黄宾虹

黄宾虹(1865 年1月27日——1955 年3月25日),原籍安徽省徽州歙县,生于浙江金华,成长于老家歙县潭渡村,初名懋质,后改名质,字朴存,号宾虹,别署予向。近现代画家,擅画山水,为山水画一代宗师。六岁时,临摹家藏的沈庭瑞(樗崖)山水册,曾从郑珊,陈崇光等学花鸟。精研传统与关注写生齐头并进,早年受“新安画派”影响,以干笔淡墨、疏淡清逸为特色,为“白宾虹”;八十岁后以黑密厚重、黑里透亮为特色,为“黑宾虹”。

  • 中文名黄宾虹
  • 别名予向、虹叟、黄山山中人等
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍安徽省歙县
  • 出生地浙江金华
  • 出生日期1865年1月27日
  • 逝世日期1955年3月15日
  • 职业画家、教授
  • 主要成就中国人民优秀画家
  • 代表作品《秋林图》
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关于“黄宾虹课题”——崔振宽近作观后

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

崔振宽的近作令我激动,不是面对完美的激动,而是面对可能的激动。什么可能?沿着传统山水画的深层逻辑实现现代转型的可能性。在20世纪,这种可能性首先是由黄宾虹揭示的,因为我称之为黄宾虹课...
人物生平

①金华至歙县时期(1865~1907)。黄宾虹自幼攻读诗文经史,学习书画及篆刻,同时潜心研读黄生、刘献廷、顾炎武、黄宗羲等明代遗民的著作。1886年,应县试,补廪贡生。在扬州从陈崇光学画花卉。在安庆从郑珊学山水。1904年,去芜湖安徽公学任教,翌年,在歙县新安中学堂教书。1907年去上海。
②上海时期(1908~1937)。1905年出版《国粹学报》,来沪后担任《国粹学报》编辑。1911~1927年间,他先后编辑《神州国光集》、《神州大观》、《历代名家书画集》、《中国名画集》等金石书画图册,任《国画月刊》编辑、商务印书馆美术部主任等职,做了大量搜集、整理、出版美术遗产的工作。1925年,画史专著《古画微》刊行。1926年,组织金石书画艺观学会,主编《艺观》双月刊。1928年,出版《烂漫画集》第1辑,完成《美术丛书》第4辑。曾先后执教于昌明艺术专科学校、新华艺术专科学校、上海艺术专科学校,并任暨南大学中国画研究会导师。1934年,刊行《黄宾虹纪游画册》,发表《画法要旨》等论著。
③北平时期(1937~1948)。1937年6月,应北平古物陈列所和北平艺术专科学校之聘,来北平鉴定书画和担任教授。这时他的山水画融化古人与造化,独创风格,日益鲜明。
④杭州时期(1948~1955),1948年离平赴杭,任国画教授。1949年任中央美术学院华东分院(今浙江美术学院)教授。1953年,被授予人民艺术家称号。任中央美术学院国画研究所(后改为民族美术研究所)所长。1955当选为华东美术家协会副主席、中国人民政治协商会议第2届全国委员会委员。

艺术风格

在我国近现代绘画史上,有“南黄北齐”之说,“北齐”指的是居住在北京的花鸟画匠齐白石,而“南黄”说的就是浙江的画家黄宾虹,二人被美术界并列在一起,足见黄宾虹的艺术功力和成就非同一般。黄宾虹1865年生于浙江金华,卒于1955年。名质,字朴存,擅长山水、花卉并注重写生,但成名相对较晚。50岁以后,他的画风逐渐趋于写实,80岁以后,才真正形成了人们所熟悉的“黑、密、厚、重”的画风。黄宾虹晚年的山水画,所画山川层层深厚,气势磅礴,惊世骇俗,这一显著特点,也使中国的山水画上升到一种至高无上的境界。由于黄宾虹在美术史上的突出贡献,在他90岁寿辰的时候,被国家授予“中国人民优秀的画家”称号。
他绘画的技法,早年行力于李流芳程邃,以及髡残弘仁等,但也兼法元、明各家。所作重视章法上的虚实、繁简、疏密的统一;用笔如作篆籀,遒劲有力,在行笔谨严处,有纵横奇峭之趣。新安画派疏淡清逸的画风对黄宾虹的影响是终生的,六十岁以前是典型的“白宾虹”。
六十岁以后,曾两次自上海至安徽贵池,游览乌渡湖、秋浦、齐山。江上风景甚佳,他起了定居之念。贵池之游在黄宾虹画风上的影响,便是从新安画派的疏淡清逸,转开学习吴镇的黑密厚重的积墨风格。以此为转机,黄宾虹开始由“白宾虹”逐渐向“黑宾虹”过渡。1928年黄宾虹首游桂、粤,画了大量写生作品。
69~70岁,黄宾虹有巴蜀之游。这是他绘画上产生飞跃的契机。其最大的收获,是从真山水中证悟了他晚年变法之“理”。证悟发生在两次浪漫的游历途中:“青城坐雨”和“瞿塘夜游”。
“青城坐雨”是在1933年的早春,黄宾虹去青城山途中遇雨,全身湿透,索性坐于雨中细赏山色变幻,从此大悟。第二天,他连续画了《青城烟雨册》十余幅:焦墨、泼墨、干皴加宿墨。在这些笔墨试验中,他要找到“雨淋墙头”的感觉。雨从墙头淋下来,任意纵横氤氲,有些地方特别湿而浓重,有些地方可能留下干处

而发白,而顺墙流下的条条水道都是“屋漏痕”。当我们把这种感觉拿来对照《青城山中》,多么酷肖“雨淋墙头”啊!完全是北宋全景山水的章法,一样的笔墨攒簇,层层深厚,却是水墨淋漓,云烟幻灭,雨意滂沱,积墨、破墨、渍墨、铺水,无所不用其极!
“瞿塘夜游”是发生在游青城后的五月,回沪途中的奉节。一天晚上,黄宾虹想去看看杜甫当年在此所见到的“石上藤萝月”。他沿江边朝白帝城方向走去。月色下的夜山深深地吸引着他,于是在月光下摸索着画了一个多小时的速写。翌晨,黄宾虹看着速写稿大声叫道:“月移壁,月移壁!实中虚,虚中实。妙,妙,妙极了!”至此,黄宾虹的雨山、夜山是其最擅长、最经常的绘画主题,合浑厚与华滋而成美学上自觉之追求。
七十岁后,所画作品,兴会淋漓、浑厚华滋;喜以积墨、泼墨、破墨、宿墨互用,使山川层层深厚,气势磅礴,十分挺拔。所谓“黑、密、厚、重”的画风,正是他逐渐形成的显著特色。这一显著特点,也使中国的山水画上升到一种至高无上的境界。
黄宾虹曾说过学习传统应遵循的步骤:“先摹元画,以其用笔用墨佳;次摹明画,以其结构平稳,不易入邪道;再摹唐画,使学能追古;最后临摹宋画,以其法备变化多。”黄宾虹所说的宋画,除了北宋的大家外,往往合五代荆浩、关仝、董源巨然诸家在内。
在北平的十一年,黄宾虹完成“黑宾虹”的转变后,又进行“水墨丹青合体”的试验。用点染法将石色的朱砂、石青、石绿厚厚地点染到黑密的水墨之中,“丹青隐墨,墨隐丹青”,这是受西方印象派启发,思以将中国山水画两大体系(水墨与青绿)进行融合的一大创举。
南归杭州后,看到良渚出土的夏玉而悟墨法,将金石的铿锵与夏玉的斑驳融为一体,画面的朦胧融洽更接近江南山水的韵致,笔与墨一片化机。

代表作品

黄宾虹,一代大师,其作品风格独特,多以山水为主!他的画,苍浑华滋,意境深邃,风格老辣,构图凝重,后期作品更是,具有“黑里透亮”的风格。然而,其作品并非只有山水,偶尔也会作几幅花鸟。那么下面就献上几幅黄宾虹先生的几幅有名的画作。
其代表性作品:《秋林图》轴,纸本着色。纵122.8厘米,横48.8厘米。现藏天津人民美术出版社。此图一眼望见山峦重叠,林木扶疏,云雾缭绕。远景为山坡,古松苍郁,有几间平房,前后错落。园后有四角亭,亭中坐一人。山腰树木丛生,枝条欹斜,往上高山耸峙,岿然独立。左侧为一片广阔的湖面,有二只帆船顺风行驶于两山之间,以山衬水,以水烘山,使山水发生了相互为美的密切关系。这幅画面尽管崇山峻岭,山路曲折盘旋,林木丛生,层次颇多,但画面仍清妍秀润,意趣生动。构思平中见奇,近取其质,远取其势,不落寻常蹊径,笔墨枯润相间,有虚有实,繁而不乱。这与画家长期的艺术实践分不开,使其画艺达到了炉火纯青的境地。此幅画中也能充分地体现出他的“峰峦浑厚,草木华滋”的艺术风格。

人物评价

在中国近现代画坛上,黄宾虹是一位比较重要的画家。其黑、密、厚、重的画风、浑厚华滋的笔墨中,蕴涵着厚德载物的美学取向。几十年来,黄宾虹的绘画一直受到美术界的关注,并逐渐释放出巨大的能量,影响着当今中国画坛。“黄宾虹的画为什么难以被人认同?因为他的绘画里文化的含量不多,审美感太苍凉,在广州日报格调艺术沙龙嘉德讲堂上,艺术评论家梅墨生讲述“黄宾虹画作的鉴与赏”时如此感叹。他的老师曾亲眼见到黄宾虹把自己的画从桌案上拿出来送给来访的人,却被来访的人拒绝,说“你的画黑乎乎的,我看不懂”,黄宾虹非常尴尬,只能把画收回去。黄宾虹的作品鉴定难也是影响其市场流通的主要原因。梅墨生通过研究发现,黄宾虹有相当数量的作品都没有落款,比如遵照他的遗嘱捐给浙江博物馆的作品中,大多都没有落款。对此梅墨生解释为,那是因为在黄宾虹的一生中都在对自己的艺术进行探索和实验。或许从另一个角度说,他没有把这些“试验品”作为展现自己艺术成就的“完成品”,而是“半成品”。不过,从黄宾虹77岁开始,他的每幅作品都有落款。而在他最晚年创作的实验性作品也同样没有年款,原因是他最后没能完成作品。“从他77岁到85岁,这七八年是黄宾虹艺术上真正的成熟时期,而他最好的作品是85岁到92岁之间。”梅墨生如此评价黄宾虹的作品。
书法对黄宾虹来说,有着独特的实际意义,是其笔墨和画法的“源头活水”。黄宾虹对书法之于文人写意绘画的基础性强调和实践操作,几乎伴随其一生。黄宾虹积极主动地将书法原理运用于绘画,并取得如此高的现实效果。可以说,黄宾虹的绘画是建立在书法基础之上的楼阁,它的稳固和高度关乎书法。

后世纪念

在二十世纪的中国绘画史上,黄宾虹是一位承前启后的画家。他身体力行地实践着中国传统文化承传、演变和发展的动态过程,给后人留下了超凡脱俗、意象万千的山水画艺术,开创了蕴含深刻中国传统文化内涵和美学价值的“浑厚华滋”的现代审美境界。他对于传统的深刻反思,独到的审美感受,对笔墨形式的再造以及中国画“内美”之审美境界的展开,均对后来的中国绘画产生了极其深远的影响,由此也确立了其近现代画家的地位。
在今天,中国美术走向了新的历史时期,而本此展览及出版旨在以最严格的学术标准,从黄宾虹各时期重要作品百余件,通过展览、出版及学术研讨活动,全面梳理、呈现宾虹先生在中国画创作及其革新上的伟大创造,彰显其在中国近现代艺术史上的不朽贡献。作为本次展览的主办方,杭州黄宾虹学术研究会对全程参与展品审鉴与把关,而且还得到了中国美术家协会、西泠印社的支持,最终遴选出代表黄宾虹先生艺术成就的精品佳作参加本次展览。并希望此次纪念活动,将会对中国当代美术的发展产生积极影响。

English Introduction

Jinhua to Shexian period (1865 ~ 1907). Huang Binhong was studying poetry history, learning calligraphy and seal cutting, at the same time poring over the Huang and Liu Xianting, Gu Yanwu, Huang Zongxi and other writings of the Ming dynasty. In 1886, Yingxian County, Lin Gong health supplement. In Yangzhou from Chen Chongguang flower painting. In Anqing from Zheng Shanxue landscape. In 1904, the Wuhu public school in Anhui to teach the teaching in Shexian Xinan school. Go to Shanghai in 1907.
Shanghai period (1908 ~ 1937). "Guocui journal" published in 1905, Shanghai as "Guocui journal" editor. 1911 to 1927 years, he has edited "set", "Shenzhou Shenzhou Guoguang", "grand masters of calligraphy and painting collection", "China name album" etc. the stone painting album, as the "Painting Monthly" editor, director of the Fine Arts Department of the commercial press and other staff, do a lot of collecting, editing and publishing work of art heritage. In 1925, painting monograph "micro paintings" published. In 1926, the organization of painting and calligraphy art view society, editor of "art view" bimonthly. 1928, published "the brilliant album" first series, complete the "art series" fourth series. He has coached Yu Changming art school, Xinhua art college, Shanghai art college, and he is the tutor of the Chinese Painting Association of Jinan University. In 1934, Huang Binhong published "travel book", published "painting" and so on.
The Beijing period (1937 ~ 1948). In June 1937, Beijing should antiquities and Beiping art school recruits, and served as professor of painting and calligraphy identification to beijing. When his landscape paintings melt of the ancients and nature, creative style, increasingly clear.
The Hangzhou period (1948 ~ 1955), from 1948 to Hangzhou Ren Ping, Professor of Chinese painting. 1949, East Branch of China Central Academy of Fine Arts (now Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts professor). 1953, was awarded the title of people's artist. China Central Academy of Fine Arts Institute of Chinese painting (after the National Institute of Fine Arts) director. 1955 was elected vice chairman of East China Artists Association, the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference of the second national committee.

In the history of modern painting, the "Southern Yellow Qi", "Qi" is the living in Beijing flower and bird painter Qi Baishi, and "South Yellow" said that the Zhejiang painter Huang Binhong, two people by the art circle together, which shows Huang Binhong's artistic skill and extraordinary achievement. Huang Binhong was born in 1865 in Zhejiang, Jinhua, died in 1955. Name quality, word Park, good at landscape, flowers and focus on sketching, but relatively late fame. 50 years later, his style tends to be realistic, really formed after the age of 80, people familiar with the "black, dense, thick and heavy. Huang Binhong's landscape painting, the painting of mountains and deep layers, of great momentum, surprisingly, this trait also makes China landscape painting rose to a supreme level. Because of the outstanding contributions of Huang Binhong in the history of art, when he was 90 years old birthday, was awarded the "outstanding artist" title of National People's Chinese.
His painting techniques, the line force in the early years of Li Liufang, Cheng mysterious, and kuncan, Hirohito and so on, but also the law of yuan ming. The combination of the actual situation, pay attention to the character and the density of the pen; such as Zhuan Zhou, powerful, in the line of careful and precise, with vertical and horizontal Qiqiao of fun. Xin'an painting Shudan Seiitsu style of Huang Binhong's lifetime, before the age of sixty is a typical "Bai Binhong".
After sixty years old, has been the two time from Shanghai to Anhui, Guichi, visit the Lake crossing, autumn Pu, Qi shan. The river scenery is very good, he has settled the idea. The impact of Guichi tour in the style of Huang Binhong, is from the Xin'an School of Shudan Seiitsu, away from the black and thick and the study of Wuzhen ink style. In order for the better, "Bai Binhong" by Huang Binhong began to gradually transition to the "black rainbow". 1928 Huang Binhong first tour GUI, Guangdong, painting a large number of sketches.
69~70 years old, Huang Binhong had a tour of sichuan. This is an opportunity for his painting to leap. Its greatest harvest is from the real landscape of the realization of his old age reform". Enlightenment in two romantic trip: "Qingcheng sit rain" and "at night".
The "Qingcheng sit rain" is in the early spring of 1933, Huang Binhong on his way to Qingchengshan rain, wet, sitting in the rain fine appreciation of scenery changes, from dawu. The second day, he drew a dozen copies of "Qingcheng rain": ink, ink, ink and dry chapped. In these words in the test, he will find "rain wall" feeling. The rain poured down from the top of the wall, any aspect in some places especially dense, wet and thick, some places may leave a dry place
White, and along the wall to flow down the waterway are leaking marks". When we put this feeling to "control" - "Qingcheng Mountain, how rain wall"! Completely is the Northern Song Dynasty panoramic landscape painting composition, and save the cluster like layers, is deep, ink dripping, clouds rain torrential, disillusionment, Jimo, ink, ink stains, water shop, do anything!
"Noctivagant Qutang" is in the green city tour after May, Fengjie way back to shanghai. One night, Huang Binhong wanted to see the stone on the vines in this year saw Du Fu "". He along the river towards the Baidicheng direction. The moonlight night mountain fascinated him, and in the moonlight painting groping for more than an hour to sketch. The next morning, Huang Binhong looked at the sketch draft and shouted: "move the wall, move the wall! Real and imaginary, virtual reality. Wonderful, wonderful, wonderful!" At this point, Huang Binhong, Yu Shan mountain is the theme of painting the night at the most, most often, with vigorous and Wordsworth and pursuit of aesthetic consciousness.
After seventy years, the painting works, excited, Wordsworth; Xi to Jimo, ink, ink, ink used each other, the mountains and deep layers, of great momentum, is very tall and straight. The so-called "black, dense, thick and heavy" is a significant feature of his style, gradually formed. This remarkable characteristic, also causes China's landscape painting to rise to one kind of Supreme state.
Huang Binhong said that the traditional learning should follow the steps of: "first copy yuan painting, with its pen in time; G Ming painting, with its stable structure, not easily into the way; then G Tang painting, so that students can catch the ancient; finally copying paintings of Song Dynasty, as the change of preparation method." Huang Binhong said the Song Dynasty painting, in addition to all of the Northern Song Dynasty, often five generations of Jing Hao, Guan Tong, Dong Yuan, Ju ran home.
In Peiping, eleven years, Huang Binhong completed the transformation of black rainbow ", and" experimental ink painting fit ". With the color of the stone dyed method of cinnabar, azurite, malachite green dye to place thick dense black ink, the ink ink painting hidden, hidden Dan ", which is inspired by western impressionism, thinking to two systems China landscape painting (painting and green) was a pioneering work of fusion.
South of Hangzhou, see the Liangzhu unearthed jade and Wu Xia ink, stone and jade will sonorous summer mottled with hazy picture is more close to the harmony of Jiangnan landscape charm, pen and ink of a machine.

Huang Binhong, a generation of masters, his works unique style, mostly landscape! His paintings, Wordsworth's vigorous, profound artistic conception, style, composition dignified, later works is, with the "black bright" style. However, its works are not only landscapes, occasionally will make several flowers and birds. So here are a few famous paintings of Mr. Huang Binhong.
The representative works: "Qiulin map" axis, the colored paper. Longitudinal 122.8 cm, transverse to 48.8 cm. Tianjin people's Art Publishing house. This figure saw the mountains overlap, forest trees, clouds. Vision for the hills, verdant pines, a few bungalows scattered around. After the garden there are four corners Pavilion, one sitting in the pavilion. The mountain trees, branches skewed upward, there are high mountains, towering independent. On the left side of a broad lake, there are two sailing downwind of the mountains between the mountains to water, water baked mountains, so that the landscape has a close relationship between the two. This picture despite the high mountains and lofty hills, winding mountain road circling, forested, level a lot, but the picture is still Qing Yan Xiu Yun, vivid charm. The idea of flat see odd, near the matter, far from its potential does not fall, ordinary ink line, run dry white, does, complex but not chaotic. The painter and art practice long inseparable, the painting reached a high degree of excellence. This picture can fully reflect his "with vigorous vegetation Wordsworth" style of art.
In Chinese modern painting, Huang Binhong is one of the important painters. The dark, dense, thick and heavy style, Wordsworth ink, contains the aesthetic orientation of social commitment. For decades, Huang Binhong's painting art has been the subject of attention, and gradually release enormous energy, affect the Chinese painting. "Why is Huang Binhong's painting hard to identify? Because the content of his paintings is not much sense of aesthetic culture, so desolate, in the Guangzhou daily Guardian art salon style auditorium, art critic Mei Mosheng told of Huang Binhong's paintings in the tours "so sigh. His teacher had seen Huang Binhong put out their own draw from the table to the visitors, but the visitors refused, saying "you painted black, I cannot read," Huang Binhong is very embarrassing, only to draw back. Huang Binhong's work is difficult to identify the main reason for its market circulation. Mei Mosheng through research found that Huang Binhong has a considerable number of works are not signed, such as in accordance with his will donated to the Zhejiang museum's works, mostly no inscription. This may explain al that is because, in the life of Huang Binhong in his artistic exploration and experiment. Perhaps from another perspective, he did not put these test items as a show of their artistic achievements, "finished goods", but "semi-finished products". However, from Huang Binhong at the age of 77, each of his paintings are inscribed. In his most experimental works in his later works also have models, because he failed to complete the final works. "From the age of 77 to the age of, these are the true years of his artistic maturity, and his best work is between the ages of 85 and the age of 92," said Huang Binhong." Mei so commented on Huang Binhong's works.
The calligraphy of Huang Binhong, has a unique and practical meaning, is the springhead of his penmanship and painting skills "". Huang Binhong's basic emphasis on calligraphy and freehand brushwork in literati painting practice, almost accompanied by his life. Huang Binhong actively applied calligraphy principle to painting, and achieved such a high practical effect. It can be said that Huang Binhong's painting is established on the basis of calligraphy of the pavilion, its stability and highly related to calligraphy.

In twentieth Century Chinese painting history, Huang Binhong is a painter of the past. He personally practice the dynamic process of Chinese traditional culture inheritance, evolution and development, has left thousands of images, otherworldly landscape painting art, modern aesthetic realm created a profound China traditional cultural connotation and aesthetic value of "Wordsworth". He has profound reflection of traditional, unique aesthetic feeling, aesthetic reconstruction of ink form and Chinese painting "inner beauty" of the expansion, had a profound impact on the later Chinese painting, which has established its status in modern painters.
Today, Chinese art to a new historical period, and the exhibition and publication aimed at the most rigorous academic standards, from Huang Binhong the important works of more than 100, through exhibitions, publications and academic research activities, comprehensive arrangement, showing great creation in Chinese Binhong painting and innovation, highlighting its the immortal contribution in Modern Art history Chinese. As the exhibition organizers, Hangzhou will participate in the entire process of Huang Binhong's academic research exhibits judgment and check, but also got Chinese Artists Association, Xiling Seal-Engravers'Society support, the final selection of representative Mr. Huang Binhong art works in this exhibition. And hope that the commemoration will have a positive impact on the development of contemporary Chinese art.

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鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信:4081532