仇英

仇英( ㄑ一ㄡˊ )(约1494年-1552年)字实父,号十洲,中国明代画家,原籍江苏太仓,后移居苏州。生年不详,考订约生于弘治甲寅(一四九四年),卒于嘉靖壬子(一五五二年)秋冬之际。吴门四家之一。擅画人物,尤长仕女,既工设色,又善水墨、白描,能运用多种笔法表现不同对象,或圆转流美,或劲丽艳爽。偶作花鸟,亦明丽有致。与沈周、文征明、唐寅并称为"明四家"。

  • 中文名仇英
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏苏州太仓
  • 出生日期约1494年
  • 逝世日期1552年
  • 职业中国明代画家
  • 代表作品《汉宫春晓图》、《桃园仙境图》《赤壁图》等
  • 所属年代明代
  • 实父
  • 十洲
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画春宫画的都不是正经人?唐伯虎和仇英表示大写的不服!

美术网 02-15 浏览

春宫画的背后是古人丰富有趣的性文化中国古代的春宫画渊源很早,大抵不出两条路子,宫中、民间。但不管哪种,往往都是由一些绅(bian)士(tai)们的花样努力推动的。晚明的沈德符生在春宫图的...
人物简介

仇英原籍江苏太仓,后移居苏州。约生于明弘治十一年左右(1498年,注:也有人认为是1509年),卒于明世宗嘉靖三十一年(1552年)。存世画迹有《汉宫春晓图》、《桃园仙境图》《赤壁图》、《玉洞仙源图》、《桃村草堂图》、《剑阁图》、《松溪论画图》、《桃花源图》、《仙山楼阁图》、《莲溪渔隐图》、《桐阴清话轴》、《秋江待渡图》等。
       仇英是明代有代表性的画家之一,与沈周,文征明和唐寅被后世并称为"明四家"、"吴门四家" ,亦称"天门四杰"。沈、文、唐三家,不仅以画取胜,且佐以诗句题跋,就画格而言,唐,仇相接近。仇英在他的画上,一般只题名款,尽量少写文字,为的是不破坏画面美感。因此画史评价他为追求艺术境界的仙人。
 

绘画风格

仇英擅长画人物、山水、花鸟、楼阁等题材,画法苍秀,构思巧妙,笔墨俊雅。他功力精湛,常临仿唐宋名家稿本,如《临宋人画册》和《临萧照高宗中兴瑞应图》,前册若与原作对照,几乎难辩真假。画法主要师承赵伯驹和南宋"院体"画,青绿山水 和人物故事画,形象精确,工细雅秀,色彩鲜艳,含蓄蕴藉,色调淡雅清丽,融入了文人画所崇尚的主题和笔墨情趣 。
       仇英擅人物画,尤工仕女,重视对历史题材的刻画和描绘,吸收南宋马和之及元人技法,笔力刚健,特擅临摹,粉图黄纸,落笔乱真。至于发翠豪金,综丹缕素,精丽绝逸,无愧古人,尤善于用粗细不同的笔法表现不同的对象,或圆转流畅,或顿挫劲利,既长设色,又善白描。人物造型准确,概括力强,形象秀美,线条流畅,有别于时流的板刻习气,直趋宋人室,对后来的尤求禹之鼎以及清宫仕女画都有很大影响,成为时代仕女美的典范,后人评其工笔仕女,刻画细腻,神采飞动,精丽艳逸,为明代画坛之杰出者。传世作品有《竹林品古》、《汉宫春晓图》卷(配图为此画局部)、《供职图》等。
       仇英的山水画师法赵伯驹刘松年,发展南宋李唐刘松年马远夏圭的"院体画"传统,综合融会前代各家之长,即保持工整精艳的古典传统,又融入了文雅清新的趣味,形成工而不板、研而不甜的新典范,还有一种水墨画,从李唐风格变化而来,有时作界画楼阁,尤为细密。常作上林图,人物、鸟兽、山林、台观、旗辇、军容,皆忆写古贤名笔,斟酌而成,可渭绘事之绝境,艺林之胜事。张丑在《清河书画舫》中对其评价说:仇英画"山石师王维,林木师李成,人物师吴元瑜,设色师赵伯驹,资诸家之长而浑合 之,种种臻妙"。

艺术成就

仇英是明代最有代表性的画家之一,与沈周,文征明和唐寅被后世并称为"明四家",亦称"天门四杰"。沈、文、唐三家,不仅以画取胜,且佐以诗句题跋,就画格而言,唐,仇相接近,仇英在他的画上,一般只题名款。仇英字实父,一作实甫、号十洲,太仓(今江苏太仓)人,移家吴县(今江苏苏州)。约生于明武宗正德四年左右(即1509年,又说约生于明弘治十一年左右,即1498年),卒于明世宗嘉靖三十一年(1552年)。他出身工匠,早年为漆工,兼为人彩绘栋宇,后徒而业画。初为漆工,曾师周臣学画,苦学成功,是人物、山水画的一位能手,文征明赞其为"异才",连董其昌也称赞他"十洲为近代高手第一。"仇英年轻时以善画结识了许多当代名家,为文征明、唐寅所器重,又拜周臣门下学画,并曾在著名鉴藏家项元汴、周六观家中见识了大量古代名作,临摹创作了大量精品。他的创作态度十分认真,一丝不苟,每幅画都是严谨周密、刻划入微。仇英一生寿命短暂,只活了40多岁。
       仇英人物图 初为漆工,为人彩绘栋宇,有志丹青,周臣发现有异才,收为弟子教之,得文徵明称誉,知名于时。临摹唐宋名笔十分刻苦,规仿之迹自能乱真。擅画人物,尤长仕女,既工设色,又善水墨、白描,能运用多种笔法表现不同对象,或圆转流美,或劲丽艳爽,《明画录》谓其:"发翠豪金,丝丹缕素,精丽艳逸,无惭古人。"画山水以青绿为多,细润明丽而风骨劲峭,董其昌称其"赵伯驹后身,即文(徵明)、沈(周)亦未尽其法"。偶作花鸟,亦清丽有逸致。晚年客于收藏家项元汴家,为之摹仿历代名迹。与沈周文徵明唐寅并称为"明四家",为明代工笔之杰。
       传世作品有《桐阴清话图》轴,图录于《故宫名画三百种》; 《右军书扇图》轴、《柳下眠琴图》轴现藏上海博物馆;《人物故事图册》《莲溪渔隐图》轴等藏故宫博物院;《捣衣图》轴、《松溪横笛图》轴藏南京博物院;《清明上河图》卷藏辽宁省博物馆;《桃源仙境图》轴藏天津市艺术博物馆;《煮茶论画图》卷藏吉林省博物馆;《清溪横笛图》轴藏四川大学博物馆;《秋江待渡图》《仙山楼阁图》藏台北故宫博物院。女名珠,号杜陵内史,亦擅画。据玉狮老人《读画辑略》谓,尝见其抚李公麟白描《群仙高会图》长卷,款题"仇珠"。 仇英,画师周臣,工山水,人物,女,而格力不逮。特工临摹,粉图黄纸,落笔乱真。至于发翠豪金,丝丹缕素,精丽艳逸,无愧古人。尝作上林图,人物,鸟兽,山林,台观,旗辇,军容,皆臆写古贤名笔,斟酌而成,可谓绘事之绝境,艺林之盛事也。董其昌题其仙弈图谓:"仇实父是赵伯驹身,即文,沈亦未尽其法。"洵非过誉。尤工女,神采生动,为明代工笔之城。正德十五年(一五二○)与文徵明合仿李公麟莲社图,藏故宫博物院。仇英早年当过漆匠,并为人彩绘栋宇,后为文征明所称誉而知名于时。后来仇英以卖画为生,周臣赏识其才华,便教他画画,仇英临摹宋朝人的画作,几乎可以乱真,例如《清明上河图》。仇英作品题材广泛,擅写人物、山水、车船、楼阁等,尤长仕女图,擅长界画。
       仇英年轻时以善画结识了许多当代名家,为文征明、唐寅所器重,仇英的好友彭年记载:"十洲少既见赏于横翁(文征明)",又拜周臣门下学画,并曾在著名鉴藏家项元汴、周六观家中见识了大量古代名作,临摹创作了大量精品。他的创作态度十分认真,一丝不苟,每幅画都是严谨周密、刻划入微。

绘画特点

仇英擅人物画,尤工仕女,重视对历史题材的刻画和描绘,吸收南宋马和之及元人技法,笔力刚健,特擅临摹,粉图黄纸,落笔乱真。至于发翠豪金,综丹缕素,精丽绝逸,无愧古人,尤善于用粗细不同的笔法表现不同的对象,或圆转流畅,或顿挫劲利,既长设色,又善白描。人物造型准确,概括力强,形象秀美,线条流畅,有别于时流的板刻习气,直趋宋人室,对后来的尤求禹之鼎以及清宫仕女画都有很大影响,成为时代仕女美的典范,后人评其工笔仕女,刻画细腻,神采飞动, 精丽艳逸,为明代之杰出者。杰出作品有《人物故事图》、《汉宫春晓图》卷、《供职图》等。
       仇英的山水画多学赵伯驹刘松年,发展南宋李唐刘松年马远夏圭的"院体画"传统,综合融会前代各家之长,即保持工整精艳的古典传统,又融入了文雅清新的趣味,形成工而不板、研而不甜的新典范,还有一种水墨画,从李唐风格变化而来,有时作界画楼阁,尤为细密。常作上林图,人物、鸟兽、山林、台观、旗辇、军容,皆忆写古贤名笔,斟酌而成,可渭绘事之绝境,艺林之胜事。张丑在《清河书画舫》中对其评价说:仇 英画"山石师王维,林木师李成,人物师吴元瑜,设色师赵伯驹,资诸家之长而浑合 之,种种臻妙"。
       仇英曾作《郭子仪拜寿图》,该画为绢本,工笔重彩,绘郭子仪拜寿图,其场面宏大,人物众多,在明人绘画作品中极为罕见,画中山林台观,庭院房舍,人物鞍马,山石花草,繁复精湛,特别是人物线条流畅,神采生动逼真,该作品虽未见前款,但无论从丝绢材料,颜料,风格,人物场景布局都符合明代绘画特征,与仇英风格一致。
       仇英流传作品较少,其中上海博物馆仅存有二十三幅,最具代表性的精品《剑阁图》,为仇英晚年时期客居于收藏家项元汴处摹仿历代名迹所绘,落笔乱真。图中连山险绝,崖立如劈,气势奔放,人马沿山腰行走,或隐或现,生动地描绘了蜀道行旅之难。北京故宫博物院更是藏品丰富。最具代表性的《人物山水》册为工笔重色人物仕女画。共十页,每页描写古代历史人物和神话传说故事。其中《竹院品古》,人物衣纹,略带战(颤)笔,仿周文矩法。《子路问津》、《琵琶行》、《明妃出塞》几幅,衣纹线条兼作兰叶描,布局、结构、树石等画法,全仿马和之。《贵妃晓妆》,《吹箫引凤》二图,仕女唐妆,形象秀丽,衣纹铁线描,细劲流畅,画法从五代、宋人传统发展而来。惟花鸟画传世真迹绝少,故宫收有一片双钩兰花散页,几乎成为孤本。国内其他博物馆也有一些作品收藏,如天津博物馆藏《桃源仙境图》,优美恬静的山川景色,点缀以人物,增添了布景用意之妙。

清明上河图

明代仇英的《清明上河图》采用青绿重彩工笔,描绘了明代苏州热闹的市井生活和民俗风情,该画长达9.87米,高0.3米,画中人物超过2000个。天平山、运河、古城墙,当时苏州地区标志性建筑皆清晰可辨,整个画卷充满山清水绿之明媚。
       仇本《清明上河图》流传有序,其艺术欣赏研究价值虽不能与张择端的宋本《清明上河图》相媲美,但在历代《清明上河图》摹本中属精品。据专家分析,仇英在创作该《清明上河图》时很可能参照了张择端的构图形式,但茶肆酒楼、装裱店、洗染坊细微处体现的则是江南水乡特有的生活情致,这当中包含艺术家的自身风格。
1945年伪满溥仪逃跑时共将包括《清明上河图》在内的多件文物弃置在沈阳机场。1950年,共有三幅《清明上河图》被送到辽宁省博物馆的前身东北博物馆,鉴定家杨仁恺除发现了张择端的《清明上河图》真迹外,还发现了仇本《清明上河图》。
       以仇英名款出现的《清明上河图》有两本原藏于清内府,《石渠宝芨》初编著录一本原藏重华宫,落款"吴门仇英实父摹宋张择端笔",本幅即为《石渠宝芨》所著录的。仇英张择端一样,在他的《清明上河图》也表现了热闹纷扰的市井生活和民俗风情,场面宏大。画面真实地描述了城郊、城内、宫城在清明时节的不同景象。有荒凉的郊外、也有繁华的闹市;有乡间的草舍茅屋,清静的田间小路,也有布局典雅、华丽的宫城;有达官贵人在宫廷中尽情享乐的场面,也有农夫在田间辛勤劳作的场景。画面中共出现人物2012个,还有为数众多的车、船、动物等,其中人物高不盈寸,却淋漓尽致地表现出人物的身份、表情。此画虽曰摹本,但房屋结构,人物服饰,均已明显地呈现明朝的特点,它真实的向我们展示了明代江南一带经济、政治、文化、军事、民俗等社会状况。为我们研究明代历史提供了可靠的资料。此画本身也是一份极难得的风俗画杰作。
       据专家分析,仇英在创作该《清明上河图》时很可能参照了张择端的构图形式,但茶肆酒楼、装裱店、洗染坊细微处体现的则是江南水乡特有的生活情致,这当中包含艺术家的自身风格。仇本《清明上河图》其艺术欣赏研究价值虽不能与张择端的宋本《清明上河图》相媲美,但在历代《清明上河图》摹本中属精品。

English is introduced

Qiu Ying (ㄑ a ㄡ ') (about 1494-1552 years) the word real father, number ten continent, the Chinese Ming Dynasty painter, origin of Jiangsu Taicang, moved to Suzhou. Unknown birthday, test contract was born Hongzhi Jia Yin (1494), died in Jiajing Prince (1552) autumn and winter. Wu door four one. Good painting figures, especially long ladies, both Gongcolor, and good ink, white description, can use a variety of brushwork performance of different objects, or round turn the United States, or Jin Liyan cool. Even for flowers and birds, but also brightly induced. And Shen Zhou, Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and known as the "Ming four."
Biography
       Qiu Ying origin of Taicang, Jiangsu, moved to Suzhou. Born in Ming Hongzhi about eleven years (1498, Note: Some people think that is 1509), died in Ming Shizong Jiajing thirty-one years (1552). There are "Han Gong Chun Xiao map", "Taoyuan Wonderland map", "Chibi map", "Yudong Xianyuan map", "peach village cottage", "jiange map", "Songxi diagram drawing" "" "," "," "Map", "Lianxi fishing map", "Tong Yin clear dial", "Qiujiang to be crossing map" and so on.
        Qiu Ying is one of the representative painters of the Ming Dynasty, and Shen Zhou, Wen Zhengming and Tang Yin was later known as the "Ming four", "Wu door four", also known as "four doors". Shen, Wen, Tang three, not only to win the painting, and accompanied by poems inscriptions, on the grid, the Tang, hatred close. Qiu Ying in his paintings, generally only title section, as little as possible to write text, in order not to undermine the beauty of the screen. So the history of painting to evaluate his pursuit of artistic realm of immortal.

Painting style

Qiu Ying good at painting figures, landscapes, flowers and birds, pavilions and other themes, painting Cangxiu, clever ideas, ink Junya. His exquisite workmanship, often Pro imitation of the Tang and Song dynasties famous manuscripts, such as "Lin Song album" and "Pro Xiao Zhao ZTE Rinux map", if the former book with the original control, almost Nanbian true. The painting is mainly composed of Zhao Boju and the painting of "the courtyard body" of the Southern Song Dynasty. The paintings and pictures of the green landscape and characters are precise, elegant and elegant. They are colorful and subtle, elegant and elegant in color and into the themes and ink taste of the literati painting.
       Qiu Ying good figure painting, especially the ladies, attention to the description and description of historical themes, the absorption of the Southern Song Dynasty and the Yuan and Ma Yuan techniques, pen force healthy, good at copying, pink paper yellow paper, As for the hair Cui Haojin, synthetic Dan lime element, refined Li Yi Yi, worthy of the ancients, especially good at using different thickness of the brushwork performance of different objects, or round to smooth, or frustration Jinli, both long color, good white sketch. Character modeling is accurate, general and strong, beautiful, smooth lines, different from the flow of plate engraving habits, directly toward the Song of the room, especially for later, Yu Zhiding and the Qing court painting has a great impact, as Time ladies beauty model, descendants of its fine ladies, portray delicate, look flying, Jing Li Yan Yi, for the Ming Dynasty painting of the outstanding. Handed down works of "ancient bamboo products", "Han Gong Chunxiao map" volume (with the picture part of this painting), "service map" and so on.
       Zhao Yingju, Liu Songnian, the development of the Southern Song Dynasty Li Tang, Liu Songnian, Ma Yuan, Xia Gui's "body painting" tradition, the integration of the previous generation of various long, that is to maintain the neat fine classical tradition, but also into the Elegant and fresh taste, the formation of the work instead of the plate, but not the new model of sweet, there is a kind of ink painting, from Li Tang style changes from time to time for the painting pavilion, especially fine. Often for Shanglin figure, characters, birds and animals, mountains, Taiwan concept, flag chariot, military capacity, all recalled the ancient Yin name pen, considered, Wei painting things can be the despair, Yi Lin wins. Zhang Chou in the "Qinghe Painting and Calligraphy Fang" in its evaluation, said: Qiu Ying painting "Wang Shi Shishi division, tree division Li Cheng, Wu Yuanyu figures, coloring division Zhao Bo Ju, capital of various long and muddy, .

Artistic achievement

Qiu Ying is the most representative of the Ming Dynasty painter, and Shen Zhou, Wen Zhengming and Tang Yin was later known as the "Ming four", also known as "the door four Jie." Shen, Wen, Tang three, not only to win the painting, and accompanied by poem inscriptions on the grid, the Tang, Qiu close to the enemy in his paintings, generally only title section. Qiuying real father, a real real, No. 10 Chau, Taicang (now Jiangsu Taicang) people, moved to Wu County (now Jiangsu Suzhou). Born in Ming Wuzong Masanori around four years (that is, 1509 years, and said about the birth of the Ming Hongzhi eleven years or so, 1498), died in Ming Shizong Jiajing thirty-one years (1552). He was born artisans, early for the painter, and painting for the people, but after the industry painting. The beginning of the painter, had the division Zhouchen learn painting, study hard success, is a character, landscape painting of a expert, Wen Zhengming praise for the "heterogeneity", even Dong Qichang also praised him "Chau for the modern master first. He has met many famous artists of the Ming Dynasty, such as Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin, and Zhou Chenmen. He also had a lot of masterpieces in ancient famous works, such as Xiang Yuanbian, Fine. His creative attitude is very serious, meticulous, each painting is rigorous and thorough, carved. Qiuying life short life, only live more than 40 years of age.
       Chou Ying figures early for the painter, painted Dongyu, aspiring Danqing, Zhou Chen found a different talent, received for the disciples to teach, was Wen Zhengming reputation, known at the time. Copy the Tang and Song is very hard, imitation of the trace from the spurious. Good painting characters, especially long ladies, both Gongcolor, and good ink, white description, can use a variety of brushwork performance of different objects, or round turn the United States, or Jin Liyan cool, "Ming painting recorded" "Painted landscape to green for many, fine run bright and strong and strength of Qiao, Dong Qichang called" Zhao Bo Ju back, that is, the text (Zhengming), Shen (Shen), " Week) has not done its law. " Even for flowers and birds, but also elegant and Yat-induced. In the late years of the collectors item Yuan Bianjia, whom imitate the ancient track. And Shen Zhou, Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and known as the "Ming four", for the Ming Dynasty fine brushwork.
       "The Book of Figure Stories", "The Legend of the Right Army", "The Legend of the Right Army", "The Book of the Characters", and the " ; ";"; ";"; ";"; ";"; ";"; "; Fishing trail" axis ";"; ";"; ";"; ";"; ";"; Museum of Sichuan Museum; "Autumn River to be crossing map" "Pagodas map" Tibetan National Palace Museum in Taipei. "Museum of Sichuan Museum"; Female name beads, No. Duling history, also good at painting. According to the old man of the lion, "read a little" that the painting, the taste of its metaphor Li Gonglin white sketch "group immortal high map" scroll, section title "Qiu Chu." Qiu Ying, artist Zhou Chen, workers and landscape, figures, women, and Gree not. Agents copy, pink map yellow paper, pen and paper spurious. As for the hair Cuijin, silk Dan-element, Jing Li Yan Yi, worthy of the ancients. Taste for Shanglin figure, figures, birds, animals, mountains, Taiwan concept, flag chariot, military capacity, are written in ancient Yin name pen, considered, can be described as painting the desperate. Dong Qichang title Xian Yi diagram that: "hatred is the father of Zhao Bo Ju body, that is, the text, Shen also not do its law." Xun non-reputation. Eugene female, vivid, as the city of the Ming Dynasty meticulous. Masanori fifteen years (1520) and Wen Zhengming Li Gonglin lotus map, possession of the National Palace Museum. Qiu Ying as a painter in the early years, and painted Dongyu, Wen Zhengming after the well-known at the time. Later Chou Ying to sell paintings for a living, Zhou Chen appreciated his talent, he taught him to paint, Chou Ying copying the Song Dynasty paintings, almost real, such as "Qingming River." Qiu Ying works a wide range of subjects, good at writing characters, landscapes, travel, pavilions, especially long ladies figure, good at painting.
       Qiu Ying young to get to know a lot of contemporary masters, as Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin by the weight, Qiu Ying Peng year of the friend records: "ten continents less seen in the Heng Wang (Wen Zhengming)", and worship Zhouchenmenxiaoxue , And in the famous connoisseur Xiang Yuanbian, on Saturday saw a lot of ancient masterpieces masterpiece, copy a large number of fine. His creative attitude is very serious, meticulous, each painting is rigorous and thorough, carved.

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