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王雪涛

( 中国美术家协会理事 )

王雪涛(1903--1982),河北成安人,原名庭钧,字晓封,号迟园,中国现代著名小写意花鸟画家。历任北京画院院长、中国美术家协会理事、美协北京分会副主席、北京市第七届人大代表、北京市第五届政协常委、中国农工民主党中央联络委员会委员及北京市委委员 。著有《王雪涛画集》、《王雪涛画辑》、《王雪涛画谱》、《王雪涛的花鸟画》等。

  • 中文名王雪涛
  • 别名原名庭钧,字晓封,号迟园
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍河北成安
  • 出生地河北成安
  • 出生日期1903年12月31日
  • 逝世日期1982年11月24日
  • 职业画家
  • 协会中国美术家协会
  • 毕业院校北平艺术专科学校
  • 代表作品《王雪涛画集》;《王雪涛画辑》;《王雪涛画谱》;《王雪涛的花鸟画》
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花鸟画圣手王雪涛后人访谈录

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画本无定法。画无尽,法亦无尽;人不同法亦不同。任何法无不是从创作实践中来,无不随对象不同而千变万化。要入法度之中,又能出于法度之外;不受成法约束,独创新法是画家的天职。---王雪涛20世...
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人物生平

王雪涛,中国现代著名小写意花鸟画家。1903年12月31日出生,1982年11月24日逝世,河北成安人。
原名庭钧,字晓封,号迟园 。自幼喜绘画,1918 年入保定直隶高等师范附设手工图画科,毕业后到小学执教。 1922 年考入北平艺术专科学校西画系,后转读国画系,受教于陈师曾萧谦中、汤定之、王梦白等诸位前辈,尤受王梦白影响最大。1924年拜齐白石为师,奉师命改名雪涛。1926年毕业后留校任助教、讲师。抗日战争期间,北平沦陷,辞去教职,专事绘画创作,卖画为生。同时,潜心师传统,上追徐渭陈淳,又得名师指点,画艺大进。1954年任中国画研究会常务理事,被聘为中央美术学院民族美术研究所副研究员。1955年参加筹备北京中国画院工作,1957年任该院画师、院务委员会委员,1978年任北京画院院长。中国美术家协会理事,美协北京分会副主席,北京市第七届人大代表,北京市第五届政协常委,中国农工民主党中央联络委员会委员及北京市委委员 。
王雪涛是现代中国卓有成就的花鸟画 大师,对我国小写意花鸟绘画做出了突出贡献。他继承宋、元以来的优秀传统,取长补短。所作题材广泛,构思精巧,形似神俏,清新秀丽,富有笔墨情趣。创作
上主张“师法造化而抒己之情,物我一体,学先人为我所用,不断创新”。画法上工写结合,虚实结合。他善于描绘花鸟世界的丰富多彩和活泼生气,又精于表现画家的心灵感受和动人想象。他注重写生,尤善于描绘大自然中的小生命,如蝴蝶、螳螂、蝈蝈、天牛、青蛙、蜻蜓、马蜂等,栩栩如生,引人喜爱。他还善用灵巧多变的笔墨,色墨结合,以色助墨、以墨显色,在传统固有色中融入西洋画法讲求的色彩规律,以求整体色彩对比协调,为画面增添韵律。他能准确地把握动态中的花鸟,并且能在情景交融中体现出转瞬即逝的情趣。因此他的花鸟虫鱼,刻画细致入微,鲜活多姿,生动可爱,情趣盎然。摆脱了明清花鸟画的僵化程式,创造了清新灵妙,雅俗共赏的鲜明风格。二十世纪五、六十年代其花鸟画已达到一个艺术高峰,至今无人出其右。上世纪 80 年代初,中央新闻纪录制片厂拍摄的纪录片《中国花鸟画》,别具一格的花鸟技法被重点收录其中。

人物经历

在现代写意花鸟画家中,王雪涛以其 60 余年不倦的艺术探索,形成了健康灵动、
题材多样的一派新风,赢得了广大观众的热爱,其在画艺图变和画理研求中亦颇有独到之心得。“学而不厌,诲人不倦”,师承者众多,画风影响颇为广泛。他的艺术成就已形成一代风范。1987 年,他的夫人徐佩蕸先生毅然将家藏的二百余件作品,捐献给济南市人民政府,同年10 月,《王雪涛纪念馆》在趵突泉公园的沧园落成。二十年来为无数观众所欣赏,为学者提供借鉴。
雪涛先生因其酷爱绘画及大自然之生灵, 16 岁时便辞家赴保定求学于直隶省高等师范手工图画专修科。这座学校是上世纪初在北方培育绘画人才上,颇具声名的师范之一。他在刻苦攻习绘画时,天就的资质与秉赋已初露端倪,毕业后,在同好资助下只身赴京,于 1922 年考入北京国立艺术专科学校。其时,北京画坛正面临泥古危机和力图变革的复杂时代,而他是最早接受现代艺术教育的画家之一。
前此,中国学术界已受西学东渐之影响,世纪初,蔡元培又力倡美育,反对陈陈相因、泥古不化的艺坛旧
习。艺专系科设置及教学方法均采其长。林风眠出任校长之前后,各名家如陈师曾萧谦中、汤定之、萧厔泉、凌文渊、王梦白陈半丁黄宾虹等均在校执教。而林风眠又特聘齐白石及法籍教员柯罗多( Andre Claudot )。学生虽分入各科系,但随师听课、习课各采其长,倍加努力。雪涛恰得机遇求教于诸大家,心追手摹,广学所长,尤为王梦白齐白石陈半丁大师之喜爱,其与未来之妻徐兰贞仰慕闻一多,并从学于闻一多教授之美术史;亦受柯罗多之偏爱。这种广采、广学亦非只博取于众师长,尤应提及的是,求学时在艺专学友中还曾成立过颇具影响的《九友画会》,其成员擅画西画、国画者兼而有之,彼此切磋、砥砺互有补益。
当时,京城书肆、画铺众多。 1925 年又值故宫开放,文华殿常陈列宫廷藏画,饱览、借观、借临古人画作机会颇多,得以悉心研求前人真迹或珂罗版之精良印刷品是师之二也。
他深得诸师长厚爱,兹举故实一则或可想见当初。 1923 年至 1924 年间,他与《九友画会》同好徐兰贞相恋,同拜齐白石为师,白石翁即为王庭钧更名雪涛,为徐兰贞更名佩蕸。 1928 年 3 月,王、徐成婚,由图案系主任黄怀英主婚,婚宴在藕香榭举行,并特约闻一多及柯罗多先生赴宴。三日后,柯罗多又在私寓回请王、徐。半丁先生为其作画祝贺,而白石翁因藕香榭而为雪涛赐题斋馆名为藕华楼,并治印相赠
王雪涛自幼喜爱写生,受师长王梦白影响又长于默记(或谓默写),他将默写特长与笔底功力结合,因而
其写生画稿真可谓“速写”。除大量花卉、树木写生各具形态、特征鲜明之外,且擅于捕捉稍纵即逝的瞬间形态,无论迅疾飞掠的鸜鹆喜鹊、步步机敏的雄鸡或白鹇,抑或展臂捕虫的螳螂,均可夺物精魄,无不具有灵动之生机。雪涛笔下的翎毛、草虫、花卉、鳞蚧,造型准确,特点鲜明,似乎是活生生的再现。除却积年而成的深厚功力之外,其自觉与不自觉受到西洋写实画法之影响也是确实无疑的。
他曾认真谈述花鸟画在意境创作中画情、画理、画趣之关系,他认为情和趣是画家自身的感情。“中国绘画传统是注重写意的,如同京剧艺术一样,不拘于机械地再现对象,更要把握对象的精神气质,着意于创造意境以感染观者”。“一幅画的内容是好的,但总要有情趣才能打动人心。要画得引人生情,画家要先自动情。”这一认识已将画情、画趣提高到审美范畴,“夺造化而移精神”,借物寄情、缘物写心,将主体精神寄托于画笔和笔下之形象,表达出画家无限的情思,并以此给予观赏者以艺术之美的感受。
他很重视笔墨技巧,对徐青藤、陈白阳、王梦白以及石涛、八大有着认真、精细的研究。从他大量墨笔册页以致大幅创作中均可见其精研之道。但他认为笔墨技巧应随学识和画艺的增长积年而成、自然生发,不主张单纯为求笔墨而习练,更不主张卖
弄笔墨。故此,他虽曾追摹师长师曾、梦白、白石、半丁诸家技艺,也曾在数十年中不断临写前人墨迹,但并不囿于成法。他主张“师造化、师古人、师师长”,意在融会贯通而能得其心源。画家个人的气质和秉赋,对画风之形成有至关重要的影响。雪涛对多彩的自然界生就无比心爱,他认为:一草一木、花、鸟、鱼、虫都是有“灵性”的,“非人独有也”。这一信念在其数十年的创作生涯中未曾稍减,甚至达到爱恋痴迷的地步。这一由衷的信念是一位真正艺术家的感悟,是审美意趣之体现,而非常人所能领略者。可以说,他更多地发展了“一枝一叶总关情”的心灵感受。如此至诚至爱,流诸笔端,自然幻化出艺术之美和盎然之生气。他的画笔虽也摅发个人胸臆,然而却也时时不忘以画中之情趣启迪观者心扉,使人发现未曾关注过的机趣。每见其画作,总让人强烈地意识到似乎画家与观者间在无言地进行着对话,在交流着彼此的感悟。王雪涛的这一艺术特征十分鲜明,他的画作取材十分广泛,甚至蜘蛛、蜥蜴、龟、蛇之属均可入画,
随意命笔,各有生机而妙含天趣,首先与这一信念密切相关。当他年届八旬,病苦缠身之际仍然怀有童稚般的激情,似乎在他与养育万物的自然之间真的达成过默契。
王雪涛自身画风形成的因素是多方面的,早期受王云影响尽人皆知,兹不具述。今仅从白石老人为其画作的部分题识中亦可见其端绪。 30 年代初的白石喜作荷塘,雪涛亦画荷塘;白石喜画不倒翁(自称“打不倒的好汉”),雪涛亦追随其作,笔法几可乱真。
1931 年白石在雪涛画荷塘上题曰:“作画只能授其法,未闻有授其手者。今雪涛此幅似白石手作,余何时授也?”褒耶?谪耶?
1933 年白石翁为雪涛书画合璧册上题道:“雪涛仁弟近画大似白阳、复堂流辈,因题一绝句……吾贤下笔如人意,羡汝成名鬓未丝”。其评价寄托了多少期望!其题识显然与前大不相同。 1935 年,白石又在雪涛摹白阳山人卷上书跋:“前朝白阳山人长于花草,一时名振后人,师之者众,皆能栩栩自许。得其笔姿秀雅者,惟吾贤”。 1934 年他在雪涛杂画册上题曰:“蓝已青矣”。足见雪涛在技法上,不落前人窠臼自成一家的迅速成长过程,同时亦可看出齐白石对王雪涛脱胎于自己画技、别图新径的喜悦与鼓舞。白石老人寄厚望于后学,不愧为大家。齐白石毕生都十分喜爱和器重王雪涛的人品和才分。从不断为雪涛作画、题画、治印、大量书信往来,以及 50 年代白石画过不少草虫册页均指明由雪涛补景的桩桩交往中都是显而易见的。但从 30 年代以后雪涛似乎已全然脱离了白石“画风”
一事来看,可谓雪涛深深得其画理,自寻险路攀爬,而师生情谊几无间隙矣。
王雪涛从事小写意花鸟创作,取材广泛,尤其擅画草虫。近世,如称其“尚无来者”绝非过分之誉。雪涛翎毛、禽鸟画题亦灵动有致,这不但得力于王云、华新罗,而更多的是源于对自然界的深切体验,笔下之形象总能以拟人化的手法而传情脉脉。论者常谓其作为“雅俗共赏”。他设色明快响亮、形象灵动秀丽,虽雅而非孤芳自赏,虽俗而绝非俏媚。他没有步其源远流长的离象得神、离形得似的传统,而是在形似之间求其神似,或可谓似与不似间求似。这一点充分表明着他将本体的自我精神寄托于笔下形象而转达给观者,特别是他并非只偏重于自我表现,而是通过画面产生一种和众多观者共通共鸣的情思。画是曲高和寡为好,还是赢得更多方家及普普通通的观众为好,我想他胸中自有决断。在他时时不忘表达生机时总能转达人类自身的审美情趣,因而赢得更多观众的喜爱。
王雪涛博学多识、才思敏捷而又虚怀若谷,特别是 50 年代至 60 年代初,在广取传统画法之长的同时,也不带偏见的汲取西方绘画的理论和实践之长,在运用于中国画画理、画论的探求中总结出独到的论点。他将中国画结构的基本规律概括为“主线、辅线、破线”相辅相生的关系,并加以引伸。在一幅墨笔牡丹画稿上曾题曰:“破墨法”,并注“泼误破”。以其 多年的绘画实践,简捷地将千年以来为人所难于辩清的古人“泼墨”一派做了肯定的释解。中国画特重气脉、韵致,气脉之开合、流转关乎整幅作品之成败。众多前人各有体验和阐发。而王雪涛则将其中国画的基本法则中章法、布局概括为“引、伸、堵、泄、回”;这看似简单的“五字决”,却都是源自中国画的基本立意之“气”而生成。他不但将五点运用于自身的创作同时也以这五点评述大多数古人、近人和今人之作,甚至西洋画家作品。他在教学方面有着丰富的经验,从不以虚饰之词和故弄玄虚的语言教育学生。他总是以平易,浅近的口语将深邃的画理平平白白地表述,简洁易懂。而要深究其理,则又变化万千。古今中外画理相通之处颇多,深加理喻,幻化为个人之长,画法则变化无穷,画风自成矣。他的这种讲论风格并不一定关系着“民间意识”,但却能使学养深浅不一的学子均能得到启迪,而初入学门、学识尚浅薄者,切勿将其视为掌握技法之捷径而滥作阐发。

画家体会

基本功的锻炼要扎实,花鸟画是以描绘花卉、禽鸟来表现自然界的生命力,体现欣欣向荣的生气,从而给人以健康的艺术感染。它描绘的对象是大自然,因此培养对自然界的生命力,训练观察力的敏锐是主要的。不少前人也是这样作的。传说一位画家,为了体验草虫的形态,经常趴在草丛中观察,以至露水打湿了衣裳,可见观察之认真。我小时生活在农村,对自然界中的一情一景十分偏好,幼时养成的观察和写生习惯,对我一直影响很大。要认真地了解物象的结构、特点、习性和生活规律。画时才能作到心手相应。特别应当提到的是,有些人对所谓“写意花鸟画”有一定的误解,以为“写意”者,不必求其形似,只图练习笔墨,这是把对现实的观察、提炼、概括与不必研究对象的生活习性和结构特点混为一谈,其结果便是把生动、多样、变化丰富的大自然,不是画得千篇一律,就是非驴非马。有些画出自不注意观察人的手笔,是一眼可以看出的,这是画不好画的。花鸟画的源泉是生动的大自然,而不是他人的笔墨,提炼与概括也要源于对自然的观察。因此对自然界的观察是训练心眼的基本功。
不注意对物写生,把握不住对象形体的特征,就失去了艺术再现的能力。写生不是画虫鸟标本,不但要能准确刻划形象,而且特别要强调概括能力和捕捉对象瞬间的动态,我对自己的速写总是以这样来要求。手眼的敏捷是速写要解决的问题,画面的生动,离不开速写的锻炼。
默写比速写更重要,我讲的默写,实际是默记。凭眼睛看,用脑子记。速写再快,也常局限于一时一物,而认真观察后印在脑子里的形象,则更为完整、生动,待到运用时自然发于笔端。我的老师王梦白是近代画家中十分注意写生的,其主要方法是默写。他喜欢看描写动物的影片,有一次一起看电影,见到猴子结成一串下来喝水,他很激动,不断捏我的手,让我注意观察。他的猴子画得很好,抓得住神气,有生活气氛。今天的美术发展,已远非过去的任何时代所能比拟,不少青年绘画者得到过造型能力以及色彩、速写等方面的锻炼;如果把速写的技巧与默写、默记结合起来,对于对象的特征和生活环境的掌握就会更深入一步。默写的能力提高了,也有助于速写时捕捉对象的瞬间动态。默写的好处很大,也更难。
临摹是重要的,早在六朝的谢赫就列为“六法”之一而得到重视。但写意画的临摹却为不少青年朋友所忽视。他们学画,也并非全然不临,但重视的多为画法问题,却未认真研究作品的精神气质。临摹主要是要理解画理,既可忠实于原作,也可改动它的缺点。林良的《双雁》,用笔洗练,章法饱满而完整,对之令人感到增一分减一笔都是不适宜的。我在临摹时,自然而然的要求以努力忠于原作的画法去体会画家的用心。相反的例子,如王一清的《双鹰》,也画得很好,只是两个鹰的头分向两侧而分散了画面,当我临画时,笔笔对临,但却把一个鹰的头部扭转过来,这样改动看来可使画面更为集中。临摹要解决的问题必须明确,收获也就更多。
笔墨技巧要因其自然,笔墨是为表现对象服务的,要自然形成。明朝人讲笔墨,讲用中锋的多,但其效果,正如黄宾虹所说,比较孤秃,行笔短促,显得太干涩。画画时,什么笔锋都可通用,只要较好的表现对象即可,日久天长,自己的笔墨风格也就会自然形成;切记在画画的初始阶段就一味追求笔墨。而放松对自然对象的生动表现。笔墨掌握的难易顺序是笔、墨、水。其实,水分淋漓的画法是较易表现的,而干枯见笔处才真正需要功力。笔墨表现,对绘画意境有很大影响。徐渭的画有好的一面,但也并不十分高超。他善于以胶调墨作画,如《河蟹图》,任伯年也用这种方法。用胶的方法比掌握水容易,效果比较润泽,缺点是墨色单调。以王梦白的《石榴》和徐渭的《石榴》相比,则前者是形神兼备,一点雕琢气没有,达到出神入化的境地,可见笔墨表现的重要。
探究中国画色彩运用的特点 不大了解的人常以为中国画笔墨可取,而色彩则不讲究,其实不尽然。中国画的色彩是有传统、有特点的。数千年前的彩陶艺术,至今能给人以美的感受,不仅因为图案和器形的完美结合,也因为绘制流畅线条的黑红色与陶器烧制后的表面色彩相协调,形成了色彩、图案与器形的统一。其后,从战国、秦汉的漆器,汉代的壁画可以看出,美术创作中色彩的民族特点已经形成。谢赫总结的“随类赋彩”说明千余年前色彩问题已经提高到理论问题而加以重视了。
不强调特定时间和环境下的视觉感受,采用高度概括的艺术加工方法来表现,是中国绘画色彩运用的特点。表现的方法,一是墨与色相结合,或以墨代色;一是表现对象固有色为主。墨画是色彩表现上的精练概括,所谓墨分五色,运用得好,很多时候可以起到使用色彩也达不到的艺术效果。不少黑白照片的表现力很强,可以使颜色准确的色彩照片相形见绌。也没有人认为卓别林的影片因为无声而成为缺憾。在这里,黑白与无声成为艺术感染力的手段。以墨来概括自然界的色彩就是中国画色彩表现一大特点。同样,墨与色结合使用,时常也可以得到丰富的表现力和更好地表现特定的情感。以色助墨、以墨显色,一向为人所重视。
齐白石以浓墨画白菜,旁边并列二个带有黑蒂的深红小辣椒,色彩感觉十分鲜明。他画的黑白蜡台,插上红色蜡烛有着同样的效果。红黑二色产生的艺术感染力,古代人就很熟悉,如中国的漆器、希腊的瓶画。它有鲜明的对比,而又庄重饱满。我自己也有一些感受。牡丹是人所喜爱的一个花卉品种,唐代人赏牡丹成了长安、洛阳的一大风尚。历来文人、画工以此为题写诗作画的很多。然而封建文人是把它作为富贵象征来描绘的,今日人民对它的爱好、感受全然不同。我曾试以墨色描画枝叶,衬托红色花头,突破了红花一定要绿叶来扶的格式,除却了柔媚富贵之气。用色虽然减少,但整体效果突出而庄重;运用得好,色彩感觉未必是单调的,同时也更能在枝叶上发挥笔墨效果。
中国画的色彩表现与西洋画全然不同,虽说谁都了解中国画以表现对象固有色为主,问题就在于如何巧妙利用自然对象的固有色来丰富画面。西洋画中总结的色彩规律对了解这一点是有帮助的。白色的玉簪上落上一个瓢虫,活跃了过于淡雅的色调,对比之下也更增添了花的晶莹。生就有着两种颜色的螳螂,在一幅画上为赭黄色可能更谐调;另一幅中,画成石绿色,则在对比之下可能更突出。色彩的巧妙运用可以为画面增添音乐感和韵律。我画过一幅“鸢尾”,其上补什么飞虫颇费不少脑筋,主要从色彩上考虑,添加了飞蛾才觉比较满意。整幅画是所谓偏冷一些的温色调,比较明快、淡雅,同时又不过分的使用了对比,造成统一而悦目的效果。整体色调是由画在泥金底上的草绿和青紫的花形成的,而花头与飞虫的红翅造成对比。同时青紫、灰红、黄绿三种色调又能协调为一体,色彩感觉就丰富些。借助外国的色彩经验,用来丰富以表现固有色为主的传统技法,我看很值得钻研。
引人生情的意境创造,从总的方面讲,中国绘画传统是注重写意的,如同京剧艺术一样。不拘于机械的再现对象,更要把握对象的精神气质,着意于创造意境以感染观者。清末广东居窠,居廉的草虫有写生功夫,但缺少内在的精神,形同标本,也就失却了感人的意境。
中国画讲画理、画情、画趣。一幅画的内容是好的,但总要有情趣才能打动人心。要画得引人生情,善于体现自然界中不大为人注意,或者是可能会发生的一种机趣,从而给人一种意想不到的感受和回味想象的余地。雏鸡争食是生物的自然现象,而在齐白石笔下的“他日相呼”则倾注着人类的情感,和使人联想无穷的意境。一支咬破了草笼爬于其外的纺织娘,有时不是比藏在瓜藤中的更多一番情趣吗?
夸张的手法在花鸟画中使用最多。鸟类由于眼睛的视角广阔和体态的灵活,一般眼球的转动是很少的。但八大山人的鸟,眼睛是会说话的,这在他生活的时代,或可说是代他自己在说话吧。我画过的许多鸟,眼眶往往大于真实,眼球也随视线而转动,在与前者不同的意境中,则体现了生机,在情感上具有了一种拟人的味道。有些人很重视夸张,但却作得过分,看上去不舒服,这在于没有了解到,夸张是要根据意境创作出发,仍是借助于形态而传神的,夸张与漫画不可等同。
刻意表现自然界的生机勃勃,抓取生活中的瞬间来表现动势,是意境创作的重要因素。飞鸟固然有着千姿百态,但欲飞将落的瞬间,可能会使人想到一种闻声索侣或觅食才归的意趣。寓动于静则是含蓄表现动势的另一种方式。踞伏草中的雏鸡动态很小,但在空灵数笔的脖颈上和转折有力富有弹性的背部曲线上,蕴藏着力量,不难使人想象,在它灵活的躯体上可能预示着的动势。总之,感人的意境是要作者倾注感情去探索的。
章法布局归于立意 布局结构决定整幅作品的基本形式。古人强调意在笔先,立意就是总纲,其基本思想就是用什么去打动人心。立意饱满方可气脉一贯,即使面对小幅纸,也要站着画才能纵观全局。由于中国画工具纸张和创作上的特点,不能要求有百般推敲而成的草图。在经营构图时,有自己的独到之处。我初次见到有人剪贴的办法设计构图时,真使我惊讶不已,谈何意境呢?花鸟画要求画前有腹稿,但它只能确定大致面貌,重要的在于落笔后能随机应变。石涛讲“一画”,在画法上,这初始的“一画”决定风貌,笔笔相随,才能贯通一气,这或可称之为“始于一”。这样的画气脉流畅、结构完整。不可不顾落笔后的实际情况而坚持原有的构图设想,以致使画面零乱,这是不同于西画的重要特点之一。
中国绘画注重线条,构图中以线型的安排为主,大致可有主、辅、破线三种类型。主线是确定型式的主导,辅线加强主线的气势,而破线一方面打破单调的布局,同时又以对比的方式再次突出主线。草虫虽小,在花鸟画中却并非是点缀,体态短小的一只蝉,有时可以视为一块必要的墨色;而生性敏捷的螳螂,在构图中往往是作为有折曲的线型来对待的,连那长长的触须,是低是扬,也要安排得当,细心的人仔细琢磨是不难领会的,至于疏密、聚散、动静、虚实等等,只起丰富主体的效果。金农的梅花有功力。但过于散漫一片,章法上是失败的。规律要注意总结,但不可为法使。只需刻意于画的中心,古人称之为气的结点,笔笔都要考虑这个中心,章法自然奇拔。

English Introduction

Wang Xuetao, Chinese modern famous small freehand flower and bird painter. Born in December 31, 1903, died November 24, 1982, Hebei Anren into.
Original court Jun, word Xiao seal, no.. I love painting, in 1918 into the Baoding Zhili higher normal with manual drawing, after graduating from primary school to teach. 1922 admitted to the Beijing College of Art Painting Department, after reading the Chinese painting department, taught by Chen Shiceng, Xiao Qianzhong, Wang Mengbai, Tang Dingzhi all predecessors, especially the greatest impact by Wang Mengbai. In 1924 Qi Baishi worship as a teacher, in life renamed xuetao. In 1926, after graduating from school as a teaching assistant, lecturer. During the Anti Japanese War, the fall of Peiping, resigned from the job, specializing in painting, selling paintings. At the same time, concentrate on traditional teachers, chasing Xu Wei, Chen Chun, and teacher guidance, painting art into. 1954 any Chinese Painting Research Council executive director, was hired as deputy director of the National Institute of fine arts, China Central Academy of Fine Arts. 1955 to participate in the preparations for the Beijing Chinese academy, 1957, director of the Institute of painters, the members of the committee, in 1978 the Beijing painting academy. Director of Chinese Artists Association, vice chairman of the Beijing branch of Beijing Artists Association, the Seventh National People's Congress, Fifth Session of Beijing municipal CPPCC Standing Committee, member of the Central Committee and the Democratic League of China contact Beijing municipal committee.
Wang Xuetao is a modern China successful painting master, made outstanding contributions to China's small freehand painting. He inherited the excellent traditional song and Yuan Dynasties, learn from each other. Made in a wide range, sophisticated ideas, like God Qiao, fresh and beautiful, full of ink fun. A literary creation
He advocated "learning from nature and express their feelings, I one, the first man I used to learn, innovation". Combination of painting and writing. He is good at depicting the bird world rich and colorful and lively angry, and specializes in the performance of the artist's feelings and soul touching imagination. He focused on painting, especially good at depicting the nature of life, such as butterflies, praying mantis, grasshopper, beetles, frogs, dragonflies, wasp, true to life of affection. He also use smart changeable ink, color ink combination to help ink color, ink color, color into the law of Western painting emphasizes in the traditional color, compared to the overall color coordination, rhythm added to the screen. He can accurately grasp the dynamics of the bird, and can reflect the fleeting interest in the scene in. So his flower and bird painting, portray nuanced, vigorous and colorful, lively and lovely, interesting. Get rid of the rigid program painting of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, creating a fresh and ethereal, distinctive style tastes. Twentieth Century five, in 60s its flower and bird painting has reached an art peak, so far no one out of its right. The last century at the beginning of 80s, the Central News record studio documentary "China painting", have a unique style and technique is one of focus included.

In the modern flower and bird painter, Wang Xuetao in the 60 years of tireless exploration of art, the formation of a healthy living,
Various themes a fresh air, won the love of the majority of the audience, the painting and research also have quite experience in painting art map. "Teacher, have an insatiable desire to learn, tireless in teaching others" is numerous, style is quite extensive influence. His artistic achievements have formed a generation style. In 1987, his wife, Mr. Xu Peixia decided to work at 200 reservoir, donated to the Ji'nan Municipal People's government, in October of the same year, the "Wang Xuetao Memorial" in Baotu Spring Park Cang Park completed. Twenty years for countless viewers appreciate, for scholars to provide reference.
Because of the love life of Mr. Xuetao painting and nature, 16 years old when he quit home went to Baoding studying in Zhili Province higher normal hand drawing academy. This school is one of the teachers who have a reputation for cultivating painting talents in the north at the beginning of the last century. He is working hard in school to study painting, and it has the qualification day endowment horizon, after graduation, in good support to Beijing alone, in 1922 admitted to the Beijing national art college. At that time, Beijing is facing a complex era of painting from the crisis and try to reform, and he was one of the first to accept the education of modern art painter.
Before this, China academic circles has been affected by the influence of Western learning, the beginning of the century, Cai Yuanpei advocated aesthetic education, and promote the art of the old opposition to follow an old routine
Xi. The art department setting and teaching methods of their. Lin Fengmian served as president of the famous, such as Chen Shiceng, Xiao Qianzhong, Tang Dingzhi, Xiao Zhiquan, Ling Wenyuan, Chen Banding, Huang Binhong, Wang Mengbai was teaching at the school. Lin Fengmian and Qi Baishi and the French teacher Korodo distinguished (Andre Claudot). The student is divided into departments, but with the teacher lectures, learning course for all their efforts, more. Just have to turn to the opportunity Xuetao you, heart chasing hand man, Guangzhou school director, Wang Mengbai, Qi Baishi, Chen Banding love is the master, and his future wife Xu Lanzhen admired Wen Yiduo, and from the study of art history professor Wen Yiduo; also by Keluoduo of preference. This study is not widely adopted, only to win all the teachers, especially should mention is that when studying in the college alumni has also founded the influential "nine friends" painting, Western painting, Chinese painting painted its members have both at the same time, explore each other, mutual benefit temper.
At that time, Beijing Shusi, drawing many. In 1925 the value of the Imperial Palace open, often display palace Wenhua paintings, enjoy the view, borrow and borrow many opportunities to the ancient paintings, meticulous sophisticated research or the previous collotype printing work is a division of the two.
He was the teacher of love, we give it a or to see the original. From 1923 to 1924, he and nine friends of "painting" with Xu Lanzhen fell in love with the worship Qi Baishi as a teacher, Whitehead Weng is renamed Wang Tingjun Xu Lanzhen Pei Xuetao, renamed the lily pad. In March 1928, King Xu Chenghun, by the pattern of department director Huang Huaiying, the wedding held in the lotus Pavilion, and special Wen Yiduo and Mr. Korodo to a dinner party. Three days later, Korodo and Wang, Xu in the apartment. Half of Mr. Ding for its painting and congratulations, Whitehead Weng for lotus Pavilion for the inscription Museum of the lotus Xuetao Zhai Hua building, and making distinctions
Wang Xuetao her favorite painting by Wang Mengbai effect and longer than by teachers (or the dictation), he will write with pen at the end of expertise and skill, so
The sketch sketch really is "sketch". In addition to a large number of flowers and trees from each shape and distinct characteristics, and is good at capturing the transient moment in the form, whether swift flight of the Qu the magpies, step by step smart Rooster or Silver Pheasant, or show arm insect catching mantis, can seize the material spirit all have smart life. Xuetao under the pen of feathers, flowers, insects, insect scales, accurate modeling, distinctive features, seems to be a living representation. Besides a deep skill but appeared consciously and unconsciously, but also affected the western realistic painting of the undoubted.
He had seriously talked about the relationship between painting, painting and painting in the creation of artistic conception. He thought that emotion and interest were the painter's feelings. "China focus on traditional painting freehand, like Peking opera art, whether in mechanical reproduction of the object, but also to grasp the object of spirit, focused on creating artistic conception to infect the viewer". "A picture of the content is good, but always have fun to impress people. To draw cited life sentiment, the painter should first automatic feeling." This understanding has been painting, painting interest to aesthetic category, "superb move spirit", borrow objects and edge writing heart, will be the main spiritual image on the brush and pen, to express the artist infinite emotion, and to give the viewer a sense of the beauty of art.

He attaches great importance to pen and ink skills, Xu Qingteng, Chen Baiyang, and the eight of the eight serious and meticulous study of the study, and the eight, and the eight, the study of the serious, meticulous, and so on, such as the study of the skills of ink and ink, and so on, with a serious and meticulous. A lot of ink from his album that was visible in the creation of a lapping way. But he believes that with the knowledge and skills should be the ink painting of the growth years, natural hair, do not advocate simple for ink and practice, but not in favor of selling
Make pen and ink. Therefore, although he was commander Shi Ceng, chase dream white, white stone, half Ding also worked in various skills, dozens of years of continuous ink written on the previous, but not limited to law. He advocated the "shizaohua, ancient division, division, to digest the cardiac energy. His personal temperament and talent, has significant impact on the formation of style. Xuetao colorful natural born extremely beloved, he said: every tree and bush flowers birds, fish and insects are "spiritual" and "non-human is also unique". This belief is not in his career for decades diminished, even to the point of obsession with love. This is a sincere belief in the artist's sentiment really is the embodiment of aesthetic charm, and the very people who can appreciate. It can be said that he developed more, "a chief customs intelligence" the feelings of the soul. Such a sincere love, streaming brush, natural metamorphosis of angry art scene in the United States and the. Although his brushes hair vent personal feelings, but also always forget to draw the interest of the audience in the heart of the enlightenment, which had never been concerned about the interest of the machine. Each see his paintings, always make people strongly aware of the artist and the viewer seems to be in a wordless dialogue, exchange of mutual understanding. The artistic features of Wang Xuetao's very sharp, his paintings were very extensive, even spiders, lizards, turtles, snakes of the genera can be picturesque,
The random Mingbi, and wonderful life with nature, the first is closely related with this belief. When he was eight years old, suffering from disease ridden occasion still have childish passion, seems to be between him and the nourishing nature really reached a tacit understanding.
Wang Xuetao's style is the formation of factors in many aspects, the early impact by Wang Yun is not known to all, with the. This is only from the old Bai Shi painting the part that knowledge may be found in the beginning. At the beginning of the 30s, Shiraishi Kiku also painted lotus, white lotus Xuetao; Shixi painting Budaoweng (self proclaimed "beat the hero"), also follow the Xuetao, writing a few spurious.
In 1931 the white stone painting lotus on the title Xuetao said: "painting can only be granted the law, no delegate to his hand. Today this is like white stone hand, when I also grant?" Praise the Lord? Exile?
1933 Whitehead Weng for painting and calligraphy book Hebi Xuetao Title: "my dear friend in painting like Xuetao Bai Yang, Tang Contemporary, because of the problem of a rhyme...... I envy you Xian pen and famous temples without wire". Its evaluation pinned much expectations! Its problem is obviously different from the previous. In 1935, Bai Shi and Bai Yang Da volume book Xuetao g sequence: "former White Yang Da longer than flowers, a vibration in later generations, division of the public, all can come for. The pen posture fair, but Wu xian". In 1934 he Xuetao said: "the album title complex has blue green". This Xuetao in technique, the rapid growth of the pattern of predecessors does not fall completely, but also see Qi Baishi Wang Xuetao born out of their painting, don't figure new path of joy and inspiration. Old Bai Shi high hopes for his, is worthy of you. The life of Qi Baishi are very popular and valued Wang Xuetao's personality and talent. From the time for painting, painting, carving Xuetao, a large number of letters, and in 50s, Bai Shi painted many insects are indicated by the album Xuetao complement King contacts are obviously the pile. But since 30s Xuetao seems to have been completely detached from the white stone "style"

That is, the deep Xuetao painting theory, self seeking way to climb, and the friendship is no gap.
Wang Xuetao engaged in small freehand creation, is widespread, especially good at painting insects. In modern times, such as saying "no one" is not too much praise. Feathers, birds also clever Xuetao painting has caused, which not only benefited from Wang Yun, Huaxin Luo, which are more rooted in the deep understanding of the nature of the image, under the pen can be the personification of tenderness and love. The often call it as "tastes". He color bright, elegant and beautiful facial image, although non vulgar and not indulge in self-admiration, although Qiao mei. He did not like his long step from God, spiritlike orientation of the traditional, but for its likeness in shape, or be like and do not like for like. This point shows that he will body self spiritual sustenance in the pen image to convey to the audience, especially he not only emphasis on self-expression, but have a common feeling and many viewers resonate through the screen. Painting is too good, or win more and Fang ordinary audience as well, I think his chest own decision. When he always forget to express his life can always convey their own aesthetic taste, and thus win more audience favorite.
Wang Xuetao erudite, quick witted and very modest, especially from 50s to early 60s, in the traditional painting long wide at the same time, also without prejudice to learn the theory and practice of Western painting in the use of long, summed up the unique argument, to explore Chinese painting in painting. He will rule Chinese painting structure summarized as "the main line, however, the relationship between the broken line" complement each other, and to be extended. In an ink painting on peony has title said: "porno method", and "throwing error break". In the practice of painting for many years, and the thousand years were difficult to distinguish the "splash ink" faction in the affirmative explanation. China Qimai, painting special charm, Qimai opening success of the whole works of circulation. Many predecessors have experience and analysis. Wang Xuetao will be one of basic principles of Chinese painting in the art layout, summed up as "guiding, extension, blocking, relief, return"; this seemingly simple "five characters", are derived from the basic conception China painting of "Qi" generated. He will not only five points for their work but also to the five points on most of the ancients, people and people make, and even western painters. He has rich experience in teaching, never to ostentation words and language education students kick up a cloud of dust. He is always in plain, plain spoken profound painting flat white express, concise and easy to understand. To get to the bottom of its science, is changing. There are a lot of similarities between the theory of painting at all times and in all countries, the deep reason that turned into individual long, self style painting rules with countless changes,. This style is not necessarily about his relationship with "folk consciousness", but it can make the students can get knowledge in shades of inspiration, and at the beginning of the school gate, knowledge is shallow, do not use it as a shortcut for grasping the skill and abuse analysis.

Basic skills training should be solid, flower and bird painting is to describe the flowers, birds to show the vitality of nature, embodies thriving angry, so as to give people a healthy art. It describes the nature of the object, so the cultivation of the vitality of nature, training the sharpness of observation is the main. Many predecessors also do so. The legend of a painter, in order to experience the various forms, often observed lying in the grass, and the dew wet clothes, visible observation seriously. I live in the countryside for a hour, feeling the nature of the scene is very preference, childhood observation and sketching habits, I have great influence on. To carefully understand the images of the structure, characteristics, habits and patterns of life. To be hand painting. Special mention should be made of, some people have some misunderstanding of "freehand brushwork", thought of "freehand", do not need to have the shape, only practice ink, this is the observation of the reality, refine, generalization and not living habits and structure characteristics of the research object confused. The result is the vivid and diverse, rich nature, not painted stereotyped, is neither an ass nor a horse. There are some pictures from do not pay attention to the person, is an eye can see, this is not a good portrait painting. The source of flower and bird painting is vivid nature, not other people's pen and ink, refining and generalization also from the observation of nature. The observation of nature is the basic training of the mind.
Do not pay attention to the object painting, can not grasp the characteristics of object shape, lost the ability to reproduce art. Painting is not painting birds and insects were not only to be able to accurately characterize the image, but with particular emphasis on general dynamic capabilities and capture object moments, my sketch is always in such a request. The eye is quick sketch to solve the problem, the vivid picture, cannot do without the exercise of sketch.
Dictation is more important than the sketch, I speak dictation, memorization is practical. Look with your eyes and mind. Sketch again soon, is usually limited to one, but after careful observation in the brain image is more complete and vivid, until use natural hair in his writings. My teacher Wang Mengbai is a modern painters pay great attention to the sketch, the main method is to write. He likes to look at the animal description of the film, one time to see a movie, see the monkeys into a string of down to drink water, he was very excited, constantly pinch my hand, let me pay attention to observe. His monkey is very good, can grasp the air, life atmosphere. Today's art development, has been far from any era in the past can be compared, many young painters had modeling ability and color sketch, and other aspects of the exercise; if the sketching skills and dictation, memorization combined, to grasp the characteristics of the object and the living environment will be one step further. Dictation ability to improve, also helps to capture the instant dynamic sketch object. See the great benefits, but also more difficult to.
Copying is important, as early as six Sheikh was listed as one of the "six methods" and attention. But the painting was copying many young people ignore. They also studied painting, is not temporary, but the importance of the more descriptive, but did not seriously study the ethos of the work. Copying is mainly to understand the theory of painting, both faithful to the original, can also change its disadvantages. Lin Liang's "double Yan", pen succinct, full and full of tricks, it was increased by one point by one pen is not suitable. I was copying, drawing requirements naturally in an effort to feel loyal to the original artist's heart. On the contrary examples, such as Wang Yiqing's "double eagle", also very good, just two of the eagle's head points to the sides and scattered the picture, when I face painting, Bibi on the pro, but an eagle head reversed, such changes seem to make the picture more concentrated. To solve the problem of copying must be clear, the harvest is more.
Pen and ink skills to their natural, ink is for the performance of the object of service, to naturally form. The Ming Dynasty people speak words, speak with the center, but its effect, as Huang Binhong said, more solitary line is too short, bald, dry. When painting, what tip is common, as long as the good performance of the object can be, his style of painting for many, many years to come, it will naturally remember; blindly pursuit of ink in the initial stage. The natural expression of relaxation to natural objects. Pen and ink grasp the order is pen, ink, water. In fact, water dripping paint is easily, and dry pen really need skill at. Pen and ink performance, painting mood has a great impact. Xu Wei's paintings have good side, but not very superb. He is good at using gel ink painting, such as "crab", he also used this method. Glue method than to master the water easily, to compare the effect of moist, the disadvantage is monotone color. Compared with Wang Mengbai's "pomegranate" and Xu Wei's "pomegranate", the former is vivid, a little Polish gas, to reach the acme of perfection situation, visible ink performance is important.

Explore the use of Chinese painting color characteristics do not understand people often think that Chinese ink pen desirable, and color is not stress, in fact, not entirely. The color of Chinese painting is traditional and characteristic. Thousands of years ago, art pottery, still can give people a sense of beauty, not only because of the perfect combination of patterns and shapes, but also because of the surface color of red and black pottery draw smooth lines firing after coordination, the formation of a unified color, pattern and shape. Then, from the Warring States period, the Qin and Han Dynasties lacquerware, Han Dynasty Murals can be seen, the national characteristics of color in art creation has been formed. Sheikh summed up the "different kinds of colour that thousands of years ago the color problem has been raised to theoretical problems and attention.
Do not emphasize the visual perception of a specific time and environment, the use of highly generalized art processing methods to show, is the use of color characteristics of Chinese painting. The method is a combination of ink and color ink, or to a generation of color; color is the object. Ink painting is the color on the performance of the concise summary, the so-called colored ink, the use of good, a lot of time can be to use color up to the artistic effect. A lot of black and white photos of strong performance, can make accurate color color photos inferior by comparison. No one thought that Chaplin's film became silent because of silence. Here, black and white and silence become a means of artistic appeal. To summarize the color of nature is Chinese ink painting color performance is a major feature. Similarly, the combination of ink and color, often can also get rich expressiveness and better performance of specific emotions. To help ink color, ink color, has always been attached importance to.
Qi Baishi painted next to the edges of cabbage, tied for two with Heidy red peppers, color is very bright. He painted black and white candlestick, plug the red candle has the same effect. The two color have artistic appeal, the ancient people are very familiar with, such as bottle painting Chinese lacquer, greece. It has a sharp contrast, but full of solemn. I have some feelings myself. Peony is a favorite flower varieties, the Tang Dynasty peony appreciation has become a major fashion in Changan, Luoyang. A lot of scholars on this topic, writing poetry and painting art. However, the feudal literati described it as a symbol of wealth, today's people love it, feel completely different. I tried to draw off the red ink leaves, flower heads, safflower leaves must break through to help the format, except the Roumei rich gas. Although the color is reduced, but the overall effect is prominent and solemn; good use, color sense may not be monotonous, but also better to play the effect of ink on the branches and leaves.
Chinese painting color performance and Western painting is completely different, although who understand Chinese painting to show the object of solid colored, the problem lies in how clever use of natural objects solid color to enrich the picture. The color rule summarized in Western painting is helpful to understand this. White Hosta falling on a ladybug, active too elegant colors, contrast also adds to the crystal flower. Students have two colors of the mantis, may be more harmonious was yellow in a painting; another piece of stone, painted green, in contrast may be more prominent. Clever use of color can add music and rhythm to the picture. I painted a picture of "iris", which make up what flies quite a lot of brains, mainly from the color, add the moth can feel satisfied. The painting is the so-called warm colors cooler, more lively and elegant, but not excessive use of contrast, resulting in uniform and pleasing effect. The overall tone is formed by painting in gold on the bottom of the green and purple flowers, and flower heads with red winged flies by contrast. At the same time, red, yellow and green blue gray three colors and color coordination as a whole, feeling more abundant. With the help of foreign color experience, used to enrich the performance of solid colored traditional techniques, I think it is worth studying.
The creation of artistic conception of feeling of life, from the general aspect, Chinese painting tradition is to pay attention to freehand brushwork, as Peking Opera art. In any mechanical reproduction of the object, but also to grasp the object of spirit, focused on creating artistic conception to infect the viewer. Guangdong in the late Qing Dynasty in the nest, the Lingnan insects are sketch work, but the lack of inner spirit, like specimens and will lose the touching artistic conception.
Chinese painting theory of painting, painting, painting fun. A picture of the content is good, but always have fun to impress people. To draw a life feeling, good at reflecting the nature of little attention, or is likely to occur a kind of machine interest, giving people an unexpected feeling and aftertaste room for imagination. Chicken food is a natural phenomenon in biology, Qi Baishi's future is called "into a human emotion, and make people think of the infinite artistic conception. A bite of the grass cage climb outside the katydid, sometimes rather than hiding in the vine in more fun?

To express the nature of the moment of life full of vigour, grasping to show momentum, is an important factor in the creation of artistic conception. Of course there are birds to fly off in different poses and with different expressions, but the moment may make people think of a cable or owned by the couple heard foraging charm. To combine static is also a kind of implicit motive force performance. Sit in the grass chicken dynamic V is very small, but in the back of the neck curve vacant number pen and turning strong elastic, there is power, is not difficult to imagine, in which flexible body may indicate the potential. In short, the moving mood is to explore the feelings of the author to explore.
Layout to the basic form of the layout of the structure determines the whole works. The ancients emphasize the thought of first conception is to master the basic idea is to use what to impress people. The conception of full can always Qimai, even in the face of small paper, also stand to draw an overall view of the situation. Due to the characteristics of Chinese painting tools and paper creation, can not require a careful elaboration of the sketch. In the operation pattern, has its own originality. When I first saw someone cut and paste the way to design composition, I really surprised, talk about mood? Painting requires a plan before painting, but it can only determine the general appearance, important is can to write. Shi Tao said, "a painting" in the painting, the original "a painting" decision style, Bibi go through to stretch, or it can be called "begins with a". This painting Qimai smooth, complete structure. Do not disregard the actual situation after the composition ideas and insist to the original, so that the picture is messy, this is one of the important characteristics different from western painting.
Chinese painting pay attention to lines, composition in order to linear arrangement based, roughly can have Lord, auxiliary, broken line three types. The main line is to determine the dominant type, the main line of the line to strengthen the momentum, and a broken line breaks the monotony of the layout, but also in the way of comparison again highlighting the main line. Insects are small, but not in the flower and bird paintings is the embellishment, a cicada body short, sometimes can be regarded as a necessary ink; and more agile mantis, in composition is often used as a linear bending to the very long tentacles, is low is Yang, to arrange properly. Careful people think is not difficult to understand, as for the density and everything, the movement, strength and so on, only the main effect of the rich. McKinnon Meihua skill. But too loose a piece of art, is a failure. Law should pay attention to summary, but not for law. Only need to in the center of the painting, the ancients called gas nodes, Bibi should consider the permissive Nature Center, Qiba.

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