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吴湖帆

吴湖帆,江苏苏州人,为吴大澄嗣孙(1894—1968)。初名翼燕,字遹骏,后更名万,字东庄,又名倩,别署丑簃,号倩庵,书画署名湖帆。三四十年代与吴待秋、吴子深、冯超然并称为“三吴一冯”。建国后任上海中国画院筹备委员、画师,上海大学美术学院副教授,中国美术家协会上海分会副主席、上海市文史馆馆员、上海市文物保管委员会委员。收藏宏富,善鉴别、填词。山水从“四王”、董其昌上溯宋元各家,冲破南北宗壁障,以雅腴灵秀、缜丽清逸的复合画风独树一帜,尤以熔水墨烘染与青绿设色于一炉并多烟云者最具代表性。并工写竹、兰、荷花。二十世纪中国画坛一位重要的画家,他在中国绘画史上的意义其实已远超出他作为一名山水画家的意义。著有《联珠集》、《梅景画笈》、《梅景书屋全集》、《吴氏书画集》、《吴湖帆山水集锦》及多种《吴湖帆画集》行世。

  • 中文名吴湖帆
  • 别名初名翼燕,字遹骏
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍江苏苏州
  • 出生地江苏苏州
  • 出生日期1894年
  • 逝世日期1968年
  • 职业山水画家,书法家,鉴定家
  • 主要成就二十世纪中国画坛一位重要的画家
  • 代表作品《梅景书屋画集》,《梅景画集》,《吴氏书画集》
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国画价值贵当自知(作者:吴湖帆)

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

来源:《中国文化报•美术周刊》  今固有文化,且益不彰,国画前途,愈形黯淡。政府既乏国画学校之设置,而醉心欧化者流,对于国画,且方以鄙夷之心理视之。研习者固失所师承,鉴赏者亦茫...
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人物简介

吴湖帆,二十世纪中国画坛一位重要的画家,他在中国绘画史上的意义其实已远超出他作为一名山水画家的意义。
作为一位集绘画、鉴赏、收藏于一身的显赫人物,他的成就是多方面的,可以说代表了中国绘画史上的一种现象。
吴湖帆现代绘画大师,书画鉴定家。早年与溥濡被称为“南吴北溥”,后与吴子深、吴待秋、冯超然、在画坛有“三吴一冯”之称。
吴湖帆生于晚清,出身苏州名门,由于社会环境的转变,他属于最后一代的传统文人,因而从他身上也折射出了古老艺术在近现代发展的痕迹。
吴湖帆的绘画为人赞誉。他从正统派入手,并由此上溯,对诸家画派多所师法,这在当时的画家群体中并不多见。在上世纪40年代,他已名震东南;作为吴人,他继承发扬了吴门画派的精粹;身处上海,以他为首的三吴一冯更是一个时代的缩影。
与他的绘画艺术同时还为人们称颂的是他的收藏。他的收藏,为其创作、鉴定提供了丰厚的资源和坚实的基础,这也是传统画学的一大特色。如今,这些艺术品虽然大部分被国内外各大博物馆及其他公私机构收藏,但从某种角度讲,未尝不是吴湖帆生命的延续。

艺术特色

吴湖帆的绘画风格,从他早期的传世作品看,基本上不出正统派的藩篱。如他于一九一六年所作的《临董其昌仿大痴秋山图》扇面,山体的轮廓造型显然从董其昌来,披麻皴虽然水平泛泛,但已流露出了与“南宗”--正统派的亲和关系。
上海自鸦片战争後,由于其特殊的环境逐渐成为了近现代中国书画典藏的重镇之-,至民国期间,只有北京可与之抗衡。所以,上海成了收藏家、画家向往的乐土,甚至可以说民国以来的重要画家、收藏家几乎没有不到过上海的,或者生活在这裏,如大收藏家庞元济、钱镜塘,画家、鉴藏家张大千谢稚柳等。吴湖帆到上海後,所见日多,交游日广,在这一个新的环境内,为他进-步开阔眼界、走向中国画的殿堂深处起到了不可忽视的作用。
根据目前所掌握的材料看,吴湖帆在一九二四年去上海前后渐渐表现出了对画史、画论的自觉认识。其根据有二:一,此前,他所临习的作品跳跃性很大,没有显示出一定的系统性;二,此后,画上有不少有关画史、画论、品评的题跋出现。
从他早年的作品看,除学习“四王”吴、恽、董其昌沈周等大家外,对清中期以来的绘画几乎不着一笔(这一点贯穿于他一生的艺术之中)。从对传统笔墨功力的修炼而言,若不抱偏见的话,正统派当在扬州画派、海派之上。但是正统派的好,并不是绝对的好。以学“四王”而论,自清中後期起变成了辗转相袭,终究没有画家越出『四王』的窠臼。这主要表现在笔墨的疲软、刻板上。那么,如何匡正学习正统派易形成的笔墨疲软、刻板呢?
正统派末流最大弊端在于师承前人时局限于门户之见或未能做到追本溯源。在艺术渊源上,正统派以“南宗”为基。董其昌等提出山水画的“南、北宗”论,主要从笔墨风格、审美理想的角度对传统图式、师承关系进行了一次梳理,以便後学对传统的沿流讨源。董其昌虽明确表示“北宗”非吾曹当学,但同时也指出,在以『南宗』为根本的同时,必须对“南、北宗”“俱宜宗之,集其大成”。正统派的画家中,王时敏王原祁对于传统的认识只专注于董巨、黄公望的“南宗”正脉,王鉴对“北宗”有所借鉴,但重点是“南宗”。能合“南、北宗”为一手、集传统之大成者,当为王翚。从正统派作品看,王翚的山水画较为别致,因其富于“绘画性”,故显得特别严谨精微,法度周密,古朴清丽。王翚有句画论可能给吴湖帆很大影响--“以元人笔墨,运宋人丘壑,而泽以唐人气韵,乃为大成”。那么,所谓元人笔墨、宋人丘壑、唐人气韵又是什么呢?于是,吴湖帆将目光不断地朝着“四王”的纵向和横向展开。
宋元绘画在吴湖帆的面前展现了一个丰富多彩的世界。一九二九年四月十日,教育部在上海新普育堂举办全国第一届美术展览,吴湖帆自此任全国美展常委。一九三四年,吴湖帆以上海博物馆筹备委员及董事的身份接受故宫邀请,前往北京鉴定文物并任故宫评审委员。一九三五年,故宫博物院藏品赴伦敦参加国际展览前在上海预展,吴湖帆又以审察委员的身份负责整理。一九三七年四月一日,第二届全国美展在南京举行,吴湖帆曾去南京观摩历代作品。两次全国美展所展的历代名作有范宽《溪山行旅图》,董源《龙宿郊民图》、《洞山天堂图》,李唐《万壑松风图》,郭熙《早春图》,宋人《小寒林画龙》,赵孟頫《枯木竹石图》,高克恭《晴麓横云图》,黄公望《富春山居图卷》等等。此间,吴湖帆还过目董源《夏山图》、《潇湘图》等重要作品。由于梅景书屋的收藏此时已名闻海内,吴湖帆在书画鉴定方面又有“一只眼”之称,所以,以他特殊的身份及名声,海内外藏家纷纷出示藏品求他题识。这一切,为吴湖帆广开视野、加深对传统书画本身的认识、提高鉴赏能力打下了坚实的基础。于是他从恽南田、吴历戴熙到董其昌、“明四家”、赵孟頫、“南宋四家”、“二赵”(赵伯驹、赵伯驌)、郭熙范宽李成董源巨然等等,上下千载,南北百派,无不师法借鉴,以便吸收传统绘画的精华。
《临董其昌山水册》是吴湖帆一九三0年的重要作品,也是他这一时期的代表作。这一册共二十开,它的母本实际上是临董其昌的『课徒画稿』。这种画谱对中国画的学习无疑是相当有用的,何况是董其昌的手笔。在这二十开的册子裏,可谓把董其昌之前的大画家全部聚集在一起了,有关仝、李成李公麟、“二米”、赵孟頫、曹知白黄公望王蒙倪瓒等等。通过这一册的临习,他已把历代重要画法梳理了一遍。《仿郭熙幽谷图》作于一九三三年,与郭熙的《幽谷画》相比,在笔法上有所出入,如树法及山的皴法,虽然它的构图铺陈与郭的区别不大,一言以蔽之,吴氏此画是以明清笔墨,运宋人匠壑。
吴湖帆还有近世画竹第一人之誉,这幅《赏泉图》也展现了他画竹的高超技艺。他画竹从宋人双钩入手,又参以赵雍墨竹及恽寿平的没骨法。以淡墨或淡色画竹,其笔下的竹子有疏淡清雅之韵味,特别是水份的使用和控制恰到好处,使竹叶有“凤尾梢卷”之势。虽不着色,但仍有缜丽丰润,苍翠华滋的富丽堂皇之感。此幅虽为丛竹,但吴氏墨竹的神韵却已展露无遗。
吴湖帆还有近世画竹第一人之誉,这幅《赏泉图》也展现了他画竹的高超技艺。他画竹从宋人双钩入手,又参以赵雍墨竹及恽寿平的没骨法。以淡墨或淡色画竹,其笔下的竹子有疏淡清雅之韵味,特别是水份的使用和控制恰到好处,使竹叶有“凤尾梢卷”之势。虽不着色,但仍有缜丽丰润,苍翠华滋的富丽堂皇之感。此幅虽为丛竹,但吴氏墨竹的神韵却已展露无遗。图册
在这一时期,吴湖帆在花卉、鞍马、人物画上也下了不少工大,如他作于一九三一年的《仿郑所南兰花》、一九三五年《仿唐寅仕女》、一九三五年《辛夷》、《临赵氏三马图》、《临张子政双鸳》以及此年底至一九三六年初的《临王若水双鸳》等,显示了吴湖帆由山水入手向人物、鞍马、花鸟全面迈进的过程。作于一九三六年的《雾障青罗》是吴湖帆画荷中的精品之作,这幅画以写意的手法,以色和墨描绘了荷花盛开的景象,从题款知,它是吴湖帆的一次偶然对景写生之作。从这幅画可以看出,吴湖帆画荷设色之妙,清丽雅腴,调子明快,与恽南田是有很深的渊源关系的。
《云表奇峰》是吴湖帆的成名作,也是代表作,它首次发表在一九三六年的美术生活。这幅画主体写簇拥着的群峰列岫,远峰一抹直入云中,山谷中弥漫着出岫的白云,成排的松杉覆盖着中景的山体,楼阁掩映在丛翠之中,近景溪流淙淙,远景水气与云雾氤氲一片。。。。。。整个画面极尽丘壑之美。在画法上,或用没骨烘染,得淡荡明艳之致;或用解索皴,或披麻皴,或小斧劈皴,得其深穆渊厚之气。在这幅画上,可以看出吴湖帆对传统山水画“南北宗”、青绿水墨的兼收并蓄,已经摆脱了流派的束缚,从而形成了自己的笔墨风格。

除《云表奇峰》外,《晓云碧嶂》、《海野云冈》、《秋岭横云》等都是标志他画风走向成熟的重要作品。

《渔浦桃花》是吴湖帆青绿山水画的又一代表作。这幅画描绘的是江南三月秀丽明媚的人间胜景。春日江南,芳草鲜美,莺歌燕舞,桃花红映面,三三两两的渔舟荡漾在万倾碧波间,令人想起陶渊明《桃花源记》所描绘的理想世界。它的构图采用平远法,可以看出来自以董源巨然为代表的江南画派。在画法上,《渔浦桃花》主要吸收综合了董源、巨然黄公望诸家之法,如山体的披麻皴,这些短条子来自董源的《潇湘图》、《夏山图》、《夏山口待渡图》,巨然的《秋山问道图》、《层岩丛树图》,特别是黄公望的《富春山居图》。这些作品吴湖帆在民国时期基本上皆寓目过。《富春山居图》残卷是吴湖帆梅景书屋于一九三六年入藏的重要秘笈之一,吴曾对之多次临摹,从这幅图中我们即可看出吴对黄的心印之深。不过同黄公望的皴法相比,它们又有微妙的差异,如黄的用笔虚灵松动,吴在灵动的基础上则较之趋于挺劲坚实,这与吴师法唐寅有着极大的关系,实际上,这也是吴湖帆在继承传统时的一大贡献及特色。
与他的健康状况相适应,从60年代起,是吴湖帆绘画风格的又一转变时期。在书法上,他临习怀素草书《自叙帖》,与此相匹配的是他在绘画上向苏轼、赵孟頫枯木竹石及大写意画法的拓展,题款亦改为草书,而非以前惯用的取法薛稷、米芾的行楷。《枯木竹石》(一九六三)、《竹石山水》(一九六三)、《砥柱中流》(一九六三)、《荷花》(一九六四)、《清真词意》(一九六五)等是他这一时期的代表作。不过,从艺术本身而论,他试图改变画风的作品并非完全成功。主要表现为,组织较乱,墨色稍烂。当然,这与他在六十年代前基本为工整一路的画风也是密切有关的。从工整到豪放,用笔的变化及纸质差异对水墨控制所需的掌握,这点对他来讲,似乎还未做到游刃有余的地步。
色彩的运用是吴湖帆绘画的一大特色,尤其是他的山水画,如《峒关蒲雪》、《秋岭横云》、《渔浦桃花》等,皆鲜丽明亮,极富装饰感。这是他对用色一道穷根溯源、反复探究的结果。唐、宋是青绿山水画的高峰时期,除壁画外,《江帆楼阁图》、《千里江山图》、《万松金阙图》等皆为青绿山水中的不朽名作。元代赵孟頫,明代文徵明仇英、董其昌,清代王鉴等尚能继承青绿山水的发展,但总的来讲,元代之後,水墨浅绛成为主流,青绿则是每况愈下了。青绿山水有大青绿、小青绿之分。前者多钩廓,少皴笔,着色浓重,装饰性强;後者是在水墨淡彩的基础上薄罩青绿。二者虽有一定区别,但都以矿物质石青、石绿作为主色。所以,唐宋青绿(金碧)山水形式语言的高度纯粹化是其重要特色。另一方面,形式语言的高度纯粹化并不妨碍它表现的丰富性。这是因为,它的色彩是经过多次渲染及背衬方完成的。吴湖帆在三十年代曾发现赵伯驹的青绿山水设色有七层之多,这对他的山水画设色不无有益启发。吴湖帆在此基础上做了进一步的发展。他的山水设色远远超过了石绿、石青、泥金之类,几乎所有的国画颜料都将之运用,这样,在吴湖帆的笔下,使古代青绿山水语言的高度纯粹化、作风古朴典雅发展为语言繁富、作风清艳明丽。
吴湖帆常于笔闲之际取唐宋名家诗词览读苏轼曾称王维的艺术是“画中有诗”,那么,我们不妨称吴湖帆是画中有词,特别是有婉约派的词意。看来,对婉约派词意的追求与其绘书中那种缜密秀丽、风流自赏风格的形成有着重要关系。

人物轶事

以碑为“妻”: 擅长中国画。他生于甲午年,曾和梅兰芳、周信芳、范烟桥、汪亚尘等20人结为“甲午同庚会”。吴湖帆13岁学画,初从“四王”、董其昌入手,继而上探五代、两宋以及元明诸家。与赵叔孺、吴待秋、冯超然被誉为“海上四大家”。又与吴子深、吴待秋、冯超然合称“三吴一冯”。在20世纪30年代,中国画坛有“南吴(湖帆)北张”(大千)之誉。大千平生佩服的“两个半画家”中,第一个就是吴湖帆。 
鉴定界“一只眼”: 吴湖帆在上世纪三四十年代有鉴定“一只眼”的美称,足以想象他在鉴定界的权威性。他对自己的鉴定水平也相当自信。民国二十七年(1938年),上海汲古阁主人曹友卿携刚购买的一张破旧的《剩山图》请他鉴定。他知此画出于名手,经“谈判”将家中珍藏商彝周敦古铜器换下了这个残卷。后与故宫博物院藏《富春山居图》影印本一对照,竟然是元黄公望《富春山居图》的前段。他还在破画堆中发现了一幅题款“大痴道人平阳黄公望画于云间客舍时年八秩有一”字样的山水画,既无前人的收藏印章,也未见过著录,但经他考证,这画竟是大痴的晚年真笔。他即以重金购得,精心装裱,抢救保护了珍贵书画。   
绘成《原子弹放射图》 :吴湖帆的绘画为人赞誉。他从正统派入手,并由此上溯,对诸家画派多所师法,这在当时的画家群体中并不多见。在上世纪40年代,他已名震东南;作为吴人,他继承发扬了吴门画派的精粹;身处上海,以他为首的“三吴一冯”更是一个时代的缩影。   
吴湖帆工山水,亦擅松、竹、芙蕖。初从清初“四王”入手,继对明末董其昌下过一番工夫,深受宋代董源巨然郭熙等大家影响,画风不变,骨法用笔,渐趋凝重。画风秀丽丰腴,清隽雅逸,设色深具烟云飘渺,泉石洗荡之致。吴湖帆的山水画最有特色,当他挥毫时,先用一支大笔,洒水纸上,稍干之后,再用普通笔蘸着淡墨,略加渲染,一经装裱,观之似出岫延绵,不可方物。有时画鸟、画牛,更以稀见为贵。有一幅《五牛图》长卷,牛或仰或俯,或回顾或正立,非常得势。线条又复刚柔相济,确是精构而成。  
1964年,中国试放第一颗原子弹后,他看了几次纪录片,又看到彩色照片,就用平时点染妙笔,绘成《原子弹放射图》。此画展上展出时,有参观的解放军在意见簿上提出要求:“请把这幅画制版,印为宣传品,以供群众购赏。”此画影响之大,可想而知。吴湖帆在新中国成立后备受礼遇。其代表作有《峒关蒲雪图》、《庐山小景》、《写米芾诗意》、《芙蓉映初日》等。

人物评价

上海人民美术出版社出版了《当代十大画家》一书,而吴湖帆正是其中的一家。当时,北京有一位专家见到我,认为以吴湖帆作为“当代十大画家”之一不够格;我便问他谁够格?他表示应以石鲁替换吴湖帆。我当即表示怀疑:石鲁尽管有少量精心之作,但他的大多数作品都是精神失常情况下的渲泄,不免过于草率了吧?该专家竟说:“这才是表现的艺术!天才的艺术家就是与疯子只有一步之遥!”如果这样的言论,出之于一位“前卫”的青年之口,自不足为怪;然而,它竟是出之于一位“传统”的专家之口!
这里,不是要否定自徐渭、八大、石涛直至吴昌硕齐白石黄宾虹潘天寿石鲁的成就。作为传统中奇文化的一格,毫无疑问,他们在中国画史上的成就自足以辉映千秋。然而,把仅具特殊性真理的奇文化传统作普遍的推广,显然是不可取的;把奇文化传统作为唯一的传统,并以此来否定正文化传统,更是不可取的。
出身于世代簪缨诗礼之家的吴湖帆深知传统的奇正之辨。所谓“奇正相生,循环无端”,从普遍性而言,只有立足于正文化才有积极的价值。因此,他尽管也十分欣赏奇文化,包括八大、石涛,但他个人的价值取向,则是更倾向于正文化的。这,从他的人品、画品,书品、词品乃至藏品,概可以反映出来,清真平和,堂皇典丽,一片雍穆气象,而绝去怪力乱神,狂肆怒张的酸颓落拓。
论他的人品,他的一生也颇多挫折,接二连三的打击降临到他的身上,一点也不比那些野逸派的画家轻微。再加上他的祟性,又是一贯的高高在上,不甘人下。然而,他却并没有丧心病狂地怨天尤人,愤世嫉俗,而依然恪守温良恭俭让的准则宠辱不惊。
论他的画品,虽由董其昌、四王的正统派南宗起手入门,但却以眼界之富,见识之高,不为所囿,进而取法唐寅,赵孟頫、郭熙等倾向于刻画的北宗风格。堂堂正正的千岩万壑、云泉掩映,严重恪勤的十日一水、五日一石,心平气和的惨淡经营、勾皴点染,气象高森的水墨丹青,金碧辉耀,一种人与自然相和谐的高华韵致,温文尔雅,足以使作者和观者愁烦中具洒脱襟怀,满抱皆春风和气,暗昧处见光明世界,此心即晴空青天,从而涵养人们对于美好理想生活的追求,化解人与社会的不和谐。
无疑,对于社会精神文明的建设,对于传统的弘扬,我们需要野逸派的奇崛风格,但更需要而且应该大力提倡,普遍推广的,则是如吴湖帆那样中正平和的艺术风尚。
吴湖帆因有慨于“唐人画派,凡有清三百年来无问津者”,而以董其昌本拟杨升《洞关蒲雪图》,并题诗云:唐人画几无真迹,绢八百年将失魄。幸有峒关蒲雪图,香光传写杨升笔。谩施朱粉堆金碧,枫叶芦花秋瑟瑟。正恐天昏地黑间,霎时锦绣江山出。所谓“天昏地黑”,是指当时画坛上弥漫的石涛画风,“黑团团中墨团团,黑墨团中天地宽”。正如傅抱石指出的“吴昌硕(画风)风漫画坛,中国画荒谬绝伦”,对石涛的盲目仿效,一时也形成为如陆俨少所说的“好处学不到,反而中他的病,把他的习气染到自己的身上”。结果,真理向前一步,便成了谬误。而“锦绣江山”,正是指唐宋画派堂皇恢宏的正脉所在。吴湖帆自知,以他的先知先觉,自己的艺术主张在当时的形势下不可能获得广泛的认同,因此而作“待五百年后人论定”之想。然而,仅仅五十年刚遇,在比之吴湖帆的时代更加强大的阻力干扰下,晋唐宋元的绘画传统,传承这一路传统的吴湖帆、张大干、陆俨少谢稚柳的艺术成就,便赢得了越来越多的圈内外,尤其是圈外人士的热烈追捧。由这一现象足以预见,对于传统的认识和弘扬,明确了大雅的正朔,即将揭开新的篇章。

English Introduction

Wu Hufan, twentieth Century China painting an important painter in painting history, he Chinese meaning actually far beyond his significance as a landscape painter.
As a collection of painting, appreciation, collection in a prominent figure, his achievements are multifaceted, can be said to represent a phenomenon in the history of Chinese painting.
Wu Hufan master of modern painting, calligraphy and painting appraiser. In his early years and was known as the "south Pu Ru Wu Beipu", with Wu Zishen, Wu Daiqiu, Feng Chaoran, in the painting "three Wu Feng" said.
Wu Hufan was born in the late Qing Dynasty, was born in Suzhou door, due to the change of social environment, the traditional literati he belongs to the last generation, and from him also reflects the ancient art in the modern development of traces.
Wu Hufan's painting is praise. He starts from the orthodox, and thus to all school much earlier, learning, which is rare in the painters group. In 40s, he has been reputed as the southeast; Wu, he inherited the essence of Wu school; in Shanghai, he led the three Wu Feng is the epitome of an era.
His collection of paintings is also a tribute to his collection. His collection provides abundant resources and solid foundation for his creation and appraisal, which is also a major feature of traditional painting. Today, although most of these works of art are the major domestic and foreign museums and other public and private collections, but from a certain point of view, perhaps not a continuation of Wu Hufan's life.

Wu Hufan's style of painting, from his early masterpieces, basically not orthodox barriers. As he made in 1916 of "pro Dong Qichang like crazy Akiyama map" fan shape mountain clearly from Dong Qichang, although the general level of pimacun, but has revealed the affinity relationship with "southern" -- orthodox.
Shanghai after the Opium War, because of its special environment has become a modern city - Chinese painting collection, to the Republic of China period, only Beijing can compete. So, Shanghai became a painter of collectors, longing for paradise, and even can be said that an important painter, almost no collectors since the Republic of China to Shanghai, or live in here, such as Pang Yuanji, Qian Jingtang collectors, artists, collectors Zhang Daqian and Xie Zhiliu kam. Wu Hufan to Shanghai after the day, making friends widely in a new environment, the role can not be ignored as he further broaden their horizons, to draw up Chinese hall inside.
According to the current understanding of the material, Wu Hufan understanding of the painting history, painting consciousness before and after 1924 to Shanghai gradually show. According to the two: first, after which he copied works a large jump, did not show a certain system; two, since then, a lot of painting painting history, painting, inscriptions appear on.
From his early works, in addition to learning "and" Wu Yun, Dong Qichang, Shen Zhou etc. we, for since the mid Qing Dynasty painting almost without a pen (a point throughout his life and art). From the traditional pen and ink skill training, if not prejudiced, orthodox in Yangzhou school, Shanghai on land. But orthodoxy is good, not absolute good. In order to learn "and" concerned, since in the late Qing Dynasty has become quite hit, no "and" beyond the stereotype of a painter. This is mainly manifested in the ink weakness, rigid. So, how to remedy the orthodox learning is easy to form and weak, stereotype?
The biggest drawback is that orthodox moliu from previous confined to or failed to do their parochial prejudice. In the artistic origin, orthodox "southern" based. Dong Qichang proposed the landscape of the "north and south school theory, mainly carried out a comb from the style of painting, the aesthetic ideal of traditional schema, teacher-student relationship, in order to learn the traditional Yanliutaoyuan. Although Dong Qichang made it clear that "beizong" - Wu Cao when learning, but also pointed out that, in the "fundamental" to which at the same time, must be on the "north and South" Yi Zong Zong "club, in the future". Orthodox painter, Wang Shimin Wang Yuanqi, for the traditional understanding only focus on Dong Ju and Huang Gongwang's "southern" is helpful to the veins, Wang Jian "beizong", but the key is "south". "To the north and South were" for one hand, the traditional big winners, as Wang hui. From the orthodox works, Wang Hui's painting is unique, because of its rich "painting", so it seems particularly rigorous and refined, simple and subtle testimonies. There is a Wang Hui painting may give great influence to Wu Hufan "Yuan ink, transported by the Tang and Song Mountain, Ze Qiyun, is great". Then, the yuan text, the Tang Dynasty and the spirit of Vals and what is it? So, Wu Hufan will continue to look towards the "and" vertical and horizontal expansion.
The Song painting shows a rich and colorful world in front of Wu Hufan. In April 10, 1929, the Ministry of education in Shanghai new Pu Yu Tang held the first session of the national art exhibition, Wu Hufan served as the Standing Committee of the national art exhibition since then. 1934, Wu Hufan Shanghai Museum Preparatory Committee and the identity of the director to accept the invitation of the Imperial Palace, Beijing cultural relics appraisal and Accreditation of the Imperial Palace. In 1935, the the Imperial Palace Museum collection in London preview in Shanghai to participate in international exhibition, Wu Hufan again to examine a member responsible for finishing. In April 1, 1937, the second national art exhibition held in Nanjing, Wu Hufan went to Nanjing to observe the ancient works. The two national art exhibition exhibition of ancient masterpieces with the wide range of "travelling Xishan", "Dong Yuan map", "night from Dragon Mountain Paradise map", Li Tang "Guo Xi" Fengtu myriad pines, "early spring", the "dragon" Zhao Mengtiao "Han Lin, wood bamboo and stone", "high Ca fine foot cross cloud", Huang Gongwang "fuchunshan Tu" and so on. Here, Wu Hufan is also a source of "summer" Shantu Dong, "Xiaoxiang map" and other important works. The Mei King library collection at this time has been famous at home, Wu Hufan also in the identification of painting "one eye", so, with his special identity and reputation, collectors at home and abroad have to show that knowledge collection for him. All this, in order to deepen the understanding of the Wu Hufan open view of traditional calligraphy and painting itself improve the appreciation ability to lay a solid foundation. He from Yun, Wu Li and Hui Nantian worships Dai Xi to Dong Qichang, "the four", Zhao Mengtiao, "the four", "two Zhao" (Zhao Boju, Zhao Bosu), Guo Xi, Fan Kuan, Li Cheng, Dong Yuan, Ju ran up and down for thousands of years, and so on, North and south 100, all from the reference, in order to absorb the essence of traditional painting.

"Pro Dong Qichang landscape book" is the important work of 193 years of Wu Hufan, and also the representative work of his period of the past 0 years. This book is the twenty open, it is actually the female Pro Dong Qichang "instructional manual". This kind of China Huapu painting study is very useful, not to mention Dong Qichang's handwriting. In the twenty book in the Dong Qichang is a great painter before all gathered together, the Tong, Li Cheng, Li Gonglin, "two meters", Zhao Mengtiao, Cao Zhibai, Huang Gongwang, Wang Meng, Ni Zan and so on. Through the practice of this book, he has combed the past important painting again. "Like Guo Xi Valley Map" in 1933, compared with Guo Xi's "valley of painting", different strokes, such as tree and mountain Cunfa, although its composition and elaborate the difference between Guo, to sum up in a word, this painting is in the Ming and Qing Wu Yun Song Jiang and ink.
Wu Hufan and modern paintings of bamboo first reputation, this piece of "enjoy the spring map" also showed his superb skill of bamboo painting. He painted bamboo hook from the song of Zhao Yong and Shen Yun Shouping Mozhu and boneless. To light or light the bamboo, the bamboo pen has a charm of thin elegant, especially the use and control of water so that the leaves are just perfect, "Phoenix shoot volume trend. Although not coloring, but there are still Zhen Li Hua Zi rich, lush gorgeous feeling. This picture is Zhu Cong, but Wu Mozhu has accentuates the charm.
Wu Hufan and modern paintings of bamboo first reputation, this piece of "enjoy the spring map" also showed his superb skill of bamboo painting. He painted bamboo hook from the song of Zhao Yong and Shen Yun Shouping Mozhu and boneless. To light or light the bamboo, the bamboo pen has a charm of thin elegant, especially the use and control of water so that the leaves are just perfect, "Phoenix shoot volume trend. Although not coloring, but there are still Zhen Li Hua Zi rich, lush gorgeous feeling. This picture is Zhu Cong, but Wu Mozhu has accentuates the charm. Atlas
During this period, Wu Hufan in flower, pommel horse, figure painting is also a lot of work, such as he made in 1931, "like Zheng South orchid", "1935, 1935" Ladies "imitation Tang Xinyi", "Lin Zhao three Ma, Zhang Lin" map "and" the end of Zizheng Shuang yuan to early 1936, "Lin Wang Ruobing Shuang yuan", showing the process of moving to Wu Hufan by the landscape characters, pommel horse, bird. In 1936 the "fog" green Luo is Wu Hufan painting lotus in a boutique, the picture with the freehand technique, color and ink to depict the lotus blooming scene, from the knowledge, it is Wu Hufan's chance of landscape painting work. From this picture we can see that Wu Hufan painting lotus wonderful colors, elegant elegant tone and sweet, crisp, Yun Hui Nantian worships deep roots are.
"The cloud" Qifeng Wu Hufan's masterpiece, is a masterpiece, it was first published in 1936 the art of life. This picture is surrounded by the peaks of the columns subject to write into a cave, far from the peak valley was filled with clouds, clouds Chuxiu, rows of pine covered pavilions in the middle of the mountain, Cong Cui, near streams gurgling, water and a dense cloud of vision...... The picture was the beauty of the mountain. In the drawing, or "light of shading, swing or Mingyan; solution the chapped, or pimacun, or a small ax cracked the Yuanhou Mourinho, deep gas. In this picture, Wu Hufan can be seen on the traditional landscape painting "north and South", green ink eclectic, has emerged from the genre of bondage, and thus formed his own style of painting.
In addition to "cloud" peaks, "Bi", "Zhang Xiao Yun", "autumn Ling heyel Yungang cross cloud" are marked his style mature works.
"Peach blossom" is a representative of Yue Pu Wu Hufan's landscape painting. This painting depicts the beautiful scenery of Jiangnan in March world. The spring grass delicious, Jiangnan, the joys of spring peach red reflecting surface, by twos and threes, fishing boat waves in the ocean between dumping million, reminiscent of the ideal world Tao Yuanming is depicted in "peach blossom spring. The composition by Pingyuan law, can be seen from Dong Yuan and Ju ran as the representative of the southern school. In the painting, "peach blossom" Yue Pu main absorption integrated Dong Yuan, Juran, Huang Gongwang Wong, such as mountain pimacun, the short note from Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map", "summer Shantu", "summer pass to be crossing", but the "giant", "Akiyama asked map layer rock Cong Huang Gongwang in particular" tree plots, "graph". These works are basically to see Wu Hufan in the Republic of china. "Graph" Juan is Wu Hufan Mei King Library in 1936 in one of the important secrets hidden, Wu of repeatedly copying, from the picture we can see the deep yellow heartprints wu. But with Huang Gongwang Cunfa compared they have subtle differences, such as yellow pen empty loose, Wu in the smart foundation is solid and it tends to be upright, imitating the Wu Tang has a great relationship, in fact, this is also a tribute to Wu Hufan in the tradition of the offer and characteristics.

Adapting to his health, from 60s, is another transitional period of Wu Hufan's painting style. In calligraphy, He Lin Xi Huai Su cursive "autobiography", matching this is his painting to Su Shi, Zhao Mengtiao wood and bamboo freehand painting inscription is to expand, cursive, rather than from Xue Ji, Mi Fei used the xingkai. "Bamboo wood" (1963), "bamboo landscape" (1963), "play an indispensable role" (1963), the "Lotus" (1964), (1965) the meaning of "Islamic" is representative of his work from this period. However, from the terms of art itself, he tried to change the style of work is not completely successful. Mainly for the organization, more chaos, the ink slightly rotten. Of course, this is with him in 60s as a basic neat style is closely related to the road. From the neat to bold, pen and paper on ink change difference control required, this for him, do not seem to do it so.
The use of color is a major feature of Wu Hufan's painting, especially his landscape paintings, such as "Snow", "Dong Guan Po Ling Wang Yun", "autumn peach" Yue Pu, both bright and bright, highly decorative. This is he of a color to its edges, repeated inquiry results. Tang and Song Dynasty landscape painting during the peak period, in addition to the wall painting, "Jiang Fan Pavilion map", "Trinidad jiangshantu", "Jin que map" is wan song for the green landscape in the immortal masterpiece. The Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Zhao Mengtiao, Wen Zhiming, Qiu Ying, Dong Qichang, Wang Jian and other development in Qing Dynasty can still inherit the green landscape, but generally speaking, the Yuan Dynasty, the light purple ink into the mainstream, green is getting worse. The green landscape with big green, small green branch. The hook profile, less brushwork, color thick, strong decoration; the latter is based on ink and light color on the thin green cover. Two have certain difference, but the mineral azurite, malachite green as the main color. So, the Tang and Song Dynasties green (Jin Bi) highly pure landscape form of language is its important characteristics. On the other hand, the high purity of formal language does not hinder its richness. This is because its color is done after many rendering and backing side. In 30s Wu Hufan Zhao Boju had found the green landscape design has seven layers, the landscape painting is his design inspiration. Wu Hufan made further development on this basis. His landscape design is far more than the azurite, malachite green, like gold, almost all of the traditional Chinese painting will be used in this way, under Wu Hufan's pen, the highly pure and elegant style of the development of ancient green landscape language as the language of rich, colourful bright Qing style.
Wu Hufan used to take the occasion of the Tang and Song Dynasties leisure pen famous poetry reading in relation to Su Shi once said that his art is ", so we can There is poetry in a painting.", said Wu Hufan is a word painting, especially graceful words. It seems that careful, beautiful, distinguished and admirable style of painting and graceful meaning in the book is very important.

Monument as "wife": good at Chinese painting. He was born in 1894, Mei Lanfang and had, Zhou Xinfang, fan Yanqiao, Wang Yachen and other 20 people as "the 1894 g". Wu Hufan 13 years old painting, from the beginning of "Four Wangs", Dong Qichang start, then on the five generation, two song and Yuan Ming home. With Zhao Shuru, Wu Daiqiu, Feng aloof hailed as "the sea four everyone". With Wu Zishen, Wu Daiqiu, Feng Wu Feng detachment are called "three". In 1930s, Chinese painting "Southern Wu (Hu Fan) North (known as Zhang Daqian). In the "2.5 admire Daqian painter", the first is Wu Hufan.
Identification of community "eye": Wu Hufan has identified "eye" in the last century, in 30s and 40s the name, enough to imagine him in the authoritative identification of industry. He is quite confident about his level of expertise. In twenty-seven years (1938), Shanghai Ji Gu Ge master Cao Youqing and just buy a shabby "left mountain map" to ask him to identify. He knows it for men, the "negotiation" will be the home collection business week Yi bronzes changed this canjuan. After the the Imperial Palace Museum and the "graph" copy of a control, it is his element "graph" front. Found a title, "Tai Chi road Pingyang in painting in the clouds at the age of eight in rank one" landscape painting he also painted broken pile, no previous collection of seals, and have never seen the record, but through his research, this is crazy old paintings actually true pen. He purchased, with lots of money carefully framed, saving precious paintings.
As "atomic bomb radiation map": Wu Hufan's painting is praise. He starts from the orthodox, and thus to all school much earlier, learning, which is rare in the painters group. In 40s, he has been reputed as the southeast; Wu, he inherited the essence of Wu school; in Shanghai, he led the "three Wu Feng" is the epitome of an era.
Wu Hufan is also good at landscape, pine, bamboo, lotus. From the early Qing Dynasty "and" start, after a lot of work on the Song Dynasty by Dong Qichang, Dong Yuan, Guo Xi Ju ran, they influence style unchanged, painting, is dignified. Style beautiful plump elegant colors, delicate, deep clouds misty, Quan Shi Xidang induced. Wu Hufan's most distinctive landscape painting, when he was at first with a large amount of water, paper, slightly dry after use ordinary pen dipped in ink, slightly exaggerated, a mounting view like Chuxiu stretches, not matter. Sometimes painting birds, painting cattle, even more rare for expensive. There is a picture of the five Niutu "scroll, cattle or back or down, or review or erect, very powerful. The line is fine structure complex move among force and soft, and.
In 1964, China tried to put the first atomic bomb, he saw several documentaries, saw color photos, with the usual Dianran pen, as "atomic bomb radiation". When the exhibition was on display, there are people's Liberation Army visited the book on the request: please put this painting plate, printed as promotional materials for the masses to buy." The influence of the large, as can be imagined. Wu Hufan was founded in the new China reserve by courtesy. The representative of "Dong Guan Po," Mount Lu "snow map" scene, "write poetry", "Lotus Ying Mi Fu first day" etc..

Shanghai people's Art Publishing House published the "contemporary ten painters," a book, and Wu Hufan is one of them. At that time, Beijing has an expert to see me, to think of Wu Hufan as "one of the top ten contemporary artists" not good enough; I asked him who qualified? He said Shi Lu should replace Wu Hufan. I immediately said: Although there is little doubt Shi Lu meticulously, but most of his works are insane under the vent, not too hasty? The expert actually said: "this is the art of expression! The talented artist is crazy and only one step away!" if such a speech a, to an "avant-garde" youth, since it was not surprising; however, that in a "traditional" expert of the mouth!
Here, is not to deny the achievements from Xu Wei, eight, until the end of Wu Changshuo, and so on, and then, he, and he, and he, and then, the achievements of, and so on, and so on, and so on, and so on, and so on, and so on, and so on. As a strange cultural tradition there is no doubt that they are Chinese history achievement to reflect future self-sufficiency. However, it is obviously not desirable to popularize the odd cultural tradition with special truth only. It is not advisable to negate the positive cultural tradition by taking the odd cultural tradition as the only tradition.
From generation Wu Hufan realizes that the traditional family of scholars use Qizheng discrimination. The so-called "is unripe, endless", from universal, only based on the Yu Zheng culture have positive value. Therefore, although he also appreciate the odd culture, including eight, Shi Tao, but his personal value orientation, is more inclined to the Yu Zheng culture. From this, his personality and artistic quality, calligraphy and appreciation and collection, almost can be reflected, halal peace, a stately elegance, harmonious atmosphere, and must go to weird things madness engorgement, acid decadent.
On his character, his life has a lot of setbacks, one after another blow upon his body, a little less than those of wild Yi abstractismartist minor. Coupled with his evil spirit, is always the superior, unwilling people. However, he did not have the blame on others, but still detest the world and its ways, with gentle, modest and courteous criteria unmoved either by gain or loss.
On his paintings, although by Dong Qichang, the orthodox Southern hands entry, but to see the eyes of the rich, high, not for you, then take Zhao Mengtiao, Guo Xi, Tang law, tend to portray beizong style. Many mountains, clouds spring with serious Ke Qin dignified and imposing, ten water, five day of the stone, in a calm mood, keep going by painstaking effort hook cracked dyed, meteorological Ghosn ink painting, layered flamboyant, a kind of harmony between man and nature of Gao Hua's charm, refined and cultured, sufficient to enable the author and audience in mind with worry free. Have all seen the bright world courteous and accessible, clear, clear heart namely the sky, thus conserving people for the ideal of the pursuit of life, resolve the people and the society are not harmonious.
No doubt, for the construction of socialist spiritual civilization, to promote the traditional, we need to send the wild peculiar style, but more needs and should be vigorously promoted, popularized, it is like Wu Hufan in just the art of fashion.
Wu Hufan because of a generous in "Chinese school, where there is a clear three hundred years no buyers", and to Dong Qichang the quasi Yang Sheng "closed hole Pu snow map", and the title poem: Chinese painting no authentic silk eight hundred years will lose the soul. Dong Guan Pu is fortunate to have light snow map, fragrant writing pen of Yang Sheng. Zhu Shi man Fendui layered, howling autumn maple city. Is the fear of the whole day at night, a beautiful land. The so-called "dark around", refers to the time the painting filled his style, "black clouds in the clouds of ink, black ink group Zhongtian wide". Just as Fu Baoshi said: "Wu Changshuo (style) wind diffuse painting, utterly ridiculous" China painting, blindly follow the example of Shi Tao, was also formed as luyanshao said "good not learn, but in his illness, his habits with yourself". The truth, one step forward, becomes falsehood. While the "beautiful land", is refers to the quality of the painting is the pulse of Tang and Song dynasty Grand place. Wu Hufan knew that, with his foresight, his artistic ideas may not be widely recognized at the time of the situation, so as to be five hundred years later on to ". However, just in case of just fifty years, more than a strong resistance to interference in the Wu Hufan era, Jin Tang Song and Yuan Dynasty painting tradition, inheriting the traditional way of Wu Hufan, Zhang Dagan, Lu Yanshao, Xie Zhiliu's artistic achievements, has won more and more circles home and abroad, especially in hot pursuit of outside. From this phenomenon to anticipate, and for carrying forward the traditional understanding, clear, zhengshuo, will open a new chapter.

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