吴作人

( 中国文联副主席 )

吴作人(1908—1997),男,安徽宣城泾县人,生于江苏苏州,1926年入苏州工业专科学校建筑系,1927年至1930年初先后就读于上海艺术大学、南国艺术学院美术系及南京中央大学艺术系,从师徐悲鸿先生,并参加南国革新运动。早年攻素描、油画,功力深厚;间作国画富于生活情趣,不落传统窠臼。晚年后专攻国画,境界开阔,寓意深远,以凝练而准确的形象融会着中西艺术的深厚造诣。在素描、油画、艺术教育方面都造诣甚深,他在中国画创造方面更是别创一格,自成一家。吴作人是继徐悲鸿之后中国美术界的又一领军人物。

  • 中文名吴作人
  • 别名Wu Zuoren
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍安徽宣城泾县
  • 出生地江苏省苏州市
  • 出生日期1908年11月3日
  • 逝世日期1997年4月9日
  • 职业画家,中央美术学院院长等
  • 毕业院校苏州工业专科学校建筑系
  • 主要成就中国文联副主席
  • 代表作品《吴作人》,《吴作人艺术馆藏品集》,《吴作人画传》
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吕立新:画坛伯乐徐悲鸿——徐悲鸿与吴作人

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

摘要:徐悲鸿与吴作人徐悲鸿从法国回到上海不久,就应好朋友田汉的邀请到“上海艺术大学”去讲课。田汉邀请徐悲鸿做上海艺大的校董,并相约要把上海艺大办成现实主义艺术教育的一块阵地。田汉先...
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人物简介

吴作人于1930年赴欧洲学习,先入巴黎高等美术学校,后考入比利时布鲁塞尔王家美术学院白思天院长画室学习。入学第二年,即在全院暑期油画大会考中获金奖和桂冠生荣誉。他勤奋学习,掌握了熟练的专业技能,创作了数量可观的油画作品,表现出非凡的艺术才能。白思天院长称赞他“既不是弗拉曼画派,又不是中国传统,用乃是充满个性的作者”。1935年回国,在中央大学艺术系任教。抗战期间,随校西迁重庆。1938年,率“战地写生团”赴前方作画。1943年至1944年,赴陕甘青地区写生,临摹敦煌壁画。1944年至1945年初赴康藏高原,深入少数民族地区,写各色风貌,作大量写生画,举行多次展览。1946年任国立北平艺专教授兼教务主任,并当选北平美术作家协会理事长。1947年,先后在英国、法国、瑞士举办画展。

人物生平

吴作人,1908年11月3日生于江省苏州市,并在那里度过了他的童少年时代。1926年入苏州工业专科学校建筑系,1927年至1930年初先后就读于上海艺术大学、南国艺术学院美术系及南京中央大学艺术系,从师著名画家徐悲鸿先生,并参加南国革新运动。早年攻素描、油画,功力深厚;间作国画富于生活情趣,不落传统窠臼。
1930年吴作人赴欧洲学习,先入巴黎高等美术学校,后考入比利时布鲁塞尔王家美术学院白思天院长画室学习。入学第二年即在全院暑期油画大会考中获金奖和桂冠生荣誉。他勤奋学习,掌握了熟练的专业技能,创作了数量可观的油画作品,表现出非凡的艺术才能。白思天院长称赞他“既不是弗拉曼画派,又不是中国传统,用乃是充满个性的作者”。
1935年,吴作人回国在中央大学艺术系任教。抗战期间随校西迁重庆。1938年率“战地写生团”赴前方作画。1943年至1944年,赴陕甘青地区写生,临摹敦煌壁画。1944年至1945年初赴康藏高原,深入少数民族地区,写各色风貌,作大量写生画,举行多次展览。1946年任国立北平艺专教授兼教务主任,并当选北平美术作家协会理事长。1947年,先后在英国、法国、瑞士举办画展。
1950年任中央美术学院教授兼教务长,1955年任副院长,1958年出任院长,1979年任名誉院长。曾当选中国美术家协会常务理事、副主席。1979年当选中国文联副主席,1985年当选中国美术家协会主席。曾连续当选第一至第六届全国人大代表。1984年法国政府文化部授予他“艺术与文学最高勋章”,1985年荣获比利时王国王冠级荣誉勋章。擅长油画、中国画。
吴作人在晚年后专攻国画,境界开阔,寓意深远,以凝练而准确的形象融会着中西艺术的深厚造诣。他的艺术成就是多方面的。在素描、油画、艺术教育方面都造诣甚深,他在中国画创造方面更是别创一格,自成一家。
1997年4月9日,吴作人逝世。

主要作品

其油画《齐白石像》、《三门峡》,中国画《牧驼图》等均为中国美术馆收藏。发表有《印度绘画》、《谈风景画》、《对油画的几点刍见》等文。出版有《吴作人画集》、《吴作人画辑》、《吴作人速写集》、《吴作人文选》等。曾于1986年在中国美术馆举办大型个人作品展览。多次出国访问,举办画展,致力于中外文化交流。
出版画册:《吴作人速写集》、《吴作人水墨画集》、《吴作人画选》、《吴作人、萧淑芳画选》、《吴作人艺术》、《中国当代美术家系列画传-吴作人》、《巨匠与中国名画-吴作人》、《吴作人速写集》、《吴作人画集-书法诗词卷、中国画卷、油画卷、素描速写水彩卷》、《中国近现代名字画集-吴作人画集》等。

画作风格

吴作人看到两千余年以前有两种文化在东西两方平行而各异其趣的辉耀着:一个是中国文化,另一个是希腊文化。他们代表着中华文化,他清醒地看到两次大艺术体系,各自经历着初生、壮年、晚年,一直到垂灭的几个变迁,存在着各自的长处与短处、高潮与衰落。
在这个基础上,印度文化的传入,形成了中国型的东方文化。而盛唐正是这一高峰的代表,中国文化具有深厚的文化基础与雄强的创造力,没有被外来文化所淹没,反而对其批判的吸收,而使自己更发扬光大,再度辉煌。因此,吴作人认为东西文化的互相影响,是件毋庸讳言的事。正是开放、交流,促进了艺术的发展。吴作人先生清醒地看到中国绘画传统中的高峰,也深刻地看到低谷。更看清楚了造成这种反差的基本规律:不发展就衰亡,变才正常。
在二十世纪初叶的历史条件下,吴先生像许多先辈画家一样,主动选择了西方写实主义艺术传统,这是历史的抉择。但游学西欧,吴先生更深切地体会,东西方艺术是两种不同的艺术体系,有不同的美学追求。因此,他没有丧失自我,不是盲目拜倒在西方艺术圣殿前,诚惶恐,而是首先冷静地辨别清楚西方写实主义艺术发展进程中的“上坡路”和“下坡路”,以明确取舍。

English Introduction

Wu Zuoren in 1930 went to study in Europe, first in Paris Higher School of fine arts, later admitted to Brussels Wang studio Belgium Academy of Fine Arts Dean Bai Sitian learning. Second years of school, in the summer painting test and won the gold medal Title honors. He studied hard, mastered the professional skills, created a considerable number of oil paintings, showing extraordinary artistic ability. President Bai Sitian praised him "neither flum nor Chinese traditional painting, full of personality, but with the author". Returned home in 1935 and taught at the Centre College. During the war, with the school west moved to Chongqing. 1938, the rate battlefield painting group to the front painting. From 1943 to 1944, the Shaanxi Gansu Qinghai area to sketch, copying the Dunhuang frescoes. From 1944 to early 1945 to Tibet Plateau, in-depth ethnic minority areas, write various colors, a large number of sketches, held several exhibitions. In 1946 the National Beijing art professor and Dean, and was elected chairman of the Beiping art writers association. 1947, has held exhibitions in the United Kingdom, France, switzerland.

Wu Zuoren, born in November 3, 1908 in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, and spent his boyhood there. In 1926 Suzhou Industrial College of architecture, 1927 to early 1930 has enrolled in the University of the Arts in Shanghai, Southern Art College of the Centre College and the Nanjing Department of art, from the famous painter Mr. Xu Beihong, and participated in the southern reform movement. In his early years of sketch, oil painting, traditional Chinese painting has a deep skill; for life, the traditional stereotype.
In 1930, Wu Zuoren went to Europe to study, first in Paris Higher School of fine arts, later admitted to Brussels Wang studio Belgium Academy of Fine Arts Dean Bai Sitian learning. In the second years of school summer painting test and won the gold medal Title honors. He studied hard, mastered the professional skills, created a considerable number of oil paintings, showing extraordinary artistic ability. President Bai Sitian praised him "neither flum nor Chinese traditional painting, full of personality, but with the author".
In 1935, Wu Zuoren returned home to teach at the Centre College. During the war with the school west moved to Chongqing. The 1938 annual "battlefield sketches mission" in front of the painting. From 1943 to 1944, the Shaanxi Gansu Qinghai area to sketch, copying the Dunhuang frescoes. From 1944 to early 1945 to Tibet Plateau, in-depth ethnic minority areas, write various colors, a large number of sketches, held several exhibitions. In 1946 the National Beijing art professor and Dean, and was elected chairman of the Beiping art writers association. 1947, has held exhibitions in the United Kingdom, France, switzerland.
1950 professor and Dean of China Central Academy of Fine Arts, vice president in 1955, as president in 1958, honorary president of the year in 1979. Chinese Artists Association was elected executive director, vice chairman. 1979 was elected vice chairman of Chinese Federation, in 1985 was elected chairman of China artists association. Successively elected first to the Sixth National People's congress. In 1984 the French government awarded him the highest medal of art and literature in the Ministry of culture, and was awarded the crown Medal of honor in Kingdom of Belgium in 1985. Good at oil painting, Chinese painting.
Wu Zuoren in his later years after majoring in traditional Chinese painting, wide realm, concise and accurate with a pregnant meaning, to image combined with profound knowledge of Chinese and Western art. His artistic achievements are manifold. Have knowledge in the sketch, oil painting, art education is very deep, he created in the China painting is create new styles, zichengyijia.
April 9, 1997, Wu Zuoren dies.

The oil painting "Qi Baishi as", "Sanmenxia", "China painting map" herd camel are China art museum. Has published "India painting", "landscape painting", "painting of several opinions" etc.. The publication of "Wu Zuoren album", "Wu Zuoren", "Wu Zuoren sketch painting series", "Wu Zuoren anthology" etc.. Held a large solo exhibition at the China Art Museum in 1986. Many visits abroad, held exhibitions, committed to cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.
The picture album: "Wu Zuoren", "Wu Zuoren album," ink painting "Wu Zuoren", "Wu Zuoren paintings, paintings of Xiao Shufang", "Wu Zuoren art", "Chinese Contemporary Artists Series biography Wu Zuoren", "Wu Zuoren" and China master paintings, "Wu Zuoren", "Wu Zuoren album album: calligraphy poems, paintings, picture China volume, volume", "watercolor sketch sketch Chinese modern name album - Wu Zuoren album" etc..
Wu Zuoren saw two thousand years ago there are two kinds of culture in the two sides of things in parallel and different blazes: one is Chinese culture, the other is a Greek culture. They represent the Chinese culture, he clearly saw two great art system, experiencing their birth, young and old age, has to change several vertical off, there are strengths and weaknesses, their climax and decline.
On this basis, the introduction of India culture, the formation of Chinese Oriental culture. The Tang Dynasty is the peak of the Chinese culture has a profound cultural foundation and strong creativity, not overwhelmed by foreign culture, but the criticism on the absorption, and make yourself more brilliant again carry forward. Therefore, Wu Zuoren believes that cultural influence each other, it is needless to say. It is open, communication, promote the development of art. Mr. Wu Zuoren soberly see the peak of Chinese painting tradition, but also deeply see the trough. See more clearly the basic rules for this phenomenon: the development of decline is normal.
In the early twentieth Century historical conditions, Mr. Wu ancestors like many artists, the active choice of western realism tradition of art, this is a historical choice. But Mr. Wu studied in the Western Europe, experience more deeply, the eastern and Western art are two different artistic systems have different aesthetic pursuit. Therefore, he did not lose self, not blindly worship western art in front of the temple, Cheng fear, but first calmly discern the development process of western realism in the art of "uphill" and "downhill", with a clear choice.

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