徐渭

徐渭(1521—1593),汉族,绍兴府山阴(今浙江绍兴)人。初字文清,后改字文长,号青藤老人、青藤道士、天池生、天池山人、天池渔隐、金垒、 金回山人、山阴布衣、白鹇山人、鹅鼻山侬、田丹水、田水月,明代著名文学家、书画家、戏曲家、军事家。被中国抽象绘画之父和民间思想家朱明誉为:“真正的奇才”、“千古书画,当有徐渭是也”。 徐渭出生在浙江绍兴的一个官绅家庭,徐渭出生百日,父亲去世,由母亲抚养成人。 明万历二十一年(1593年),72岁的徐渭在自己破旧的小屋中,离开人世,身下是杂乱无章的稻草。门外,是那副流传千古的对联:“几间东倒西歪屋,一个南腔北调人。”

  • 中文名徐渭
  • 别名徐文长、徐青藤、徐文清
  • 性别
  • 国籍明朝
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍绍兴府山阴县
  • 出生地绍兴府山阴县
  • 出生日期1521年3月12日
  • 逝世日期1593年
  • 信仰儒学、道家
  • 职业文学家、书画家、戏曲家、军事家
  • 主要成就开中国画“泼墨大写意”之风
  • 代表作品画作《墨葡萄图》《墨花图》《菊竹图》等;杂剧《四声猿》《歌代啸》;戏曲理论专著《南词叙录》
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徐渭书法观:高书不入俗眼,入俗眼者必非高书!

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徐渭多才多艺,在书画、诗文、戏曲等领域均有很深造诣,且能独树一帜,给当世与后代都留下了深远的影响。...
人物简介

徐渭(1521~1593年),是明代杰出书画家、文学家,山阴(今浙江省绍兴)人。初字文清,改字文长,号天池山人,或署田水月、青藤老人、青藤道人、青藤居士、天池渔隐、金垒、金回山人、山阴布衣、白鹇山人、鹅鼻山侬等别号。中国明代文学家、书画家、军事家。民间也普遍流传他的故事传说,关于他年轻时如何聪明,后来如何捉弄官宦等。
徐渭自幼聪慧,文思敏捷。且胸有大志。参加过嘉靖年间东南沿海的抗倭斗争和反对权奸严嵩,一生遭遇十分坎坷,可谓“落魄人间”。最后入狱七、八年。获释后,贫病交加,以卖诗、文、画糊口,潦倒一生。他中年学画,继承梁楷减笔和林良沈周等写意花卉的画法,故擅长画水墨花卉,用笔放纵,画残菊败荷,水墨淋漓,古拙淡雅,别有风致。兼绘山水,纵横不拘绳墨,画人物亦生动,其笔法更趋奔放、简练,干笔、湿笔、破笔兼用,风格清新,恣情汪洋,自成一家,形成“青藤画派”。他自己尤以书法自重。自称“吾书第一、诗二、文三、画四”。袁宏道等称赞他的书法“笔意奔放”,“苍劲中姿媚跃出”,“在王雅宜、文征仲之上。他画的《黄甲图》,峭拔劲挺,生动地表现了螃蟹爬行、秋荷凋零的深秋气氛。作品流传至今的较多。着作有:《四声猿》、《南词叙录》《徐文长佚稿》、《徐文长全集》等。传世著名作品有《墨葡萄图》轴、《山水人物花鸟》册(均藏故宫博物院)、《牡丹蕉石图》轴,以及晚年所作《墨花》九段卷(现藏故宫博物院)等。

人物生平

才名早扬
于明武宗正德十六年二月四日(1521年3月12日)出生于山阴观桥大乘庵东(今浙江绍兴)一个趋向衰落的大家族。其父徐鏓曾任四川夔州府(治今重庆市)同知。徐鏓的原配童氏,生下徐淮、徐潞两个儿子;继娶苗氏,不曾生育。徐鏓晚年纳妾才生下徐渭,在徐渭出生百日后徐鏓便去世。此后徐渭由嫡母苗夫人抚养至十四岁。
虽然出生在官僚家庭,但徐渭早年的生活并不愉快。由于是庶出,而两个嫡出的哥哥又比他年长二三十岁,所以徐渭在家中也没有什么地位。在徐渭十岁那年,苗夫人把他的生母逐出了家门。幼年夺母,对徐渭是一个很大的刺激。虽然二十九岁那年他得以把母亲接回自己家中,但直到垂暮之年,他仍然不能忘怀这件事情。
苗氏死后,徐渭随长兄徐淮生活。他年轻时考秀才未取,在给督学官员要求复试的上书中这样说道:“学无效验,遂不信于父兄。而况骨肉煎逼,箕豆相燃,日夜旋顾,惟身与影!”显得很悲愤。二十一岁时,徐渭入赘潘家,生活当然也不那么自在。一个机警敏感的人,在如此坎坷的境遇中长成,自然容易养成执拗和偏激的性格。
徐渭生性极为聪慧。他六岁读书,九岁便能作文,十多岁时仿扬雄的《解嘲》作《释毁》,轰动了全城。当地的绅士们称他为神童,比之为刘晏、杨修。二十多岁时,徐渭与越中名士陈海樵、沈炼等人相交往,为“越中十子”之一。沈炼曾夸奖他说:“关起城门,只有这一个。”据说在一次酒宴上,主人有意为难徐渭,指着席上一件小东西请他作赋,暗中却命童仆捧上丈余长的纸卷。徐渭立身把笔,一气写尽,惊倒了满座的人。
另有一个关于徐渭的小故事,也能凸显他的聪明才智。在他年幼时,还在上私塾,老师看他聪明伶俐,便要考考他,让他拿着两个水桶去汲水,期间要度过独木桥,当时徐渭尚小,力气也不足,自是困难,但是塾师看见徐渭高兴地抬水回来,惊问方法,他高兴地说:把水桶放水里自然轻松多了!当时尚无浮力一说,徐渭的聪敏,让老师大加赞赏。
屡试不第
自幼以才名著称乡里的徐渭,一向颇有些自负自傲,对功名事业充满了向往,然而在科举道路上却屡遭挫折。二十岁那年,他才考中了秀才,此后多次参加乡试,直到四十一岁,考了八次,始终也未能中举。其间二十六岁时丧妻,从潘家迁出,以教书糊口,直到三十七岁时应胡宗宪之邀,入幕府掌文书。徐渭在科举中一再失败,并不是偶然的。他暮年作《自作畸谱》,还特地记下了六岁入学时所读的岑参《和贾舍人早朝》诗句:“鸡鸣紫陌曙光寒”,流露出无穷的人生感慨。
从戎幕到牢狱
嘉靖年间,东南沿海遭受倭寇的频繁侵扰,由于兵备松弛,官吏无能,给人民的生命财产带来惨重损失。徐渭一方面以诗歌对此进行尖锐的抨击,一方面满怀热忱地投入到抗倭战争中。他虽然身无一职,却几次换上短衣,冒险随军队来到前线,观察形势,然后记录下战事的经过,分析成败的原因,向有关官员提出破敌的方略。这些文章大都写得比较切实,不同于一般的书生议论。
嘉靖三十六年(1557年),徐渭以才名为总督东南军务的胡宗宪所招,入其幕府掌文书。入幕之初,他为胡宗宪作《进白鹿表》,受到明世宗朱厚熜的赏识。自此,胡宗宪对他更为倚重,对他放任的性格,也格外优容。陶望龄《徐文长传》记载说:徐渭常常与朋友在市井饮酒,总督府有急事找他不到,便深夜开着大门等待。有人报告胡宗宪,说徐秀才正喝得大醉,放声叫嚷,胡宗宪反而加以称赞。当时胡宗宪权重威严,文武将吏参见时都不敢抬头,而徐渭戴着破旧的黑头巾,穿一身白布衣,直闯入门,纵谈天下事,旁若无人。
然而在幕府中,也有许多不如意的事。当时胡宗宪出于各种原因,与权臣严嵩来往甚密,而徐渭是痛恶严嵩的,他最亲近的友人沈炼就因参劾严嵩而遭到杀害,但徐渭又不得不代胡宗宪写了一些吹捧严嵩的文字。
嘉靖四十一年(1562年),严嵩被免职,徐阶出任内阁首辅。在徐阶的策动下,胡宗宪受到参劾,并于次年被逮捕至京(后来因平倭有功,只受到免职处分),徐渭也就离开了总督府。
嘉靖四十二年(1563年),徐渭赴京师,担任李春芳的幕僚。次年,与李春芳不合,辞归故里。
嘉靖四十四年(1565年),胡宗宪再次被逮入狱,并死于狱中,他原先的幕僚也有数人受到牵连。徐渭生性本就有些偏激,因连年应试未中,加上精神上很不愉快,此时他对胡宗宪被构陷而死深感痛心,更担忧自己受到迫害,于是对人生彻底失望,以至发狂。他写了一篇文辞愤激的《自为墓志铭》,而后拔下壁柱上的铁钉击入耳窍,流血如迸,医治数月才痊愈。后又用椎击肾囊,也未死。如此反复发作,反复自杀有九次之多。
嘉靖四十五年(1566年),徐渭在又一次狂病发作中,因怀疑继妻张氏不贞,将其杀死,他因此被关入监牢。徐渭在狱中完成《周易参同契》注释,揣摩书画艺术。徐渭在狱中七年,其中只在隆庆二年(1568年)生母病故时短期出狱,办理丧事。
徐渭被下狱后,友人纷纷予以援助。其中援助最为有力的,先是礼部侍郎诸大绶,后是翰林编修张元忭(即明末著名散文家张岱的曾祖父),他们都是徐渭的至交,又都是状元出身,颇有声望。在这些朋友的解救下,徐渭终于借明神宗朱翊钧即位大赦之机获释。这是万历元年(1573年)的事,此时徐渭已经五十三岁了。
万历三年(1575年),徐渭参加张元忭主持的《会稽县志》编修工作。
潦倒晚年
经历了如此多的磨难,徐渭已不再有什么政治上的雄心,但他对国事的关注却老而未衰。出狱后,他先在江浙一带游历,登山临水,并交结了许多诗画之友。万历四年(1576年)夏,徐渭年轻时代的朋友、此时已经担负北部边防重任的吴兑邀他北上,他便欣然前往。徐渭在宣化幕府的时间不到一年,但留下了不少描写北地风光、民俗和军旅生活的诗文。在写给许多官员的赠序中,他都喜欢议论政事,尤其是关于边防的策略。当时张居正主持国政,对蒙古采取抚和的方针,徐渭对此表示赞赏。期间又过居庸关赴塞外宣化府等地,闻戚继光所云至辽东寻李成梁,教授其子李如松兵法,结识蒙古首领俺答的夫人三娘子。他在吴兑那里受到敬重,无奈身体不好,只得于次年春经北京回到家乡绍兴,注释郭璞《葬书》。
徐渭六十岁时,应张元忭之招去北京,但不久两人的关系就恶化了。据张岱的记叙,张元忭是个性格严峻、恪守礼教的人,而徐渭却生性放纵,不愿受传统礼法的束缚。张元忭常常以封建礼教约制徐渭,这使徐渭大为恼火。他曾对张元忭说:“我杀人当死,也不过是颈上一刀,你现在竟要把我剁成肉糜!”由于和老朋友的交恶,加上与官僚们交往受到不平等的对待,徐渭情绪郁愤,旧病复发,便于居京三载后重归家乡。此后,徐渭就再没有离开过山阴。
晚年乡居的日子里,徐渭越发厌恶富贵者与礼法之士,所交游的大都是过去的朋友和追随他的门生。常“忍饥月下独徘徊”,杜门谢客,据说有人来访,徐渭不愿见,便手推柴门大呼:“徐渭不在!”[6]  其中除在张元忭去世时往张家吊唁外,几乎闭门不出,他一生不治产业,钱财随手散尽,此时只得靠卖字画度日。但手头稍为宽裕,便不肯再作。倒是一班门生和晚辈的朋友,或骗或抢,常常得到他的杰作。徐渭似乎特别嗜蟹,许多题画诗记载了朋友们用活蟹来换他画蟹的经过。最后几年,徐渭身患多种疾病,大约画也不能常作,生活更为贫苦。《徐文长文集》中有《卖貂》、《卖磬》、《卖画》、《卖书》诸诗,显示出徐渭凄凉的晚境。
万历二十一年(1593年),徐渭在穷困潦倒中去世,终年七十三岁,葬于绍兴城南木栅山。死前,徐渭写有《畸谱》,记述自己坎坷的人生经历。当时,他的身边唯有一狗与之相伴,床上连一铺席子都没有。

生平成就

文学
徐渭的文艺创作所涉及的领域很广,但它们共同的特征是:艺术上绝不依傍他人,喜好独创一格,具有强烈的个性,风格豪迈而放逸,而且常常表现出对民间文学的爱好。
明代的诗坛,由于前七子与后七子的提倡,出现了一股拟古的风潮。虽说他们也自有不可抹煞的成绩,但这种拟古的风气,显然有碍于诗歌艺术的发展。徐渭对此深致不满,并作了尖锐的批评。他说:“鸟学人言,本性还是鸟;写诗如果一意模拟前人,学得再像,也不过是鸟学人言而已,毫无真实的价值。”他自己的诗歌创作,注重表达个人对社会生活的实际情感,风格略近李贺,问学盛唐,并杂取南朝,出入宋元,而终不失其为自我。这个倾向为稍后主张抒发性灵的公安派所继承,对改变晚明诗风具有重要意义。公安派的代表人物袁宏道对徐渭的诗有一段精彩的评述:“文长既不得志于有司,遂乃放浪曲蘖,恣情山水…其所见山奔海立。如寡妇之夜泣,羁人之寒起。当其放意,平畴千里;偶尔幽峭,鬼语秋愤。”徐渭的散文,以《自为墓志铭》一篇最为出色。此外许多尺牍也很有特色,泼辣机智,幽默多趣,文风远启金圣叹一流,但总的来说,成就不及诗歌。
戏曲
徐渭的戏剧创作有杂剧集《四声猿》,其中包括《狂鼓史》、《玉禅师》、《雌木兰》、《女状元》四个独立的戏。《狂鼓史》又称《阴骂曹》,是有感于严嵩杀害沈炼之事而创作的,表现出狂傲的反抗精神。后两个戏都是写女扮男装建功立业的故事,反映了他对妇女的看法,有一定的反封建意义。这些作品都打破了杂剧固定的格式,为戏剧形式上的多样化开拓了门津。
在戏剧理论方面,徐渭主张“本色”,即戏剧语言应当符合人物的身份,应当使用口语和俗语,以保证人物的真实性,而反对典雅的骈语,过度的修饰,这些看法都颇有见地。
此外,徐渭还作有《南词叙录》,这是中国第一部关于南戏的理论专著,在戏剧史上具有重要意义。杂剧《歌代啸》、小说《云合奇纵》(即《英烈传》),据说也是徐渭所作。
书法
徐渭的书法和明代早期书坛沉闷的气氛对比显得格外突出,他最擅长气势磅礴的狂草,但一般人很难看懂,用笔狼藉,他对自己的书法极为喜欢,自认为“书法第一,诗第二,文第三,画第四”。
徐渭超越了时代,开启和引领了晚明“尚态”书风,把明代书法引向了新的高峰。陶望龄曾说过其书法“称为奇绝,谓有明一人”。袁宏道则称:“予不能书,而谬谓文长书决在王雅宜、文征仲之上,不论书法而论书神,先生者诚八法之散圣,字林之侠客矣!”[8]
徐渭书法和书法观的产生,是与明中、晚期整个思想、文化、审美观念巨大变迁相吻合的。俆渭书法也是从吴门书派主张唐法的反叛中出发,继而吸取北宋苏、黄、米追求艺术个性化的积极因素中走来。徐渭在《书季子微所藏摹本兰亭》中所说的“时时露己笔意”[9]  的审美精神。他的原话是:“非特字也,世间诸有为事,凡临摹直寄兴耳,铢而较,寸而合,岂真我面目哉?临摹《兰亭》本者多矣,然时时露已笔意者,始称高手。予阅兹本,虽不能必知其为何人,然窥其露已笔意,必高手也。优孟之似孙叔敖,岂并其须眉躯干而似之耶?亦取诸其意气而已矣。”
如果说徐渭的行书已用“己意”实现了对传统笔法的改变,那么,最大的改变是那些高头大轴的中堂行草书。以前说“董其昌破坏了墨法”,在这则要说“徐渭破坏了笔法”。徐渭在书法从卷册翰札的文房把玩转向厅堂展示审美的变革中,实现了作品创作中笔法的改造。《代应制咏剑草书轴》和《代应制咏墨草书轴》是其代表作。徐渭这种借鉴于绘画的点画表现方法,是对晋唐笔法的创造性破坏。对于书法艺术这种美术化倾向的改变。
美术
明代的中国,美术正处在学习古人与创新两种意识碰撞的特殊阶段。水墨写意画迅速发展,以徐渭为代表的泼墨大写意画非常流行,名家出现很多,技法也不断更新,徐渭凭借自己特有的才华,成为当时最有成就的写意画大师。他的写意水墨花鸟画,气势纵横奔放,不拘小节,笔简意赅,用墨多用泼墨,很少着色,层次分明,虚实相生,水墨淋漓,生动无比。他又融劲健的笔法于画中,书与画相得益彰,给人以丰富的想象。
似与不似之间
徐渭的泼墨写意花鸟画,别开生面自成一家。其花鸟画,兼收各家之长而不为所限,大胆变革,极具创造力。其写意画,无论是花卉还是花鸟,皆一挥而就,一切尽在似与不似之间,对笔下的四时花木,画家运用勾、点、泼、皴等多种笔墨形态,将牡丹之雍容、紫薇之隽秀、竹子之萧疏、霜菊之孤傲、寒梅之挺洁的神韵刻画的入木三分,分别舒展九尺与五尺的梧桐和芭蕉,直冲画外,不见首尾,与密如骤雨的葡萄、虬如蟠龙的藤蔓构成了巨大的张力,充溢在画面中的纵横之气和豪放境界更是前所未有。他的水墨葡萄,串串果实倒挂枝头,水鲜嫩欲滴,形象生动,茂盛的叶子以大块水墨点成,风格疏放,不求形似,代表了徐渭的大写意花卉的风格。丰富的运动轨迹与浓淡、徐疾、大小、干湿、疏密程度各异的笔踪墨韵,无不具备振笔疾书的即兴性和不可重复性,呈现出中国绘画中最为强烈的抽象表现主义。这不是一般的描摹物象,而是艺术的加工,使其蕴含某种内在的气质、精神,这种气质、精神又使欣赏者有如临其境之感。徐渭笔下的南瓜、菊花图,一气呵成,驱墨如云,气势逼人,同时又恰如其分的驾驭笔墨,轻重、浓淡、疏密、干湿极富变化。墨法上既呈随意浸渗的墨晕,又见控制得宜的浓淡。虽然被徐渭自称“戏抹”,然而在写意中仍生动的传达出了花果的不同秉性和生韵。它的梧桐图,只以泼墨笔法绘其一小部分,却有使人联想到挺拔正直的参天梧桐。正如翁方纲所说:“纸才一尺树百尺,何以著此青林庐。恐是磊落千丈气,夜半被酒歌嘘唏。” 徐渭以其精湛的笔法,在似与不似之间,为欣赏者营造出一片开阔的审美天地。
书中有画,画中有书
徐渭是一个书法家,在绘画中,他将自己的书法技巧和笔法融于画中,使人觉得他的泼墨写意画简直就是一幅慷慨淋漓的苍劲书法。正如张岱所言:“今见青藤诸画,离奇超脱,苍劲中姿媚跃出,与其书法奇绝略同。昔人谓摩诘之诗,诗中有画,摩诘之画,画中有诗;余谓青藤之书,书中有画,青藤之画,画中有书。”[13]  他的《墨葡萄图》,墨的浓淡显示了叶的质感,题诗的字体结构与行距不规则,如葡萄藤蔓一样在空中自由延伸,书与画融为一体。徐渭的书法造诣很高,其跌宕纵横的笔法有助于绘画艺术的巧妙变化,如画墨荷、葡萄,大刀阔斧,纵横驰骋,没有深厚的书法功力是难以做到的。徐渭曾做一幅《梅花蕉叶图》,将梅花与芭蕉放在一起,并且在画上题写道:“芭蕉伴梅花,此是王维画”,显示出徐渭王维在某些构图上的源流关系。当然,王维画雪里芭蕉,更突出一种禅机,即,使得雪的清寒与芭蕉的心空构成画面的宗教底蕴,而徐渭在这样的画面组合中,更突出一种超越时空的主体解放性。徐渭的书法和画法都极为娴熟,功底深厚,他的题字,如他的泼墨写意画,纵横不羁,洋洋洒洒;他的泼墨写意画,融合了精熟的笔法,意趣横生,极富韵味。
画如其人
徐渭平素生活狂放,对权势不妩媚,在当世凡前来求画者,须值徐渭经济匮乏时,这时若有上门求画者投以金帛,顷刻即能得之;若赶在他囊中未缺钱,那么你就是给的再多,也难得一画,实在是一位性情中人。徐渭的寂寞真可以用他自己的一首《题墨葡萄诗》来概括:
半生落魄已成翁,独立书斋啸晚风。
笔底明珠无处卖,闲抛闲掷野藤中。
徐渭一生命途多舛,遭遇坎坷,晚年悲苦凄凉,形影相吊,他将自己的悲愤和怀才不遇之感融注于笔端,创造了一幅又一幅惊世骇俗的水墨名画。他笔下的墨竹,枝淡叶浓,逸笔草草,竹枝气势劲健,竹叶俯垂含情,虽属竹枝而高洁清爽之气不减。这正是画家身处下层,怀才不遇,品格高洁,绝世独立人格的光辉写照。他的泼墨牡丹,不拘于牡丹的富贵高雅特征,色彩绚烂,他却常常以水墨绘之,有意改其本性,其目的是有赋予牡丹清雅脱俗的格调和神韵,所谓“从来国色无装点,空染胭脂媚俗人。”

轶事典故

立斩健儿
徐渭曾在一座酒楼上喝酒,有几名军士也在楼下喝酒,酒后不肯付钱。徐渭暗中写短函迅速告诉胡宗宪,胡宗宪立即下令将几人绑进衙门,一齐斩首,全军都极其震骇。
猜妒致祸
冯梦龙《情史类略》记载:山阴徐渭,字文长,高才不售。胡少保宗宪总督浙西,聘为记室,宠异特甚。渭常出游,杭州某寺僧徒不礼焉,衔之。夜宿妓家,窃其睡鞋一只,袖之入幕,诡言于少保,得之某寺僧房。少保怒不复详,执其寺僧二三辈,斩之辕门。
渭为人猜而妒。妻死后再娶,辄以嫌弃。续又娶小妇,有殊色。一日,渭方自外归,忽户内欢笑作声,隔窗斜视,见一俊僧,年可二十余,拥其妇于膝,相抱而坐。渭怒,往取刀杖,趋至欲击之,已不见矣。问妇,妇不知也。后旬日,复自外归,见前少年僧与妇并枕昼卧于床。渭不胜愤怒,声如吼虎,便取灯檠刺之,中妇顶门而死,遂坐法系狱。后有援者获免。一日闲居,忽悟僧报。伤其妇死非罪,赋《述梦诗》二章云:
“伯劳打始开,燕子留不住。今夕梦中来,何似当初不飞去。怜羁雌,嗤恶侣。两意茫茫坠晚烟,门外鸟啼泪如雨。”“跣而濯,宛如昨,罗鞋四钩闲不着。棠梨花下踏黄泥,行踪不到栖鸳阁。”自是绝不复娶。

人物评价

总评
徐渭与解缙、杨慎并称“明代三大才子”。郑板桥对徐文长非常敬服,曾刻一印,自称“青藤门下走狗”。文学家、艺术家木心评其为“英才天纵”。他能谋善断,几乎一己之力尽破多年的倭寇之患,晚年悉心培养出李如松这位名将,建立不朽功勋。他的诗,袁宏道尊之为“明代第一”,他的戏剧,受到汤显祖的极力推崇,至于绘画,他更是中国艺术史上成就最为突出的人物之一。
历代评价
汤显祖:此牛有千人之力。
陶望龄:晚岁诗文益奇,无刻本,集藏于家。予所见者,《徐文长集》、《阙编》二种而已。然文长竟以不得志于时,抱愤而卒。
袁宏道:①(徐渭书法)笔意奔放如其诗,苍劲中姿媚跃出。余不能书,而谬谓(徐)文长书决当在王雅宜(王宠)、文征仲(文征明)之上。不论书法,而论书神:先生者,诚八法之散圣,字林之侠客也。②古今文人,牢骚困苦,未有若先生者也。……先生诗文崛起,一扫近代芜秽之习,百世而下,自有定论,胡为不遇哉?
梅国桢:文长病奇于文,人奇于时,诗奇于字,字奇于画,无之而不奇,斯无之而不奇也。
查继佐:①渭貌修伟,音朗然如鹤唳,常中夜呼啸,忽群鹤应之。 ②水田月诚所谓鬼才也。不得志于时,事事求死,以为造化无生渭处,而渭卒生。渭画一物生动,书亦遒出,不饱荒粒。诗自为格,喜不拾七子之余。
黄宗羲:岂知文章有定价,未及百年见真伪。光芒夜半惊鬼神,即无中郎岂肯坠?(《青藤歌》)
张廷玉:归有光颇后出,以司马、欧阳自命,力排李、何、王、李,而徐渭、汤显祖、袁宏道、钟惺之属,亦各争鸣一时,于是宗李、何、王、李者稍衰。
齐白石:青藤(徐渭)、雪个(八大山人)、大涤子(石涛)之画,能横涂纵抹,余心极服之,恨不生前三百年,为诸君磨墨理纸。诸君不纳,余于门之外,饿而不去,亦快事故。
石涛:青藤笔墨人间宝,数十年来无此道。
吴昌硕:青藤画中圣,书法逾鲁公。
钱基博:山阴徐渭字文长、公安袁宏道字中郎以清真药雕琢,而不免纤窕,则江湖才子之恶调也。
黄宾虹:绍兴徐青藤,用笔之健,用墨之佳,三百年来,没有人能赶上他。

English Introduction

Xu Wei (1521~1593), is the Ming Dynasty outstanding calligrapher, writer, Shanyin (now Zhejiang Shaoxing) people. At the beginning of the word Wen Qing, change the word text length, number of Tianchi hermit, or the Department of Tian moon, the elderly, ivy, ivy, ivy, lay hidden, Tianchi fishing gold base, gold back to the hermit, hermit, Sanin commoner and white pheasant goose nose Hill Lennon alias etc.. Chinese Ming Dynasty writers, painters and painters, strategists. The folk also spread his stories about how clever when he was young, then how to tease other officials.
Xu Wei was clever, agile evans. And ambition. In Jiajing along the southeast coast of the Anti Japanese struggle and against such Yansong, life is very rough, can be described as "lonely world". Last seven or eight years in prison. After his release, to sell the poem, plagued by poverty and ill health, life, painting, and life. He inherited the middle-aged painting, Liang Kai and Lin Liang, Shen Zhou cut pen freehand flower painting, so good at painting flowers, indulge a pen, painting Mutilator failure load, ink dripping, simple and elegant, do not have the wind. Painting landscapes, and Shengmo, painting is vivid, the more lively, concise style, dry wet pen, pen, pen and broken, fresh style, style, form deep ocean, "Ivy League school". His own particular calligraphy self-respect. My first book, claiming to be "two poems, four paintings, three". Yuan Hongdao praised his "unrestrained brushwork calligraphy", "spring", vigorous in deportment "in Wang Yayi, Wen Zheng Zhong. He painted the "yellow" Jiatu Qiaoba, very fresh, vivid performance of the crab crawling, autumn lotus withered autumn atmosphere. Works spread so far more. A: "four apes", "Nan CI Xu Lu", "Xu Wenchang" lost manuscript of Xu Wenchang's "etc.. Ancient famous works "ink grape map" axis, "landscape" Book Bird characters (both hidden the Imperial Palace Museum), "Peony" banana stone axes, and later the "nine flowers" ink volume (now in the possession of the Imperial Palace Museum).

Early Yang
Yu Mingwu Zong Zhengde sixteen years (March 12, 1521 February 4th) was born in Shanyin Guan Qiao Mahayana Andong (now Zhejiang Shaoxing) a declining trend of big family. Father Xu Zong, former Sichuan Kuizhou (now Chongqing City Tongzhi treatment). Xu Zong's wife Tong's birth, Xu Huai, Xu Lu two sons; after the seedlings did not marry's family. Xu Zong later concubinage Xu Wei being born, Xu Wei was born in the hundred days after Xu Zong died. Then by Tim Xu Wei to fourteen year old lady raised seedlings.
Although born in the bureaucratic family, but Xu Wei's early life is not happy. As two concubines, illegitimate brother is twenty or thirty years older than him, so Xu Wei at home is not what position. In his ten years old, his mother was lady out of the door of the house. Childhood capture mother, Xu Wei is a great stimulus. Although the age of twenty-nine he was able to put the mother back to her home, but he still cannot forget until in old age, this thing.
Miao's death, Xu Wei with the eldest brother Xu Huai life. He did not take the exam when young scholar, said in a letter to the inspector officials asked: "no retest results, then do not believe in father. "Flesh Jianbi, skip beans burning phase, day and night Xuan Gu, but the body and shadow!" Very indignant. At the age of twenty-one, Xu Wei married into the pan, certainly not comfortable life. An alert sensitive person, grow in such a rough situation, easy to develop stubborn and extreme personality.
Nature is extremely intelligent. He was six years old at the age of nine can read, writing, at the age of more than and 10 after Yang Xiong "as" soothing "release" destroy the sensation of the city. The local gentry said he was a child prodigy, than Liu Yan, Yang xiu. At the age of more than and 20, Xu Wei and the famous scholar Chen Haiqiao, Shen Lian et al to intersect, as one of the "the ten". Shen Lian once praised him, said: "close the Shing Mun, only this one." It is said that at a banquet, the owner to give his seat, pointing to a small thing to ask him to Fu, but secretly they life with Zhang Yu Long scroll. Xu Wei conduct the pen, write as much as a full person, dumbfound.
There is a little story about Xu Wei, also can highlight his intelligence. When he was very young, still in school, the teacher will test him be clever and sensible, he took him two buckets to water, to spend a single plank bridge, Xu Weishang was small, the strength is not enough, since it is difficult, but the teacher saw Xu Wei pleased to carry water back, said he was pleased to method. Said: the bucket water naturally easier! When there is no buoyancy Monday, Xu Wei smart, let the teacher praised.
Repeated non-s
He said the village to masterpiece of Xu Wei, has always been quite self pride, full of longing for Fame career, however in the imperial examination on the road but frustrated. At the age of twenty, he was admitted to the scholar, then participated in the examination, until the age of forty-one, I took the test eight times, has also failed to give. During the twenty-six year old when his wife, from pan Jiaqian, to teach life, until Hu Zongxian should be invited by the age of thirty-seven, in charge of instrument shogunate. Xu Wei repeatedly failed in the imperial examination, not accidental. As for his years "since the abnormal spectrum", specially written and read the six year old admission "and" his secretary Jia zaochao verse: "cock camwood dawn cold", showing the infinite feelings.
Just act to prison
Jiajing, the southeast coast of the Japanese suffered frequent harassment, because for relaxation, official incompetence, bring heavy losses to people's lives and property. Xu Wei, on the one hand, this sharp criticism of poetry, on the one hand full of enthusiasm into the Anti Japanese war. Although he had no job, but a couple of times for a short, adventure with troops to the front lines, observe the situation, then record the war through the analysis of the reasons for success or failure, put forward the strategy to defeat the enemy officials. These articles are written more effectively, is different from the general student talk.
Jiajing thirty-six years (1557), Xu Wei was named governor of the southeast military affairs Hu Zongxian, into the shogunate in charge of instrument. The scene at the beginning of his "White Hart table" for Hu Zongxian, by Ming Shizong appreciated Zhu Houcong. Since then, Hu Zongxian is more dependent on him, for his laissez faire character, more tolerant. Tao Wangling said: "Xu Wenchang" records often Xu Wei and friends in the street drinking, the governor in a hurry to find him, then open the door to wait for the night. Someone reported to Hu Zongxian, said Xu Xiucai was drunk and shouting aloud, but praised Hu Zongxian. Hu Zongxian was the weight of dignity, when officials see the military did not look up, and he wore a shabby black turban, wearing a white cloth, before entry, on the world, self-assured or supercilious.
However, in the shogunate, there are also many unpleasant things. At that time, Hu Zongxian for a variety of reasons, and the right of Chen Yan Song from very close, but Xu Wei is detested Yan Song, his closest friend Shen Lian for impeachment Yansong was killed, but Xu Wei had Hu Zongxian wrote some touted Yan Song text.
Jiajing forty-one years (1562), Yan Song was dismissed as Prime Minister Xu order. In order of the Xu instigated by Hu Zongxian, impeach, and the following year was arrested to Beijing (later by Japanese active, only by the removal of sanctions), Xu Wei also left the office of governor.
Jiajing forty-two years (1563), he went to the capital, Li Chunfang served as chief of staff. The following year, and Li Chunfang not to return home, speech.

Jiajing forty-four years (1565), Hu Zongxian once again caught in prison, and died in prison, his former aides also implicated several people. He was this some extreme, not because of the successive years of examination, and mentally very unhappy, he was framed for Hu Zongxian to die was deeply distressed, more worried about the persecution of life so completely disappointed, even mad. He wrote a "howls" since for epitaph ", and then pull the nails under the wall column hammer in the body, such as blood spurt, cure months to heal. Then hit the vertebral renal capsule, also did not die. So repeated attacks, repeated suicide nine times.
Jiajing forty-five years (1566), Xu Wei once again in the crazy attack, after the wife Zhang suspicion of infidelity, kill them, so he was put into prison. Xu Wei completed the "Zhouyi cantongqi" notes in prison, figure painting and calligraphy art. Xu Wei in prison for seven years, of which only in Longqing two years (1568) the mother died when a short prison, for the funeral.
Xu Wei was imprisoned, friends have to help. The aid of the most powerful, the first is the Dashou Shilang, after Zhang Yuanbian Hanlin editing (i.e. the famous essayist Zhang Dai's great grandfather), they are Xu Wei's friends, and is a prestigious scholar born. In the rescue of these friends, Xu Wei finally by Ming Shenzong Zhu Yijun ascended the throne of Amnesty released. This is the first year of Wanli (1573). At this time, Xu Wei is fifty-three years old.
Wanli three years (1575), Xu Wei attended the Zhang Yuanbian presided over the "hueiji county" editing work.
Poor old age
Through so much suffering, Xu Wei no longer has any political ambitions, but his attention to state affairs is old and not bad. After his release, he first traveled in Jiangsu and Zhejiang and with many scale the summit and face the water, and friends. Wanli four years (1576) summer, Xu Wei young friends, now take the northern frontier task of Wu Duiyao on his way north, he would gladly go. Xu Wei in Xuanhua Mufu time less than a year, but left many described North scenery, folk customs and military life poetry. In the preface to many officials, he love discuss the conduct of public affairs, especially on the frontier strategy. At that time, Zhang Juzheng presided over the national government, adopted the policy of stroking and Mongolia, Xu Wei expressed appreciation. During and after the Xuanhua government to pass to Qi Jiguang to Liaodong to seek cloud Wen Li Chengliang, the son of Professor Lee Kay Tzu, met the head of Mongolia Altan lady lady three. He respected Wu Dui in there, but the body is not good, but in the spring of the following year after Beijing returned to his hometown in Shaoxing, Guo Pu "Zangshu" comment.
Xu Wei sixty years old, should be the move to Beijing, but soon the relationship between the two on the deterioration of the. According to Zhang Dai's narrative, Zhang Yuanbian is a tough character, rubricity man, but Xu Wei was reluctant to abandon, bound by traditional etiquette. Zhang Yuanbian used to limit the feudal ethics of Xu Wei, which makes Xu Wei furious. He once said to Zhang Yuanbian: "I kill when dead, but also on the neck of a knife, you have to cut me into the meat now!" With old friends and contacts against each other, and bureaucrats have unequal treatment, Xu Wei was full of easy relapse, Beijing three years after return to hometown. Since then, Xu Wei never left the roller coaster.
In the country of the day, more and more rich and his aversion to etiquette, the friends are old friends and follow his students. Often in famine wandering alone, "said a visitor, close the gate and shut out visitors, Xu Wei did not want to see, then hand shouted:" Xu Wei is not on the gate!" In addition to [6] at the time of Zhang Yuanbian's death to Zhang condolences, almost died of his life keep close at home, industry, money readily cleared, then had to live by selling paintings. But the hand slightly off, he would never be. It is a class of students and younger friends, or cheat or steal, often get his masterpiece. Xu Wei seems especially crab, many poems written by friends live for him after the crabs. In the last few years, Xu Wei suffered from many diseases, and he could not do so often. "Xu Wenchang anthology" in "selling", "selling out" mink, "painting", "sell sell book" the poem shows Xu Wei bleak late exit.
Wanli twenty-one years (1593), Xu Wei died in poverty, aged seventy-three, was buried in the south of Shaoxing mountain city. Before he died, Xu Wei wrote a "abnormal spectrum", describing his own life experiences. At that time, his side only a dog with a bed, a mat is not.

literature
Xu Wei's literary creation involves a wide range of areas, but their common characteristic is: art never rely on others, like the original style, with a strong personality, bold style and ease, and often show interest to the folk literature.
The Ming Dynasty poetry, due to the promotion of the former seven and seven after, there was a wave of archaist. Although they have undeniable achievements, but the study atmosphere, apparently due to the development of the art of poetry. Xu Wei has deep dissatisfaction, and made a sharp criticism. He said: "the bird of learning to speak or write poetry, nature of birds; if a previous simulation, learn like again, but is also a bird of learning to speak only, no real value." His own poetry creation, pay attention to personal expression of real feelings of social life, style slightly near Li He, asked to learn Tang, and take out the Southern Dynasties, song and Yuan Dynasty, and eventually losing its self. Inherited this tendency for later claiming to express the soul of public security, and has important significance to change the style of the late Ming dynasty. On behalf of the public school of characters in Yuan Hongdao Xu Wei's poetry has a wonderful comment: "this is not successful in our, but then turn song tiller hither landscape... The mountain Ben haili. As a widow night of tears, kept people cold. When the Italy, pingchou Trinidad; occasionally enjoy its ghost language, autumn anger." Xu Wei's prose, the "self epitaph" one of the most outstanding. In addition, many letters are very distinctive, and witty, playful humor style, far and Jin Shengtan class, but in general, not poetry achievement.
Traditional opera
Xu Wei's drama creation has miscellaneous drama "four apes", including "crazy drum history", "jade master", "female Mulan", "female champion" of the four independent play. "Crazy" is also called "the history of the drum Yin scold Cao", is inspired by Yan Song Shen Lianzhi killed things of creation, show the spirit of revolt against. After the two scenes were written Nvbannanzhuang meritorious story reflects his views on women, has a certain anti feudalism. These works are breaking the Zaju fixed format for the development of the diverse forms of drama Jin door.
In the aspect of drama theory, Xu Wei advocated "nature", that is the language of drama should conform to the identity of people, should use oral English and sayings, in order to ensure the authenticity of the characters, as opposed to elegant dual language, excessive modification, these views are insightful.
In addition, Xu Wei also made a "Nan CI Xu Lu", this is the first book on China Nanxi theory monographs, has important significance in the history of drama. "The Song Dynasty", "Yun Xiao generation novel Heqi" (i.e. "longitudinal heroes biography"), is also said to his work.
Calligraphy
Xu Wei of the early Ming Dynasty calligraphy and calligraphy dull atmosphere contrast is particularly prominent, his best of great momentum cursive, but it is generally difficult to understand, a mess, he is very love of his calligraphy, since that "the first second poems, calligraphy, painting paper third, fourth".
Xu Wei beyond the times, opened and led the late Ming "Shang state" Book wind, the Ming Dynasty calligraphy led to a new peak. Tao Wangling once said, "the calligraphy called jijue, that there is a person". Yuan Hongdao said: "I cannot book, and that the Changshu Samuel Wang Yayi, the SEC will sign on, no matter in the calligraphy book God, Mr Cheng of eight San San, the knight Yi Zi lin!" [8]
The appearance of Xu Wei's calligraphy and calligraphy is consistent with the great changes of thought, culture and aesthetics in the middle and late Ming Dynasty. Wei Shu Wu calligraphy is from the book advocates the Tang law of rebellion, and then absorb the positive factors along the Northern Song Su, Huang, the pursuit of personalized art in meters. Xu Wei in the book "hidden copy Lanting Pavilion" Jizi micro said "always has exposed [9] with" aesthetic spirit. He said: "the non word, for the world, where a direct mail copy rather than the baht, Xing ear, and I really would inch, face? Copy the "Lanting Pavilion" of the many do, but always with the dew has said before, master. To read our, although not know why people still see the dew has Italy, will also master. You Meng like Sun Shuao, and the man is like the trunk? Take the spirit just carry on."
If Xu Wei's script has been used "have meaning" realization of the traditional style change, so, the biggest change is that the high head axis of the nave cursive. "Dong Qichang said before the destruction of the ink method" in this is to say "Xu Wei destroyed the strokes". Xu Wei in calligraphy from the volume of mail room to play with hall show aesthetic transformation, achieve the transformation of the calligraphy works. "Generation should be" and "Yong sword cursive axis generation should chant ink cursive axis" is his masterpiece. This reference to Xu Wei stipple method of painting, is the creative destruction of Jin and Tang style. The change of art tendency of calligraphy.
Fine Arts
In the Ming Dynasty, art was in the special stage of studying the collision between the ancients and the two kinds of consciousness of innovation. The rapid development of Chinese painting, with Xu Wei as the representative of the ink freehandpainting is very popular, a lot of artists, techniques are constantly updated, Xu Wei with their own unique talents, became the most accomplished master of freehand painting. His freehand ink painting style, and bold, not to stick at trifles, concise pen, ink for ink, little coloring, hierarchy, virtual and real, ink dripping, very lively. He fusion Jinjian brushwork in paintings, books and paintings complement each other, give a person with rich imagination.

Between like and not like
Xu Wei's ink freehand flower and bird painting style, open up a fresh outlook. Its flower and bird painting, while collecting each long and not limited, bold change, highly creative. The painting, whether it is flowers or flowers and birds, all with everything in between like and do not like to, under the pen of four plants, the painter used hook, point, splash, chapped and other ink form, the peony grace, the crape myrtle Junxiu, bamboo and chrysanthemum are cream aloof, plum the very clean charm of the penetrating portrait of, nine feet and five feet respectively stretch of the Indus and banana, straight out, out of sight, and the dense such as a grape, such as Qiu Panlong vines pose a great tension, filled with pictures in the aspect of gas and the bold state is hitherto unknown. His ink grape, upside down a string of fruit branches, fresh water dripping, vivid, lush leaves with large ink point, style of drainage, not for the shape represents Xu Wei's freehand flower style. Ink pen trace rich trajectory and shade, Xu Ji, size, dry and wet, density of different, has all improvisation writing quickly and nonrepeatability, showing the most intense of China Abstract Expressionism painting. This is not a general description of images, but the processing of art, which contains some inner spirit and temperament, the temperament and spirit and make people have a sense of immersive. Xu Wei's pumpkin, chrysanthemum, coherent, flooding ink clouds, the momentum is compelling, and the degree of control the ink to a proper extent, shade density, wet and dry very changes. Not only is ink ink free infiltration, and controlled bias. Although Xu Wei claimed to "play with", but still vivid in freehand to convey the fruits of different nature and rhyme. It's only in ink brushwork figure Indus, painted a small part of it, is reminiscent of tall and upright towering trees. As Weng said: "only a foot tree paper hundred feet, why the Qing Lin lu. If fear is thousands of feet of gas, by Midnight Song Xu xi." Xu Wei is famous for its exquisite brushwork, in between like and do not like, create a world wide appreciation for aesthetic.
There are pictures in the book, there are books in the picture.
Xu Wei is a calligrapher in painting, his calligraphy skills and calligraphy into painting, makes people feel his vigorous calligraphy ink freehand painting is a generous dripping. As Zhang Dai said: "today see the Ivy painting, strange detachment, vigorous in deportment and calligraphy and wonderful spring. The people of the past that I see a poem, Painting-in-poetry, population of painting, more than that of ivy There is poetry in a painting.; books, picture books, picture books in the Ivy League." [13] his "ink grape map", ink shows the leaf texture, font structure and irregular spacing of the poem, such as the grape vine like extension in the air of freedom, books and paintings. Xu Wei's calligraphy attainments are very high, and subtle changes in its ups and brushwork contributes to the art of painting, painting ink charge, grapes, make snap dash, no deep, calligraphy skill is difficult to do. Xu Wei has a "plum plum map" banana leaf, banana and put together, and wrote on the painting: "the banana with plum, this is Wang Wei painting", shows Xu Wei and Wang Wei in some of the composition of the source relations. Of course, Wang Wei painted snow banana, a more prominent Zen, namely, the poor and the banana snow heart empty picture is composed of religious heritage, and Xu Wei in this picture of a more prominent subject beyond time of liberation. Xu Wei's calligraphy and painting are very skilled, profound knowledge, his inscriptions, such as his ink painting, and his unruly, copious and fluent; ink painting, integration of the mastery of the writing, interesting, full of charm.
Painting like a man
Xu Wei has been living in the wild, not in the power of charming, who came to draw, to Xu Wei when the lack of economic value, then if there is a demand for artists to cast a golden silk, which can be instantly; if he did not catch in the bag of money, then you are giving more, but also a rare painting that is really a sentimentalist. Xu Wei's loneliness can really be summed up with his own "problem grape poem":
LaPO is half Weng, independent den Xiao breeze.
At the end of Pearl pen sell non essential leisure throw throw nofuji.
His life was full of frustrations, frustrations, miserable life, he will own body and shadow comforting each other, anger and feeling underappreciated melts in painting, creating a picture and a picture like ink paintings. Under his pen Mozhu, branches pale leaves thick, leisurely pen, bamboo leaves drooping strong momentum, however, although the bamboo and Gao Jie cool the air does not reduce. This is the painter in the lower level, talent, character Gao Jie, brilliant portrayal of his solitude of personality. His ink peony, rich and elegant features, in any color gorgeous peony, he often painted with ink, intends to change its nature, its purpose is to give a peony elegant and refined style and charm, the so-called "Guose has no decorated Air Pollution Rouge Mei laity."

Li cut athletes
He had a drink in a restaurant, a few soldiers in the downstairs drinking, drunk refused to pay. Xu Wei secretly write a short letter quickly told Hu Zongxian, Hu Zongxian immediately ordered a few people tied into the hall, all beheaded, all very shocked.
Guess jealous disaster
Feng Menglong "love" records: Xu Wei of Shanyin, word Wen long, high sales. Hu Shaobao was appointed governor of Western constitutional, record room, pet very special. I often travel, a Hangzhou Temple monks not Li Yan, the title of. Overnight prostitute home, stealing a sleeve of the shoe, into the screen, a word in a small security, get a real monk. Less security no longer hold their anger in detail, two or three monks who cut the gate.
I guess people and envy. After the death of his wife remarried, then to abandon. Continue to marry a small woman, have special color. One day, Wei Fang from the outside, and indoor laughter silent, the window to see a handsome monk, strabismus, twenty years, hold for the women in the knee, hold and sit. In anger, to take the knife rod, tend to want to strike, has not seen. Asked the woman, the woman did not know. After ten days, from the outside to see the complex, young monks and women and Zhouwo pillow on the bed. I would be angry, such as the sound of roaring tiger, took the thorns of the lamp, and has died, then sit prison law. After the aid was free. One day suddenly enlightened monk at homes. The woman dead or injured, "said Fu dream poem" the two chapter cloud:
"A shrike kept starting, swallow. I like to dream, did not fly. So pity female, laugh evil companion. Two the late fall outside the smoke, the birds, tears like rain." "Xian and Zhuo, like yesterday, Luo shoes four hook not idle. Tangli flower foot yellow, not to the whereabouts of Qi ge." Never marry again.
General
Xu Wei and Xie Jin, Yang Shen and said "three wits in the Ming dynasty". Zheng Banqiao very admire Xu Wenchang, has carved a seal, claiming to be "Ivy door dog". Writers and artists Muxin rated it as "true manifestation". He is good at deliberating and judging, almost single handedly make breaking years of Japanese patients, old age to cultivate Li Rusong the famous, established immortal feats. His poetry, Yuan Hongdaozun as "the first in Ming Dynasty", his drama, by Tang Xianzu's highly respected, as for painting, he is one of the most outstanding achievements in the history of Chinese art.
Evaluation of past dynasties
Tang Xianzu: this Youqian of cattle.
Tao Wangling: no edition of his poetry Yiqi, collection at home. To see, "Xu Ji", "Que" series two. Although the long have frustrated to hold, angrily died.
Yuan Hongdao: (Xu Wei calligraphy) with bold as poetry, vigorous in deportment out. I can not book, but the erroneous predicate (Xu) the Changshu must when Wang Yayi (Wang Chong), Wen Zhengzhong (Wen Zhengming). No matter in terms of calligraphy, the book of God: Mr. Cheng, eight of the San San, Zi Lin wonderer. Ancient and modern literati, grumbling hardship, no if mr........ The rise of modern poetry of Mr. Xi, swept away the dirty, BES and under its own conclusion, Hu is not met?
Mei Guozhen: this disease from the people in odd, odd, Shiqi in words, words in the singular, not surprising, but not too strange, No.
As the appearance of Xiuwei Wei, such as sound langin cry, often in the night roar, suddenly of cranes. The wizard also called Cheng month paddy field. Frustrated in everything, die, think nature no Wei, and Wei soldier students. I draw a vivid, the book also Dubai, not full grain shortage. Poetry since the lattice, hi do not pick up more than seven son.
Huang Zongxi: is the price, do not see the authenticity of a hundred years. That is no surprise in the light of the spirits, Zhonglang or fall? ("Ivy song")
Zhang Tingyu: guiyouguang quite out, with Sima, Ouyang himself, force row Li and he and Wang, Li, Wei, Tang Xianzu, Yuan Hongdao, and bell Xingzhi genera, also contend temporarily, so Zong Li, Ho, Wang and Li are a little bad.
Qi Baishi: Ivy (Xu Wei), snow (Badashanren), Di Zi (Shi Tao) of the painting, can cross painted vertical wipe, more than Xinji clothing, hate three hundred years before, for your paper ink. You don't accept, more than from outside the door, hungry and not go, also fast accident.
Shi Tao: Ivy ink world treasure, for decades without it.
Wu Changshuo: Ivy painting calligraphy more than Lu Gong San.
Qian Jibo: Shanyin Weis word text length, word Zhonglang to public security Yuan Hongdao halal medicine raw, without fiber is evil genius Tiao, Jianghu also.
Huang Binhong: Xu Qingteng Shaoxing, pen of health, ink is good, three hundred years, no one can catch up with him.

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