郑板桥(郑燮)

郑板桥(1693-1765),原名郑燮,字克柔,号理庵,又号板桥,人称板桥先生,江苏兴化人,祖籍苏州。康熙秀才,雍正十年举人,乾隆元年(1736年)进士。官山东范县、潍县县令,政绩显著,后客居扬州,以卖画为生,为“扬州八怪”重要代表人物。郑板桥一生只画兰、竹、石,自称“四时不谢之兰,百节长青之竹,万古不败之石,千秋不变之人”。其诗书画,世称“三绝”,是清代比较有代表性的文人画家。

  • 中文名郑板桥
  • 别名郑燮
  • 性别
  • 民族
  • 祖籍祖籍苏州
  • 出生地江苏兴化
  • 出生日期1693
  • 逝世日期1765
  • 职业清代书画家、文学家
  • 主要成就“扬州八怪”之一
  • 代表作品《修竹新篁图》《清光留照图》《兰竹芳馨图》《甘谷菊泉图》《丛兰荆棘图》著有《郑板桥集》
  • 所属年代清代
  • 克柔
  • 理庵,又号板桥,人称板桥先生
人物生平

清圣祖康熙三十二年(1693年11月22日)子时,郑板桥出生,其时家道已经中落,生活拮据。三岁时,生母汪夫人去世,少时随父立庵至真州毛家桥读书。至八、九岁已在父亲的指导下作文联对。
康熙四十年(1701年),十四岁又失去继母郑夫人。乳母费氏是一位善良、勤劳、朴真的劳动妇女,给了郑板桥悉心周到的照顾和无微不至的关怀,成了郑板桥生活和感情上的支柱。十六岁从乡先辈陆种园先生学填词。
康熙五十二年(1713年),二十岁左右考取秀才。
康熙五十五年(1716年),娶妻徐夫人。是年秋郑板桥首次赴北京,于漱云轩手书小楷欧阳修《秋声赋》。
康熙五十八年(1719年),至真州之江村设塾教书。
客居扬州
雍正元年(1723年),父亲去世,此时板桥已有二女一子,生活更加困苦。由于生活困苦,郑板桥在三十岁以后即弃馆至扬州卖画为生,实救困贫,托名”风雅”。在扬州卖画十年期间,也穿插着一些旅游活动。不幸的是徐夫人所生之子去世,郑板桥曾作诗以致哀。
雍正三年(1725年),出游江西,于庐山结识无方上人和满洲士人保禄。出游北京,与禅宗尊宿及其门羽林诸子弟交游,放言高论,臧否人物,因而得狂名。在名期间,结织了康熙皇子、慎郡王允禧,即紫琼崖主人。
求学通仕
雍正五年(1728年),客于通州,读书于扬州天宁寺,手写《四书》各一部。
雍正七年(1730年),作《道情十首》初稿,三十九岁,徐夫人病殁。郑板桥十载扬州,结论了许多画友,金农黄慎等都与他过往甚密,对他的创作思想乃至性格都有极大的影响。
雍正十年(1732年),郑板桥四十岁,是年秋,赴南京参加乡试,中举人,作《得南捷音》诗。为求深造,赴镇江焦山读书。现焦山别峰庵有郑板桥手书木刻对联“室雅何须大,花香不在多”。
乾隆元年(1736年),在北京,参加礼部会试,中贡士,五月,于太和殿前丹墀参加殿试,中二甲第八十八名进士,为赐进士出身,特作《秋葵石笋图》并题诗曰“我亦终葵称进士,相随丹桂状元郎”,喜悦之情溢于言表。
乾隆二年(1737年),滞留北京一年左右,以图仕进,未果,南归扬州,得江西程羽宸资助,娶饶氏。乳母费氏卒。
乾隆四年(1739年),作七律四首赠淮南监运使虞见曾。
乾隆五年(1740年),为董伟业《扬州竹枝词》作序。
乾隆六年(1741年),入京,候补官缺,受到慎郡王允禧的礼诚款待。
乾隆七年(1742年)春天,郑板桥为范县令兼署小县朝城,始订定诗、词集,并手写付梓。[2]
乾隆八年(1743年),将《道情十首》几经修改,至是方定稿,刻者为上元司徒文膏。

两任知县

乾隆九年(1744年),妾饶氏生子。郑板桥任范县知县期间,重视农桑,体察民情、兴民休息,百姓安居乐业。
乾隆十一年(1746年),自范县调署潍县。同年,山东发生大饥荒,经常发生人吃人现象。潍县原本繁华大邑,因灾荒连年,救灾便成了郑板桥主持潍县政事的一项重要内容,他开仓赈货,令民具领券供给,又大兴工役,修城筑池,招远近饥民就食赴工,籍邑中大户开厂煮粥轮食之。尽封积粟之家,活万余人。秋以歉收,捐廉代轮,尽毁借条,活民无算。潍县饥民出关觅食,板桥感叹系之,作逃荒行。
乾隆十二年(1747年),满洲正黄旗人、侍讲学士德保主试山东,板桥同在试院,相与唱和。
乾隆十三年(1748年),大学士高斌和都御史刘统勋为特使到山东放赈,板桥随同前往。时值秋熟,潍县灾情渐趋缓解,饥民也由关外络绎返乡,板桥作还家行纪其事。为防水浸寇扰,捐资倡众大修潍县城墙。秋末,书修潍县城记。乾隆出巡山东。郑板桥为“书画史”,参与筹备,布置天子登泰山诸事,卧泰山绝顶四十余日,常以此自豪,镌一印章“云乾隆柬封书画史”。
乾隆十四年(1749年),饶氏所生之子又于兴化病世。与御史沈延芳同游郭氏园。重订家书、诗钞,并手写付梓。
乾隆十五年(1750年),撰板桥自序。同年,重修文昌祠,倡建状元桥,作文昌祠记。
乾隆十六年(1751年),海水溢,板桥至潍县北边禹王台勘灾。郑板桥作官意在“得志则泽加于民”,因而他理政时能体恤平民和小商贩,改革弊政,并从法令上、措施上维护他们的利益,板桥宰潍期间勤政廉政,无留积,亦无冤民”,深得百姓拥戴。潍县富商云集,人们以奢靡相容,郑板桥力倡文事,发现人才,留下了许多佳话。作“难得湖涂”横幅。
乾隆十七年(1752年),主持修潍县城隍庙,撰城隍庙碑记,在文昌祠记和城隍庙碑记里,板桥力劝潍县绅民修文洁行”,在潍且百姓间产生了相当大的影响。同年,与潍县童生韩镐论文,并作行书七言联删繁就简三秋树,领异标新二月花。”郑板桥在潍县任上著述颇多,其《潍县竹枝词》四十首尤为脍炙人口。“民于顺处皆成子,官到闲时更读书”。官潍七年,板桥无论是在吏治还是诗文书画方面都达到了新的高峰,“吏治文名,为时所重”。板桥居官十年,洞察了官场的种种黑暗,立功天地,字养生民的抱负难以实现,归田之意与日俱增。

晚年生活

乾隆十八年(1753年),郑板桥六十一岁,以为民请赈忤大吏而去官。去潍之时,百姓遮道挽留,家家画像以祀,并自发于潍城海岛寺为郑板桥建立了生祠。去官以后,板桥卖画为生,往来于扬州、兴化之间,与同道书画往来,诗酒唱和。
乾隆十九年(1754年),郑板桥游杭州。复过钱塘,至会稽,探禹穴,游兰亭,往来山阴道上。
乾隆二十二年(1757年),参加了两淮监运使虞见曾主持的虹桥修禊,并结识了袁枚,互以诗句赠答。这段时期,板桥所作书画作品极多,流传极广。
乾隆二十七年(1762年),画了一幅《竹石图》,一块巨石顶天立地,数竿瘦竹几乎撑破画面。右上角空白处题诗一首:“七十老人画竹石,石更凌嶒竹更直。乃知此老笔非凡,挺挺千寻之壁立。乾隆癸未,板桥郑燮。”下揿两方名号印。画幅右下方空白处又押上“歌吹古扬州”闲章一方。郑板桥颠沛了一生,不向各种恶势力低头,仍如磐石般坚强,如清竹般劲挺,如兰花般高洁。诗题得整整斜斜,大大小小,或在峰峦之上,代之以皴法;或在竹竿之间,使画连成一片;或在兰花丛中,衬托出花更繁,叶更茂。画上题诗,宋元即首,并非郑燮始创,但如郑燮之妙,实不多见,妙就妙在各类艺术高度统一。
乾隆三十年十二月十二日(1765年1月22日),板桥卒,葬于兴化城东管阮庄,享年七十三岁。

诗书画三绝

书法艺术
郑板桥书法,用隶体掺人行楷,自称“六分半书”,人称“板桥体”。其画,多以兰草竹石为主,兰竹几成其心灵的郑板桥的书法艺术,在中国书法史上是独树一帜的。
由他23岁写的《小楷欧阳修《秋声赋》和30岁写的《小楷范质诗》推知,板桥早年学书从欧阳询人手。其字体工整秀劲,但略显拘谨:这与当时书坛盛行匀整秀媚的馆阁体,并以此作为科举取士的标准字体有关。对此,郑板桥曾说:“蝇头小楷太匀停,长恐工书损性灵。”在他40岁中进士以后就很少再写了。郑板桥书法最被称道的是“六分半书”,即以“汉八分”(隶书的一种)杂人楷、行、草而独创一格的“板桥体”。
“六分半”书,是郑板桥对自己独创性书法的一种谐谑称谓。隶书中有一种笔画多波磔的“八分书”,所谓“六分半”,其意大体是隶书,但掺杂了楷,行、篆、草等别的书体。《行书曹操诗》轴(如同,现藏扬州博物馆)可视为“六分半”体的代表作。此件写曹操《观沧海》诗,幅面很大,平均每宇有10平方厘米以上,字体隶意颇浓,兼有篆和楷;形体扁长相间,宅势以方正为主而略有摆宕。拙朴扩悍,恰与曹诗雄伟阔大的风格相似。郑板桥曾在《赠潘桐冈》诗中称道自己的书法:“吾曹笔阵凌云烟,扫空氛翳铺青天。一行两行书数字,南箕北斗排星躔。”
郑板桥书法作品的章法也很有特色,他能将大小、长短、方圆、肥瘦、疏密错落穿插,如“乱石铺街”,纵放中含着规矩。看似随笔挥洒,整体观之却产生跳跃灵动的节奏感。如作于乾隆二十七年的《行书论书》横幅,时已七十高龄,乃晚年佳作。大意是说苏东坡喜用宣城诸葛氏齐锋笔,写起来十分如意,后来改用别的笔,就手心不相应。板桥自己喜用泰州邓氏羊毫笔,写起来婉转飞动,无不如意。于是把泰州邓氏羊毫比作宣城诸葛齐锋,最后说:“予何敢妄拟东坡?而用笔作书皆爱肥不爱瘦,亦坡之意也。”整幅作品结字大大小小,笔划粗粗细细,态势欹欹斜斜,点画、提按、使转如乐行于耳,鸟飞于空,鱼游于水,在一种态情任意的节律中显露着骨力和神采:清人何绍基说他的字“间以兰竹意致,尤为别]趣”。从这件作晶的章法、结体和笔画,不准看出他“波磔奇古形翩翩”的兰竹娄神。

绘画艺术

郑板桥出身于书香门第,康熙末年中秀才,雍正十年中举人,乾隆元年中进士,五十岁起先后任山东范县、潍县知县计十二年。“得志加泽于民”的思想,使得他在仕途对连年灾荒的平民百姓采取了“开仓赈贷”“捐廉代输”等举措,这引起了贪官污吏、恶豪劣绅的不满,被贬官。之后,他靠卖画维持生活。郑板桥的一生,经历了坎坷,饱尝了酸甜苦辣,看透了世态炎凉,他敢于把这一切都糅进他的作品中。郑板桥的题画诗已摆脱传统单纯的以诗就画或以画就诗的窠臼,他每画必题以诗,有题必佳,达到“画状画之像”“诗发难画之意”,诗画映照,无限拓展画面的广度,郑板桥的题画诗是关注现实生活的,有着深刻的思想内容,他以如枪似剑的文字,针砭时弊,正如他在《兰竹石图》中云:“要有掀天揭地之文,震电惊雷之字,呵神骂鬼之谈,无古无今之画,固不在寻常蹊径中也。

瘦劲竹子画

郑板桥画竹,“神似坡公,多不乱,少不疏,脱尽时习,秀劲绝伦”。《清代学者像传》说他一生的三分之二岁月都在为竹传神写影,自己曾有诗写道:“四十年来画竹枝,日间挥写夜间思,冗繁削尽留清瘦,画到生时是熟时”。后来他说:“吾画竹,无所师承,多得于纸窗粉壁日光月影中耳”。他通过观察和艺术创作的实践,提炼出“眼中之竹”、“胸中之竹”、“手中之竹”的理论。“眼中之竹”是自然实景,是对自然的观察和从中体验画意;“胸中之竹”是艺术创作时的构思;“手中之竹”是艺术创作的实现。他把主观与客观、现象与想象、真实与艺术有机地融为一体,创造了师承自然,而又高于自然的境界。
自然之竹是客观存在的,画家看到眼里的竹已经和自然之竹有所区别了,然后要进行加工、主观处理,形成胸中之竹,这就是所说的意在笔先,等落到纸上,转化为手中之竹,“手中之竹”说的是画家所创出的一个“第二自然”,胸中之竹和手中之竹都是眼中之竹的升华,概括说就是画家把眼睛看到的客观形象,经过大脑的意象处理,最终经过技术加工物化为典型的艺术形象,是艺术创作的过程。
郑板桥任山东潍县知县,曾作过一幅画《潍县署中画竹呈年伯包大中丞括》,画中的竹子不再是自然竹子的“再现”,这诗题,不再是无感而发的诗题,透过画和诗,使人们联想到了板桥的人品,他身为知县,从衙斋萧萧的竹声,联想到百姓困苦疾声,说明他心中装着百姓,情感链系在百姓身上。这时画中的竹叶有了形象的扩展,郑板桥开仓赈贷,救济灾民的场景一幕幕地浮现在人们脑海里,“凝固的瞬间”在观众的脑海里变成了无限延续的故事,好似极富感染力的小说、影片那样,扣人心弦,发人深思。寥寥几笔竹叶,简练几句诗题,让人倍感作品中蕴藏着的深刻的思想、浓浓的情意。再有几幅是郑板桥被贬官后离开潍县,三头毛驴一车书,两袖清风而去,临行前后作的画,其一画竹图题云:“乌纱掷去不为官,囊囊萧萧两袖寒,写取一枝清瘦竹,秋风江上竹渔竿”,借竹抒发了他弃官为民、淡泊名利、享受人生的平静心态,其二《竹石图》画幅上三两枝瘦劲的竹子,从石缝中挺然后立,坚韧不拔,遇风不倒,郑板桥借竹抒发了自己洒脱、豁达的胸臆,表达了勇敢面对现实,绝不屈服于挫折的人品,竹子被人格化了,此时,“诗是无形画,画是有形诗”。类似的还有《墨竹图》《竹图》,这几幅墨竹图,都是借竹子抒发他遭贬官后,越发洒脱。郑板桥所画竹子和题画诗,大多是借竹缘情,托物言志,抒发了“衙斋卧听萧萧竹,疑是民间疾苦声”的情怀,表现出“立根原在乱岩中,任尔东西南北风”的坚劲,表达出“写取一枝清瘦竹,乌纱掷去不为官”的气节和气概,竹子的高风亮节,坚贞正直,高雅豪迈等气韵,都被他表现得淋漓尽致。这正是郑板桥作品不同于传统花鸟画之处,不同于前人之处。传统的兰竹大多数表现为欣赏性的、娱乐性的主题,画面主要追求自然形象的真与美、绘画技能的高与低、笔墨运用的娴熟与雅俗,而到了郑板桥的笔下,除了达到这些技能技巧外,题画诗还赋予这题材新的思想内容和深邃意境,使花鸟画亦能产生思想性、抒情性,给人以深刻的感受。

峰石图兰花图

峰石图:郑板桥画竹独特,画石亦如此。自然界再无情的石头在他笔下也活了,如《柱石图》中的石头,这也是前人画中常用题材,但很少把它作为主体形象来表现的。而郑板桥在画幅中央别具一格地画了一块孤立的峰石,却有直冲云霄的气概,四周皆空没有背景。画上四句七言诗:“谁与荒斋伴寂寥,一枝柱石上云霄,挺然直是陶元亮,五斗何能折我腰。”诗点破了画题,一下子将石头与人品结合到一块儿,可谓“画不足而题足之,画无声而诗声之。诗画互相为用,开后人无数法门。”板桥借挺然坚劲的石头,赞美陶渊明。板桥赞美他刚直不阿、品格高尚的人格,同时似乎也有吐露他自己同样遭遇及气度的意思。画中的石头代表了人物形象,蕴藏着刚直不阿、气宇轩昂的品质,使人感到,此处画石头比画人更有意味,更能揭示深刻含义。
兰花图郑板桥还有很多以兰花为主题的画,也表现了一些新的内容,借题画诗发挥,寓意对各种各样事物的看法。如:有的借兰花特征,透溢出做人胜不骄、败不馁,持平常心态的胸臆,题画诗云:“兰花与竹本相关,总在青山绿水间,霜雪不凋春不艳,笑人红紫作客顽。”由兰花让人产生联想,做人要像兰花一样幽静、持久、清香,不浮不躁,不争艳。咫尺画幅,拓展无限之大,意境深邃。又如:有的借一丛丛兰花,夹着一些荆棘的自然现象,抒君子能宽容小人之大度的气质。《荆棘丛兰石图》题画诗云:“不容荆棘不成兰,外道天魔冷眼看,看到鱼龙都混杂,方知佛法浩漫漫。”另一幅《荆棘丛兰石图》题云:“满幅皆君子,其后以荆棘终之何也?盖君子能容纳小人,无小人亦不能成君子,故棘中之兰,其花更硕茂矣。”板桥匠心独运,兰花中穿插几枝荆棘,画兰花与荆棘共存,表达了遇有小人,虚怀若谷、和睦共处,“历经磨练,方成英雄”的宽宏大量之胸怀,读画者亦受益匪浅。越读越感简单的植物具有高深的意境,乐趣无穷。纵观郑板桥笔下所画的兰竹石,细品题画诗,我们不难看出,他喜画兰竹石的缘由,正如他所云:“四时不谢之兰,百节长青之竹,万古不败之石,千秋不变之人”,而“为四美也”。“有兰有竹有石,有节有香有骨”。在他眼中,兰竹石,能代表人坚贞不屈,正直无私,坚韧不拔,心地光明,品格高洁等品格,因而其题画诗的字字句句,托物言志,意境深远。

题画诗

题画诗:题画诗在他笔下,除了在内容上有思想性,抒情性以外,在形式上还更具有艺术性、趣味性。题画诗能充分体现“书画同源”“用笔同法”的艺术趣味,而传统画家的题款跋文,大多题于画的空白处,与画面起平衡作用,但“扬州八怪”的题款已脱传统国画以及“文人画”题款、题诗的窠臼,特别是郑板桥将书法与画糅合在一起,还成了共同表现形象的特殊手法,彼此关系不分割。如《兰石图》,郑板桥别具匠心地将诗句用书法的形式,真草隶篆融为一体,大大小小,东倒西歪,犹如“乱石铺街”地题于石壁上,代替了画石所需的皴法,产生了节奏美、韵律美,又恰到好外地表现了石头的立体感、肌理美,比单纯用皴法表现立体感更具有意趣。这倒成了不可或缺的表现方法,既深刻揭示兰花特征,寓意高尚人品的意境美,又有书法艺术替代皴法的艺术美。让人在观画时既享受到画境、诗境的意境美,又能享受到书法艺术的形式美,沉浸在诗情画意中。另在许多兰竹石的画幅上,他题诗的形式变化多端,不守成规,不拘一格,自然成趣,达到书佳、行款得体,画亦随之增色。所谓行款得体,即是视画面的实际,进行构思,讲究构图的形式美,因而他将题画诗或长题于侧,或短题于上下,或纵题、或横题、或斜题、或贯穿于兰竹之间、藤叶之间,断断续续地题,观其形态,参差错落,疏密有致。是书也是题,是画也是诗,是诗也是画,欣赏每幅画中题画诗,既是绝妙的书法再现,也是将书画相映成趣的综合艺术,书题与画面有机地交融在一起,构成了统一的诗情画意,给人以综合的完美的艺术享受。
吏治清明郑板桥情系百姓,与民同忧。乾隆六年(1741年)春,因科举及第考中进士的郑板桥被派往山东范县任县令,开始了他长达12年的官宦生涯。他为官力求简肃,视排衙喝道之类的礼仪为桎梏。为察看民情、访问疾苦,他常不坐轿子,不许鸣锣开道,不许打“回避”“肃静”的牌子,身着便服,脚穿草鞋到乡下察访。即便夜间去查巡,也仅差一人提着写有“板桥”二字的灯笼引路。因为他常常微服“陇上闲眠看耦耕”,以致“几回大府来相问”,竟找不到他的人影子。
对于百姓的疾苦,他时时刻刻都挂在心上。他一生善于画竹,尤其善于据竹写诗。在潍县任县令时,他的顶头上司、山东巡抚包括向他索求书画,他画了拿手的竹子,并在上面题诗一首:“衙斋卧听萧萧竹,疑是民间疾苦声。些小吾曹州县吏,一枝一叶总关情。”
乾隆十一年(1746年),郑板桥调署潍县,在潍县任上七年,竟有五年发生旱蝗水灾,生民涂炭,哀鸿遍野。他一面向朝廷据实禀报灾情,请求赈济;一面以工代赈,兴修城池道路,招收远近饥民赴工就食,并责令邑中大户轮流在道边开厂煮粥,供妇孺耄耋充饥。同时,责令囤积居奇者迅速将积粟按通常价格卖给饥民。他自己也节衣缩食,为饥民捐出官俸。在最危急之时,他毅然决定打开官仓放粮。乾隆十七年(1752年),他愤然辞官,回到故乡江苏兴化定居。

人物评价

扬州画家李鳝(《楹联丛话》):三绝诗书画,一官归去来。
清代袁枚:板桥书法野孤禅也……乱爬蛇蚓,不足妃稀。
清代学者康有为:乾隆之世,巳厌旧学。冬心(金农)、板桥参用隶笔,然失则怪,此欲变而不知变者。
书画家启功(《论书绝句》):坦白胸襟品最高,神寒骨重墨萧寥。朱文印小人干占,二百年前旧板桥。
清代戏曲家、文学家蒋士铨(《题画兰》):板桥作画如写兰,波磔奇古形翩翩,板桥写兰如作字,秀叶疏花是姿致。
清代“扬州八怪之一”的金农:兴化郑进士板桥风流雅谑,极有书名,狂草古籀,一字一笔,兼众妙之长。
清末历史地理学家、金石文字学家、目录版本学家、书法艺术家杨守敬(《学书迩言》):板桥行楷,冬心分隶,皆不受前人束缚,自辟蹊径。然为后学师范,或堕魔道。

人物轶事

以怪出名
郑板桥的“怪”,颇有点济公活佛的味道,“怪”中总含几分真诚,几分幽默,几分酸辣。每当他看到贪官奸民被游街示众时,便画一幅梅兰竹石,挂在犯人身上作为围屏,以此吸引观众,借以警世醒民。
颇有骂名
郑板桥无官一身轻,再回到扬州卖字画,身价已与前大不相同,求之者多,收入颇有可观。但他最厌恶那些附儒风雅的暴发户,就像扬州一些脑满肠肥的盐商之类,纵出高价,他也不加理会。高兴时马上动笔,不高兴时,不允还要骂人。他这种怪脾气,自难为世俗所理解。有一次为朋友作画时,他特地题字以作坦率的自供:
“终日作字作画,不得休息,便要骂人。三日不动笔,又想一幅纸来,以舒其沉闷之气,此亦吾曹之贱相也。索我画,偏不画,不索我画,偏要画,极是不可解处。然解人于此,但笑而听之。”
个人润例
郑板桥卖画,不像历来文人画家那样犹抱琵琶半遮面。既然已经迈进市场,索性大大方方的。他制定《板桥润格》,成为中国画家明码标价卖画的第一人。“大幅6两,中幅4两,小幅2两,条幅对联1两,扇子斗方5钱。送礼物食物,总不如白银为妙;公之所送,未必弟之所好也。送现银则心中喜乐,书画皆佳。礼物既属纠缠,赊欠尤为赖账。年老体倦,亦不能陪诸君作无益语言也。”还在最后附了一首诗:“画竹多于买竹钱,纸高六尺价三千。任渠话旧论交接,只当秋风过耳边。”明明是俗不可耐的事,但出诸板桥,转觉其俗得分外可爱,正因他是出于率真。
好吃狗肉
板桥定润格,规定求其书画者,应先付定金,并作润例,颇为风趣。当时,许多豪门巨绅,厅堂点缀,常以得到板桥书画为荣。但板桥不慕名利,不畏权势,生平最不喜为那些官宦劣绅们作书画,这在他老人家的润格里是不便声明的。有一次,一帮豪绅为得其书画,运用计谋,设下陷阱。他们了解到板桥爱吃狗肉,就在他偕友外出交游的必经之路上,借村民的茅舍,烹煮了一锅香喷喷的狗肉,待板桥经过时;主人“笑脸相迎,并以狗肉好酒相待。”板桥不疑,开怀畅饮,连赞酒美肴不止。饭罢,主人端出文房四宝,言请大人留联以作纪念。板桥深觉今有口福,便立刻应诺,随即起身提笔,并询问主人大名,署款以酬雅意。书毕,尽兴而归。后来,在一次宴席上,他偶然发现自己的书画作品挂在那里,方知自己受骗,十分后悔,自己嘴馋不已。
刻苦习字
据说,郑板桥早年学书相当刻苦,写众家字体均能神似,但终觉不足。有一次,他竟在妻子的背上划来划去,揣摩字的笔画和结构。妻子不耐烦了,说:“你有你的体,我有我的体,你老在人家的体上划什么?”这无意间说出的一语双关的话,使板桥恍然有悟:不能老在别人的体格上“规规效法”,只有在个人感悟的基础上,另辟蹊径,才能独领风骚。于是,他取黄庭坚之长笔划入八分,夸张其摆宕,“摇波驻节”,单字略扁,左低右高,姿致如画。又以画兰竹之笔入书,求书法的画意。清人蒋士铨说他“写字如作兰,波磔奇古形翩翩”,生动地道出了“板桥体”的特质。[

板桥姻缘

郑板桥文采盖世,可惜早期穷途潦倒,一日走到一家人门前,惊觉门前的对联是自己的诗作,郑生向户主饶夫人问个究竟,饶夫人说自己女儿极爱郑板桥的作品,郑生忙道自己正是郑板桥,饶夫人马上把女儿五娘叫出来,并且把她许配给郑板桥郑板桥后来高中进士,大小登科一道儿至,夫妇二人也恩爱一生。
余桃口齿
郑板桥在《板桥自叙》曾写道:“酷嗜山水。又好色,尤多余桃口齿,及椒风弄儿之戏。然自知老且丑,此辈利吾金币来耳。有一言干与外政,即叱去之,未尝为所迷惑。”余桃口齿,椒风弄儿,都是好男风的典故。大意说是自己尤其喜好男色,但是因为老丑,常常是因为金钱而接近他。只是他却不许男妓干扰他外政,否则就驱逐出去。并没有因男色而耽误县治。曾主张改刑律中的笞臀为笞背。身为县令,一次不得不对一犯赌美男施以杖责,竟至于差点当堂落泪。
巧骂豪绅
有一次,一个豪绅求郑燮题写一个门匾。那个豪绅平日里巴结官府,干尽了很多坏事。郑燮决定要捉弄他一下,便写了”雅闻起敬“四个字。油漆门匾时,郑燮叮嘱漆匠对”雅、起、敬“三个字只漆左半边,对”闻“字只漆”门‘字。过了一段时间,豪绅楼前门匾上的字没上漆的部分模糊不清了,而上漆的部位越发清晰。远远一看,原来的“雅闻起敬”竟成了“牙门走苟”(“衙门走狗”的谐音)。

亲属成员

亲属成员曾祖:郑新万,字长卿,庠生。
祖:郑湜,字清之,儒官。
父亲:郑之本,字立庵,号梦阳,廪生,家居授徒,受业者先后达数百人。
母亲:汪夫人
继母:郝夫人
妻子:徐氏、饶氏
叔:郑之标,字省庵。
子:二子早卒,以弟子鄣田(字砚耕)嗣。

人物纪念馆

江苏兴化郑板桥纪念馆
兴化郑板桥纪念馆,位于江苏省兴化市昭阳镇牌楼北路2号。1983年11月为纪念清代书画家、文学家郑板桥而建立。1993年11月新建馆舍为古典式建筑,迎门为大型花岗岩郑板桥全身塑像、郑板桥兰竹石大理石壁雕。该馆藏品1181件,其中郑板桥书画墨迹33幅,金农闵贞、郑銮、刘熙载等人的书画348件,当代名人为纪念郑板桥、施耐庵而作的书画833件。
河南范县郑板桥纪念馆
范县郑板桥纪念馆,位于河南省范县辛庄乡毛楼村。占地28亩,主体建筑“三绝堂”,将展示郑板桥的生活、写作、作画的场面,除三绝的诗书画作品展览外。还设有“金水桥”、“板桥故居”、“幽逸廊”等建筑。
故居
位于江苏省兴化市东城外郑家巷7-8号。坐北朝南,前后两进,有正屋坐南朝北房3间,另有门楼、小书斋、厨房各一间。故居内陈列郑板桥生活用具及郑板桥书画复制品,研究郑板桥的资料等等,堂屋条台上立有一古铜色郑板桥全身塑像。1983年全面修缮,为市级文物保护单位。
墓地
位于江苏省泰州市兴化市大垛镇管阮村北,郑板桥林园陈列室西侧,旧地名“郑家大场椅把子地”。1964年,为纪念郑板桥逝世200周年,当地政府重修郑板桥墓,将其迁葬于鹦鹉桥畔海子池中方壶岛上;文革期间被破坏;1995年4月19日,郑燮墓被江苏省人民政府公布为第四批江苏省文物保护单位。

English is introduced

Zheng Banqiao (1693-1765), formerly known as Zheng Xie, the word grams soft, No. Management Um, and the number of Itabashi, Mr. Banqiao, Jiangsu Xinghua people, native of Suzhou. Kangxi scholar, ten years Yongzheng Juren, the first year of Qianlong (1736) Jinshi. Official Fan County, Wei County magistrate, remarkable achievements, after living in Yangzhou, to sell paintings for a living, "Yangzhou eight strange" important representative. Zheng Banqiao life only painted orchids, bamboo, stone, claiming to be "four times do not thank the orchid, one hundred section of evergreen bamboo, eternal unbeaten stone, eternal people." His poems and calligraphy, the World, "Sanjue", is more representative of the Qing Dynasty literati painter.

Historical figures

Qing Shengzu Kangxi thirty-two years (November 22, 1693), Zheng Banqiao was born, when the family has been in the fall, living in poverty. At the age of three, his mother died his wife Wang, when his father to the state legislature Umbridge home Mao Bridge. To eight or nine years of age under the guidance of the father of the couplet.
Kangxi forty years (1701), fourteen years old and lost stepmother Mrs. Zheng. Nurse Fei is a good, hardworking, Puzhen really working women, to Zheng Banqiao careful and thoughtful care and meticulous care, has become Zheng Banqiao life and emotional pillar. 16-year-old from the ancestors of the rural land school to learn lyrics.
Kangxi fifty-two years (1713), two years old or so admitted to scholar.
Kangxi fifty-five years (1716), wife Xu wife. Is the first time in autumn to the Beijing Zheng Banqiao, in Shu Yunxuan handwritten small Ouyang Xiu "Autumn Sound Fu."
Kangxi fifty-eight years (1719), to the real state of the village set up a school to teach.
Living in Yangzhou
The first year of Yongzheng (1723), his father died, at this time has two women and a son Banqiao, life is more difficult. As a result of hardships, Zheng Banqiao after 30 years of age to abandon the museum to Yangzhou to sell paintings for a living, to save the poor, care of "elegance." Yangzhou in the decade to sell paintings, but also interspersed with a number of tourism activities. Unfortunately, Ms. Xu's son died, Zheng Banqiao had to write poetry to mourn.
Yongzheng three years (1725), travel Jiangxi, in Lushan to meet the uninitiated Master and Manchu scholar Paul. Traveling in Beijing, and the Zen Zun places and their door Yu Lin Zhu children to make friends, put words on the high, Zang no figures, which was crazy. In the name of the period, the knotted Prince Kangxi, Shen Jun Wang Yunxi, that purple Qiong Ya owner.
Learning through official
Yongzheng five years (1728), off in Tongzhou, reading in Yangzhou Tianning Temple, handwritten "four books" each one.
Yongzheng seven years (1730), for "Taoism Ten" draft, thirty-nine, Mrs. Xu died of illness. Zheng Banqiao ten contained in Yangzhou, concluded a number of painting friends, Jinnong, Huang Shen, and so on with his past very close to his creative thinking and character have a great impact.
Yongzheng ten years (1732), Zheng Banqiao forty years old, is the fall, went to Nanjing to participate in the provincial examinations, the Juren, as "the Southern Czech sound" poem. For further study, go to Zhenjiang Jiao Mountain to study. Now there are Jiaoshan Qiaozhen Banqiao hand-written woodcut couplet "Ya Ya large, not many flowers."
The first year of Qianlong (1736), in Beijing, attended the ceremony will try, Zhong Gongshi, May, in front of Taihe Temple Dan Chi to participate in the palace examination, in the eighty-eighth Jinshi, for the Jinshi origin, "Okra stalagmite map" and the title of the poem, "I also called the end of the sun Jinshi, accompanied by Dan Gui Yuan Lang", the joy of palpable.
Qianlong two years (1737), stay in Beijing for a year or so, to map Shi Jin, unsuccessful, south to Yangzhou, Jiangxi Cheng Yu Chen funded, marry Rao. Nurse Fei's death.
Qianlong four years (1739), for the seven law four Huainan supervision to Yu see.
Qianlong five years (1740), for Dong Weiye "Yangzhou bamboo branch" preface.
Qianlong six years (1741), into Beijing, alternate official missing, by Shen Jun Wang Yunxi courtesy hospitality.
Qianlong seven years (1742) in the spring, Zheng Banqiao as a county magistrate and a small county toward the city, before the set poetry, word set, and handwritten Fuzi. [2]
Qianlong eight years (1743), the "Road Ten" modified several times, to be finalized, carved by the yuan Szeto text paste.

Poetry and painting three must

Art of calligraphy
Zheng Banqiao calligraphy, with the body into the line of Kai, claiming to be "six and a half book", called "Panchiao body." Its painting, mostly blue-grass bamboo-based, blue bamboo into its mind Zheng Banqiao calligraphy art, in the history of Chinese calligraphy is unique.
By his 23-year-old wrote "small Ouyang Xiu" Autumn Sound Fu "and 30-year-old wrote" Xiaokai quality poetry, "inferred, Banqiao early learning from Ouyang consultants. The font neat show, but slightly stiff: this was the prevalence of the book world, even the whole show of Mei Pavilion body, and as a standard font for the imperial examination. In this regard, Zheng Banqiao said: "In his 40-year-old Scholars after very little to write." Zheng Banqiao calligraphy is the most commendable "six and a half books", that is, "Han eight" (official script of a) miscellaneous people Kai, line, grass and a unique "plate bridge body".
"Six and a half" book, is Zheng Banqiao originality of their calligraphy, a banter title. In the official script, there is a "eight-minute book" of multi-wave strokes. The so-called "six-and-a-half" refers to the official script, but it is doped with other forms such as kai, xing, "Line Cao Cao poem" axis (like, now Yangzhou Museum) can be regarded as "six and a half" body of the masterpiece. This piece of writing Cao Cao "view of the sea" poem, a large format, the average space of 10 square centimeters above, the font Liyi quite thick, both Fragrance and Kai; body flat and long, home potential to Founder and slightly pendulum DANG. Zhuopu expansive, just like the great poems of the great style of Cao similar. Zheng Banqiao once praised his calligraphy in the poem of "donating Pan Tonggang": "I Cao pen array Lingyun smoke, sweeping the air pavilion shop blue sky.The two lines of the book number, the South Kei Beidou row of stars.
Zheng Banqiao calligraphy works are also very unique, he can size, length, radius, fat, dense patchwork interspersed, such as "Stoning Street", vertical put in the rules. Seemingly essay sway, the overall concept has a jump rhythm of the Smart sense. As in the twenty-seven years of Qianlong "running book" banner, when seventy age, is a masterpiece in old age. To the effect that the Soviet Union like the use of Xu Feng Zhuge Zhifi Qi Feng, very good to write up, then use other pen to the palm of the hand does not correspond. Panchiao himself like to use the Taizhou Tang Yangnie pen, write it mildly flying, all good. So the Taizhou Deng Yang Yang Zhucheng Qi Feng compared to the end, said: "The dare to jump to be Dongpo? The pen for the book are love does not love thin, also meaning of the slope." Large and small, thick and thin strokes, the situation 欹 欹 slanting, stippling, mentioning, so that music such as music in the ear, the birds fly in the air, fish swim in the water, in a state of arbitrary rhythm revealed bone strength And look: Qing Ho Shaoji said his words "between the blue bamboo to the meaning, especially the other] interest." From this piece of art for the crystal, knot body and strokes, are not allowed to see his "wave of ancient odd-shaped," the blue bamboo Lou God.

Anecdotes of characters

Known to blame
Zheng Banqiao 's "strange", quite a bit of the taste of Ji Gong Living Buddha, "strange" in the total with a bit sincere, somewhat humorous, somewhat hot and sour. Whenever he saw the corrupt officials were paraded through the streets, they painted a Merlin bamboo stone, hanging on the prisoners as a Wai Ping, in order to attract viewers, to alert the people wake up.
Quite infamy
Zheng Banqiao no official a light, and then back to Yangzhou to sell calligraphy and painting, worth with the former is very different from those who seek more income is considerable. But he is most disgusted with Confucianism and elegance of the upstart, just like some of Yangzhou's brain full of salt merchants and the like, vertical out of high prices, he also ignored. Happy when the pen immediately, unhappy, not allowed to curse. He is such a strange temper, difficult to understand the secular. Once a friend for painting, he specially inscribed for a candid self-sufficiency:
Three days without a pen, but also want a piece of paper to Shu its boring gas, this also I Cao of cheap phase also .So me painting, partial painting, do not draw, do not draw, not curse. Asked me to draw, but to draw, is extremely uncomprehended, then solution in this, but laugh and listen.
Personal run example
Zheng Banqiao to sell paintings, unlike the literati painters still hold partly concealed. Since it has entered the market, simply openly. He developed "Banqiao Run grid", a Chinese painter marked the price of the first person to sell paintings. "Substantially 6 two, medium amplitude 4 two, slightly 2 two, banners couplet 1 two, fan dou side 5 money. Where to send gifts of food, not as good as silver for the wonderful; the public to send, not the brother of the good also. The hearts of joy, painting and calligraphy are good. Gift is entangled, especially in the debt repayment. Old body tired, can not accompany Zhujun for useless language also. "Finally attached a poem:" painting bamboo more than buy bamboo , The paper six feet price of three thousand. Renlihua old theory of handover, only when the autumn wind over the ear. "Obviously is vulgar things, but out of itabashi, turning its vulgar exceptionally cute, because he Is outright.
Delicious dog meat
Banqiao fixed Runge, provides for those who seek their paintings, should be paid in advance, and for run cases, rather funny. At that time, many giants giants, decorated halls, often proud to get Banqiao painting. But Banqiao not fame and fortune, fear of power, the life of those who do not like the best for the official gentry painting, which in his old Runger is inconvenient statement. Once, a group of gentry to get their paintings, the use of tactics, set the trap. They learned that Panchiao love to eat dog meat, in his friends with friends out on the road must go through the villagers hut, cooking a pot of fragrant dog meat, to be passed by Bridges; master "greeted and to Dog pond. "Itabashi no doubt, happy drink, even praise the wine more than food. Meal strike, the owner out of the four treasures of the room, made to stay as a memorial for adults stay. Itabashi feel this delicious food, they immediately promise, then got up to pick up the pen, and asked the owner of the name, the Department of money to pay Yayi. Book complete, enjoy and go. Later, at a banquet, he accidentally found his paintings hanging in there, knew that he was deceived, very sorry, his greedy endless.
Hard to learn
It is said that Zheng Banqiao early years of hard work, writing a variety of fonts can be similar, but the final feel inadequate. Once, he was in his wife's back to draw to draw, try to figure out the word strokes and structure. His wife impatient, said: "You have your body, I have my body, you old people in the body plan what?" This sentence inadvertently uttered the phrase, so that it suddenly realized that it: Old in other people's physical "rules follow the example", only on the basis of individual sentiment, another way to dominate. Thus, he took the long pen pen into the eight points, exaggerated its pendulum, "wave in the Festival", the word slightly flat, left low right high, posture picturesque. Again, the pen into the book Lan Zhu, calligraphy painting. Qing Jiang Shifu said that he "wrote as Lan, Bo Qi odd ancient style", vividly out of the "Panchiao body" characteristics.

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