Jiang Zhaohe (1904 - 1986) is called the twentieth Century master of China of modern ink painting, modern painting Chinese leading art masters. On behalf of Jiang Zhaohe has the "homeless people", with its grand and solemn hitherto unknown, with powerful strokes to reveal the master really good humanity, dumping of the wrath of war, expression of justice and peace calls for the establishment of a glorious position of modern China ink painting art in the world.
Jiang Zhaohe is one of the great reform thought of artists since 54 "movement, Chinese famous modern painter and art educator, Professor of China Central Academy of Fine Arts, is an important figure in Xu Beihong's painting realism. Under the influence of Mr. Xu Beihong, he set Chinese traditional ink painting skills and other Western means in one framework of new painting techniques in the "realism" and "freehand", which greatly enriched the China ink painting performance, so that the China converted by traces of ink painting literati aesthetic taste for the performance of life and human nature, the expression of humanistic care, vector calling of benevolence.
Jiang Zhaohe in the field of ink figure painting to maximize the unique charm of Chinese painting, so that China's modern ink painting jump and stand in the ranks of world realist painting.
Jiang Zhaohe, a native of Hubei Macheng, born in Sichuan of Luzhou; formerly Wansui, born in 1904, childhood poverty. 1920 to Shanghai, has been engaged in the clothing design, advertising painting, painting and self-study.
1927 was hired in Nanjing national Centre College (Centre College in 1949 changed its name to Nanjing University), for the Department of design faculty. 1930 - 1932 Shanghai Art College sketch Professor, and participated in the provisional youth patriotic propaganda team painted Anti Japanese propaganda.
In 1935 next year to Beijing, back to Sichuan officially began the modern ink painting. One thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven
Spring back to Peiping, Ren JINGWAH professor of Academy of Fine Arts, Peking College of art teachers, and exhibitions. In 1947, employed in the national Beiping art school.
After the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1950, he was appointed a professor at China Central Academy of Fine Arts, was elected China Artists Association Second, 3 director, fourth consultant, Chinese Culture Committee, Council member of China Painting Research Institute, third, 4, 5, 6 CPPCC National Committee, member of the NLD Central Committee of culture and education.
At the beginning of reform and opening up, Jiang Zhaohe stood in the newly completed Capital International Airport Lounge painting painting naked girl before repeatedly called good". Jiang Zhaohe always looks at Chinese art, western art and future art with the mind of a Bo University. He taught in fifty years, established a set of training talents of modern ink painting teaching system for decades, is peaches and plums fragrance, more artists on the "art for life" the creation of the road; many of his works are still people admire extremely difficult to go beyond the realism ink the highest point of figure painting.
Journalist published "Jiang Zhaohe" album, "Jiang Zhaohe album", "Jiang Zhaohe" has published selected paintings; "painting sketch teaching", "on the Chinese painting sketch teaching" and other papers.
Jiang Zhaohe's art can be divided into two periods:
Sketch based, from the sketch of the western painting sketch and China painting Baimiao together, and the line to form the style of painting and traditional Chinese painting creation way. The representative works is revealed by the suffering of China was the bottom of the tragic fate of the "homeless people".
He learned China traditional ink painting skills and traditional painting heavy verve, heavy ink taste advantages, the new architecture in the realistic and freehand brushwork, the Chinese ink figure converted by the trace of literati aesthetic expression of life and human nature, expression of humanistic care, call benevolence.
"Du Fu like"
"Du Fu" painting in 1959, this period is the peak of the artistic creation of Jiang Zhaohe, he grasps the light and shadow and the ability to shape structure, reached a new height. On the screen, he used chiaroscuro sketches with traditional figure painting structure line drawing techniques, loneliness and good performance "Saint". A tendency to change the concept of traditional painting characters, describes Du Fu's personality characteristics, emphasizing their mental picture, but not limited to the literati painting programs and norms, with bold, extensive and free. Through the focus on the poet's facial expression, people spontaneously experience the "poet" concerned but depressed helpless mood, the whole picture is full of grief and desolate color.
"Homeless people" is a birth in the period of Anti Japanese war in the occupied areas of the anti war epic.
A "homeless people", Xu Beihong in "forty years" in Beijing on painting is so mentioned, "in the fall before, Jiang Zhaohe has to draw new Chinese in Zibo fame during the fall, Chiang wrote a" homeless people "out of Chen ancestral temple, at the end of a day, which is affected by Japanese interference, Jiang the articles draw towards Shanghai, which now unaccounted for".
This picture was later found, although broken more precious. Later, Mr. Xiao Qiong donated it to the Chinese Art Museum and became a collection of national treasures.
The whole works through the shape of the more than 100 homeless escape Japanese bombing, dying painful situation, showing by the invaders by starving everywhere, the suffering of human tragedy. The picture did not appear directly burning and looting of the aggressor, but through a sad, lying on the ground, terribly fatigued and the rate of characters, to the Chinese nation which reveals the country of destruction.
"Homeless people" is the epic art form, revealing the suffering of the war, plays an important role in Chinese art history and art history of the world.
Jiang Zhaohe and Xu Beihong, and the Chinese painting reform in twentieth Century, the three. In the transformation of Chinese traditional figure painting, Jiang Zhaohe combined with his own growth experience, in the painting performance of the lower character of the hard, form "full paper poor phase". As Liu Mo said, from the beginning of Jiang Zhaohe, Chinese art can directly face the painful and bleak life. By Xu Beihong's advice, Jiang Zhaohe from western Chinese useful factors to the development of modern ink painting, to continue the reform and development of Xu Beihong's painting China road.
Jiang Zhaohe (1904-1986), Sichuan, Luzhou, Professor of China Central Academy of Fine Arts. Has been removed Shanghai, Nanjing, Beijing and other places to paint advertising, portraits, costume design, art education and other livelihood, and self sketch, oil paintings, sculpture, patterns.
Jiang Zhaohe uses ink paper color painting, "painting" principle, to enrich the line (i.e. writing) to establish the image of the backbone, and absorb the techniques in landscape painting, with cunca ink and method to enrich the characters of the structure, not only embodies the form of China painting, but also into the western drawing performance the size and structure of the long. He took the Chinese painting as the foundation, absorbed the scientific composition of Western art, smelt Chinese and Western art in one furnace, and made the creative techniques of Chinese painting characters develop creatively.
Works for "full paper poor phase" and painting
Jiang Zhaohe in the transformation of Chinese traditional figure painting, is a painter can not be ignored. Jiang Zhaohe was born in 1904 in Sichuan Luzhou's impoverished family of a family of scholar, at an early age to learn painting and calligraphy, at the age of 10 for a portrait. At the age of 16, Jiang Zhaohe was removed in Shanghai, Nanjing, Peking, Sichuan and other places, for people engaged in portraits, commercial art, art education, self-study and sketch, oil painting, sculpture, design, but suffer no guidance.
After meeting Xu Beihong, he told Jiang Zhaohe to study in France for a lot of things bother, not only arrange Jiang Zhaohe to follow Ms. Jiang Biwei to learn French, also apply for 500 yuan of foreign government. Even so, Jiang Zhaohe still did not go, so sorry for Chen Chuanxi, first, he is too poor, two is not high culture, the three is a foreign language barrier, resulting in difficulties to study abroad.
But this has not become a stumbling block to Jiang Zhaohe's paintings. It is also because of this hard, inspired his firm belief in painting, the day after the initiative to explore oil painting, sketch, etc.. In this regard, Chen Chuanxi said, compared with many formal art education, by the teacher pointing students, this is the talent and hard work in the role of Jiang Zhaohe. He also revealed that Jiang Zhaohe has not even entered the university gate, 24 years old, but was hired to teach Centre College design, because his design works in Shanghai art exhibition is very good. Hard up Miss que his early apprenticeship time.
In the theme and style, due to the circumstances of childhood, his paintings naturally sympathize with the toiling masses. This is reflected in his book, "I know all the world of painting the poor, only I sympathize with, but the road of starvation...... But how do we feel about comrades who are artistic for art? Ask for what? "Therefore, his works are mostly" full paper poor phase "painting. Liu Mo believes that from the beginning of Jiang Zhaohe, Chinese art can not only show the inherent transcendent, elegant, but also can directly face the painful and bleak life.
And recognized by the art world, Jiang Zhaohe is "full of poor" representative 1941-1943 the creation of "homeless people". This picture is 2 meters high, 26 meters long, it has a total of more than and 100 people. Jiang Zhaohe Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing area of the Japanese occupied area, drew a large number of sketches, breaking his own past as a single portrait painting, is China history since the Dunhuang Yongle Palace murals murals, most large figure painting. Liu Xilin believes that the "homeless people" is a macro structure, the whole seems like a composition, it is used a lot can be combined independent portraits, portraits, showing a scene of the tragedy of history. He further said that the works did not directly to the tragic conflict to the screen, but through the richness of the inner world to reveal the tragic fate, with a deep tragic atmosphere. Liu Mo points out that it is a landmark work.
Xu Beihong is a pioneer, Jiang Zhaohe is a developer
In the Xu Jiang system, especially in the figure painting, Chen Chuanxi pointed out that, is a pioneer in the development of the developer, who is a pioneer in the development of the system. Specific how to understand? Chen Chuanxi further pointed out that Xu Beihong outlines the contours with a rigorous line, followed by the human body concave and convex, light and shade, as well as the organizational structure, are drawing with ink. However, Xu Beihong sketch has been very delicate, with ink painting sketch, but also very careful, so rigorous and precise, lively and chic. But Xu Beihong opened up a new road - based on the sketch, reform and development of Chinese painting, and Jiang Zhaohe will develop on this road. Chen Chuanxi then summed up, "and Xu Beihong sketch Chinese painting figures, compared to the character painting of the less rigorous, and vivid over the."
Old age pen, there is no wonderful place"
Xu Beihong Sinology foundation is very thick, exports into poetry, proficient in calligraphy, studying abroad. Jiang Zhaohe early due to reasons, conditions apprenticeship is far better than Xu Beihong. The text can also see from his paintings. Jiang Zhaohe wrote some folk artists and feelings of the poems, such as "grandchildren and his old age", "February 2nd leader Aung" and "shining with wall" and "children heart up, the elderly is more foolish".
Although Jiang Zhaohe has talent in painting on the road to explore, but early defects cannot be completely compartmentallized.the. "" homeless people "is the best works in his life, after his work fell." Chen Chuanxi pointed out that, as with most realistic figure painters, Jiang Zhaohe's works not in his early years, his painting performance is mainly technical, and lack of culture. Liu Moyi believes that in 50s Jiang Zhaohe, although later in the understanding of a clear improvement, but the artistic level is early has decreased significantly, painting is not good, other do not say, even if the ink does not really wonderful.
Into the works, how to understand? Liu Mo pointed out that Jiang Zhaohe's painting is strictly bound in a single function form and not free, but also because of the lack of the line of calligraphy skill becomes rigid, formal, some painting for environmental reasons and appears to have posters of taste, character attitude not only vivid, and pretentious, into a conceptualization, type. Liu Mo also thought to "Taibai map" to analyze the works of lines and black holes. The author used in line with Qi Baishi, but less Bai Shi's strength; the stone, Li Bai leaned on the ink superficial; the lower right corner of the chrysanthemum flower and bird painting from the point of view, it is also the primary. China draw the inherent emptiness, nature, real aesthetic character, is not easy to see in him, and he seemed to have never been serious in this area over the next effort.
Jiang Zhaohe to the late, gradually brush the brush with a sense of the effect of the sketch, not only the characters as vivid as before, ink effect is not as vivid as before. Chen Chuanxi also made in 1981 two "and 1959" Du Fu like "Du Fu" to the New Year paintings as compared to their own point of view, authentication.