exaggerated description of the characteristics of animals, and to fight the lines to describe its shape. Eccentric, non-get along with those who can not get their paper. His life had a very hard life, twenty-two years Guangxu (1896) in the West of Shanghai Guandi Temple passed away, or his disciples disciples of Suzhou Shilin Abbot Tian Xuan to Shanghai, only his Linghu back Suzhou Guangfu buried.
He had to do the Qing Dynasty Senate, because he did not want to be ordered to play the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and monks. Virtual Valley "does not vegetarian vegetarian, rude Buddha", also "never Zhuo tin monk temple". Tongzhi, Guangxu years living in Shanghai, often in Shanghai, Suzhou, Yangzhou - band, to sell paintings for a living, since that "free to write three thousand, begging for earth meal money. And Ren Bo, Gao Yongzhi, Hu Gongshou, Wu Changshuo, Ni Meigeng and other famous sea-friendly. His paintings for the all-rounder, the early years of academic painting, workers portrayal. Good at landscape, flowers, animals, birds, especially in painting squirrels and goldfish. Also good portrait, work official script. He inherited the Xin'an faction gradually Jiang, Cheng-style painting and up the Song and Yuan Dynasties, but also by the impact of Yangzhou painter, such as Xinluo, painting and writing sophistication and odd clumsy. The use of dry pen to the front, color to light-based color, occasionally with a strong contrasting color, style, chilly novelty, Jun Ya fresh, no lag phase, ingenuity, issued a grid, Shanghai master Wu Changshuo praise it as " To this day. "
The famous late Qing Dynasty flowers and birds painter, and Ren Bo, Pu Hua, Wu Changshuo known as the "late Qing four sea-style."

Painting style

Xu Gu of the painting artist Hong Ren, Cheng speed off the vigorous all the way, good for the line of strokes, a lot of almost white sketch draft, and then apply to the light color. Yun Qing neat, with a sense of rhythm. He made good use of side pen contrarian, line Xiu Jin and see, like a knife down, healthy and not slippery. Xu Gu this clear vigorous use of pen method, not only in landscape painting, also used in the creation of flower and bird painting, to flower a new style of painting. Xu Gu 's paintings are the common side of the ink paintings by the painters of the Shanghai School, but the most valuable ones are still the sensibility of his physical appearance. Whether weeping willow, Qiulin, or squirrels, goldfish, often able to seize the most essential objects of the body and expression. The dynamic image of the object in his painting is not a truthful reflection, but through the artistic creation of a beautiful deal. He learned from his predecessors to observe things and how to show the strengths, inherited Hongren's fresh, Silla's skills, the simple farmers. Xu Gu painted many flowers and fruits, are very small format, shape is very simple. But his pen color delicate and moving, not only pay attention to physical properties and attention to the rhythm of the screen and the new rules, so his paintings can be transcendent as, the thought-provoking. The treatment of the imaginary form is similar to that of the European modern painting, Cezanne, who paid attention to the volume sense of the object. The difference is that his artisan has the character of oriental art. Of course, the form is the key to the performance of the art of painting, but it must come from the painter in the objective reality of the real world of new feelings, ink varies with the times and new. Follow the beaten track is also a manifestation of formalist creative methods.
Xu Gu 's character modeling peculiar, tricks are different. He is good at conditioning to grasp the rules of the partial, positive, flat Qi, the actual situation, severity, possession of dew and cloth white. So that the screen empty, there is a strong sense of space. This is particularly evident in the long frame, horizontal oblique arrangement of clever, imposing, dare to break the routine. Ping Qiuqi, so as to achieve static in the dynamic, the actual situation of Health, business abundant.
Xu Gu 's rich and interesting paintings, good at clever exaggeration, deformation is one of his great creation. At the same time we can also from the true, homes, straight three aspects to appreciate his art. "True" is to grasp the essence of things can be based on the subjective exaggeration to be bold, in order to achieve a more expressive artistic realm. "House" is a bold choice of modeling, virtual Valley of the homes, to relentless, homes Miao, clever way. "Straight" is a virtual valley with a pen with a clear line of the characteristics of its concise lines solemnly, see the combination of the straight, so similar to the kind of transmission, rather than the shape. His painting line with the line is rather not round, suddenly see the power, see the edge see angle, write affirmative, has a strong personality.
Virtual Valley elegant color, focusing on the unity of color and simple beauty. He is also good at the use of white paper on the ancient paper, so that the white lotus, cranes, and white powder with stone green almond blossom orchid, appear lifelike.
Xu Gu's art practice proved that the exploration of life is the key to the development of artistic form, he painted a flower, giving a fresh form of beauty. Here is the understanding of the traditional, more objective nature of the real heart of the Department. The flowers, animals, goldfish, squirrels, cranes, fruits and lively fresh, dynamic, concise exaggeration, highly personalized and decorative taste, unique in the Shanghai school.
Xu Gu often exchanges in Shanghai, Suzhou, Yangzhou area, to sell paintings for a living, since that "free to write three thousand, begging for earth meal money." Its and Ren Bo, Gao Yong, Hu Gongshou, Wu Changshuo, Ni Meigeng and other famous sea-friendly. Painting and calligraphy for the all-rounder, early academic painting, a portrait of workers. Good flowers and fruits, poultry, landscape, goldfish, squirrel is particularly famous, calligraphy is also exquisite. Inheritance Xin'an faction Jiang, Cheng-style painting and up to the Song and Yuan Dynasties, but also by the impact of the Yangzhou painter, such as Xinluo, painting and writing sophistication and odd clumsy. The use of dry pen to the front, color to light color, even with a strong contrasting color, style Qiao novelty, Jun Ya fresh, no lag phase, Jiangxinduyun, issued a grid, Shanghai Master Wu Changshuo praise it as "punch break To this day. "
Xu Gu is a painter of the Qing Dynasty painting unique. Its landscape flowers, fruits and vegetables birds are widely studied, especially good at wisteria goldfish. Wistaria under the pen, lush new leaves, flowers bloom, rendering a rich image of the spring. Wisteria dendrites and leaves, mostly geometric patterns, is the "side" pen with the results. Xu Gu's Wisteria goldfish map, are "purple ribbon gold chapter" as the title. The so-called "Purple Ribbon Gold Chapter" is a glorification of dignitaries and success, the fortune of auspicious words, and here, Xu Gu a "purple" a "gold" color and emotion, the performance of nature and life of the main Exuberant atmosphere, apparently far from the pursuit of fame and fortune of its original meaning. Not only that, Xu Gu painted goldfish, in the ink and ink used in the way of writing, rather personalized to write a round side, to Zhuo Qiaoqiao to reverse the potential, can be described as Chromic, pen and deformation blend.
Xu Gu 's rich and interesting paintings, good clever exaggeration, deformation is a major creation. On the basis of the nature of the grasp can be bold subjective exaggeration, in order to achieve a more vivid artistic realm of the superb, bold choice of modeling, line concise and concise, see the combination of the straight, do not like the shape of the spirit. The painting line with a line rather than round Ning Fang, suddenly see the power, see the edge see angle, write affirmation, filled with a strong personality. Elegant coating color, emphasis on color unity and simplicity. Its good at the ancient paper on the use of white paper, making it a white lotus, cranes and white powder with stone-green orchid branches, etc., appear lifelike. Xu Gu in the painting sector has great achievements, the representative works such as "Ruilian put reference map", "reconstruction of Guangfu Temple panorama", is the boundary painting, the traditional painting of the integration of the gods. These and the benefit of Huizhou hometown of ancient art heritage is not unrelated. Gu Heyi said his painting "clean and not dry, dense and not chaos."
Xu Gu 's character modeling peculiar, tricks are different. Good at conditioning to grasp the rules of the partial, positive, flat odd, the actual situation, severity, possession of dew and cloth white. So that the screen empty, there is a strong sense of space. This is particularly evident in the long frame, horizontal oblique arrangement of clever, imposing, dare to break the routine. Ping Qiuqi, so as to achieve static in the dynamic, the actual situation of Health, business abundant.
Its handed down works are "plum goldfish map", "Songhe map", "chrysanthemum map", "gourd map", "Cymbidium Ganoderma map", "loquat map" and so on.

achievement

He took ink and ink, the monk loaded, "leisure to write three thousand, beg for human cooking money", wandering the world, the poor world but ink world, his trip wide, painting as much as has been rare. He inherited the ancient innovation, another shortcuts, extensive material, hard Ken, as a generation of giant. Early years of academic painting, the representative works such as "Ruilian put reference map", "reconstruction of Guangfu Temple panorama", etc., in particular, he is the South China Sea Putuoshan Xiji Temple painting twelve real landscape album, is traditional painting Fusion of the gods. These and the benefit of Huizhou hometown of ancient art heritage is not unrelated.
After a good painting Huaguo, poultry, landscape famous. Style Qiao novel, embroidered Ya fresh, without a lag phase, Jiangxinduyun, unique. Also poetry, there are "virtual valley monk poems recorded." There are many works such as Plum Blossom Goldfish, Plum Chrysanthemum Figure, Gourd Picture, Cymbidium Ganoderma and Loquat Figure, as well as Chunbo Fish Figure, , "Cat", "fish to wear flowers", "squirrels", "plum blossom goldfish axis", "cat daisy wan fan" and so on.
Xu Gu also good poetry, such as "Dongmei" poem, saying "full of plum from the occasional, Tiancheng Han Mei any deals. Leisure to write three thousand, begging for human food money." 3000 is not an exaggeration of the words, Is his passion for the art of love. Before his death, also wrote a poem: "the sound of firecrackers next door, every household cheers Qinghua-Hua. Tomorrow at this time the new year, the spring is still plum" and so on, the pain is still pouring hot Of life nostalgia. His calligraphy Weijun Gaoge, cold Qiao in the breath of fortitude, also like to use the coke ink dry pen, the actual situation Zhasheng see spirits, King as its people, the author of "Xu Gu monk poetry recorded."

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