梅兰芳

梅兰芳(1894年10月22日-1961年8月8日),清光绪二十年(1894年)出生于北京,祖籍江苏泰州。中国京剧表演艺术大师。梅兰芳8岁学戏,9岁拜吴菱仙为师学青衣,10岁登台。后又求教于秦稚芬和胡二庚学花旦。1915年4月至1916年9月,新排演了《宦海潮》《牢狱鸳鸯》《思凡》等11出戏。于1949年前先后赴日本、美国、苏联演出,并荣获美国波莫纳学院和南加州大学的荣誉文学博士学位。1950年任中国京剧院院长、1951年,任中国戏曲研究院院长,1953年,任中国戏剧家协会副主席,1959年,加入中国共产党,1961年8月8日,梅兰芳因病在北京病逝。享年67岁。梅兰芳在50余年的舞台生活中,发展和提高了京剧旦角的演唱和表演艺术,形成一个具有独特风格的艺术流派,世称“梅派”。其代表作有《贵妃醉酒》《天女散花》《宇宙锋》《打渔杀家》等,并先后培养、教授学生100多人。

  • 中文名梅兰芳
  • 别名梅澜、梅鹤鸣、裙姊
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍江苏泰州
  • 出生地北京
  • 出生日期1894年10月22日
  • 逝世日期1961年8月8日
  • 职业京剧演员
  • 主要成就京剧旦角、四大名旦之首、创立梅派等
  • 代表作品《五花洞》《贵妃醉酒》《嫦娥奔月》《霸王别姬》《黛玉葬花》等
人物生平

早年经历
清光绪二十年(1894年),梅兰芳出生在北京前门外李铁拐斜街一座京剧世家的旧居。
光绪二十五年(1899年),梅兰芳在北京百顺胡同附近一家私塾读书。
光绪二十八年(1902年),正式拜吴菱仙为师学青衣,学的第一出戏是《战蒲关》,后又学习了《二进宫》、《三娘教子》等共约三十余出戏。也常跟着秦稚芬和胡二庚学花旦戏。
光绪三十年(1904年)8月17日,北京“广和楼”戏馆第一次登台,工花旦,在《长生殿·鹊桥密誓》里演织女。
光绪三十三年(1907年),梅兰芳家从百顺胡同移居卢草园,正式搭班“喜连成”演出。之后喜连成班主叶春善收梅兰芳为徒。
光绪三十四年(1908年)8月14日,母亲杨长玉病逝后全家移居鞭子巷头条。
清宣统二年(1910年),梅兰芳与王明华结婚。开始养鸽子的业余爱好。
演绎生涯
宣统三年(1911年),北京各界举行京剧演员评选活动,张贴菊榜,梅兰芳名列第三名探花。
中华民国元年(1912年),第一次与谭鑫培同台演出,演出剧目《桑园寄子》。
民国二年(1913年),他首次到上海演出,在四马路大新路口丹桂第一台演出了《彩楼配》《玉堂春》、《穆柯寨》等戏,10月31日,接受上海许少卿邀请首次赴上海演出(是梅兰芳第一次离开北京),在四马路大新路口丹桂第一台演出了《彩楼配》、《玉堂春》等戏,11月16日第一次贴演扎靠戏《穆柯寨》也是他第一次唱大轴戏,他吸收了上海文明戏、新式舞台、灯光、化妆、服装设计等改良成分,返京后创演时装新戏《孽海波澜》。开始研究新腔并学习昆曲。全家移居北京鞭子巷三条。
民国三年(1914年)1月,在庆丰堂与王蕙芳同拜陈德霖为师。又先后从师乔蕙兰、李寿山、陈嘉梁学习昆曲。又从路三宝、王瑶卿学戏。7月至10月,在“翊文社”最初尝试创编了时装新戏《孽海波澜》。梅兰芳对化装、头饰方面进行了改革。同年,再次来沪,演出了《五花洞》、《真假潘金莲》、《贵妃醉酒》等拿手好戏,一连唱了一个多月。
民国四年(1915年)4月10日,在北京吉祥园上演创编时装新戏《宦海潮》。4月16日,在北京吉祥园上演创编时装新戏《邓霞姑》,10月31日,在北京吉祥园首演创编古装新戏《嫦娥奔月》。第一次在京剧舞台上使用追光,梅兰芳则把灯光的作用向前推进了一步,梅兰芳开始学习绘画,绘画老师画家王萝白。此后,又结识了画家陈师曾、金拱北、姚茫父、陈半丁齐白石等。同时并与收藏家朱翼庵订交,广泛观赏书画和古器物。
民国五年(1916年)1月14日,在北京吉祥园上演创编的新戏《黛玉葬花》,4月19日至21日在北京吉祥上演创编时装新戏《一缕麻》。同年,第三次来沪,连唱45天。
民国六年(1917年),梅兰芳创编了神话歌舞剧《天女散花》。
民国七年(1918年),梅兰芳移居上海,演出《游园惊梦》。同年创编演出了《麻姑献寿》、《红线盗盒》。
民国八年(1919年),余叔岩在正乙祠为母亲祝寿办堂会,梅兰芳反串吕布在此登台献艺。4月至5月,应日本帝国剧场邀请,携同“喜群社”访问日本进行演出。先后在东京、大阪、神户等地演出,12月应近代实业家张謇邀请,第一次到江苏南通演出。
民国九年(1920年),第一次拍摄无声电影《春香闹学》。
民国十年(1921年),年初,与杨小楼合作组织“崇林社”剧团。年末,与福芝芳结婚。
民国十一年(1922年)2月15日,在北京第一舞台首演创编新戏《霸王别姬》,10月15日至11月22日应香港太平戏院邀请,率"承华社"剧团140余人赴港演出。
民国十二年(1923年),首创在京剧伴奏乐器中增加上二胡,使京剧音乐更加丰富,11月在北京开明戏院上演创编新戏《洛神》,11月在北京真光剧场上演创编新戏《廉锦枫》。
民国十三年(1924年)5月,在北京寓所接待印度著名学者、诗人、作家泰戈尔。演出结束后,泰戈尔用孟加拉文题诗一首,又亲自译成英文送给梅兰芳。后来经北京大学精通孟加拉文的吴晓铃、石真教授将原诗译成了汉文白话诗。10月9日至11月22日,梅兰芳应日本帝国剧场社长邀请,第二次访问日本。先后在东京、大阪、京都等地演出。
民国十四年(1925年),创编新戏头本、二本《太真外传》。
民国十五年(1926年),创编新戏三本、四本《太真外传》,在北京东城无量大人胡同梅宅接待来访问的瑞典王储夫妇。
民国十六年(1927年),被评为京剧“四大名旦”之首,创编新戏《俊袭人》,经当时的银行家冯耿光证婚,梅兰芳迎娶了孟小冬。
民国十七年(1928年)4月6日,在北京中和戏院首演创编新戏《凤还巢》,夏季,在北京编演了新戏全本《宇宙锋》,第二次赴香港演出。同年,梅兰芳去美国访问演出前拜访胡适。
民国十九年(1930年)1月18日至7月,率“承华社”剧团部分演员经日本横滨、加拿大维多利亚赴美国演出。先后在西雅图、芝加哥、华盛顿、纽约、旧金山、洛杉矶、圣地亚哥、檀香山等地演出72天,美国波摩拿学院、南加利福尼亚大学分别授予梅兰芳文学荣誉博士学位。
民国二十年(1931年)5月,与余叔岩、齐如山、张伯驹等人创办“国剧学会”,第三次率团赴香港演出,同年与孟小冬解除婚姻关系。
民国二十一年(1932年),梅兰芳从北京迁居上海。
民国二十二年(1933年),在上海天蟾舞台上演了创编新戏《抗金兵》。
民国二十四年(1935年)2月21日至4月21日,率剧团赴苏联演出访问。在苏联先后与戏剧大师斯坦尼拉夫斯基、布莱希特会面,四月至八月赴波兰、德国、法国、比利时、意大利、英国等国进行戏剧考察。后经埃及、印度回国。
民国二十五年(1936年)2月26日,在上海天蟾舞台上演了创编新戏《生死恨》。
民国二十七年(1938年)年初,携家眷和剧团演职员再次赴香港演出。全家留居香港。
民国三十年(1941年),蓄须明志,息影舞台。
民国三十一年(1942年)年夏,由香港返回上海。从此,杜门谢客。
民国三十四年(1945年)10月,重新登台,在上海美琪大戏院与俞振飞合作演出了昆曲《断桥》、《游园惊梦》等剧目。
民国三十七年(1948年)6月至11月,在上海联华三厂拍摄彩色片《生死恨》。
文艺工作
1949年,荣获美国波摩那学院和南加州大学的荣誉文学博士学位。7月,出席中华全国第一次文学艺术工作者代表大会,9月30日,当选全国政协常务委员,10月1日,参加中华人民共和国和中央人民政府成立典礼活动。
1951年4月,任命梅兰芳为中国戏曲研究院院长,7月,全家从上海迁回北京,定居护国寺街1号。(现梅兰芳纪念馆)
1952年12月,出席在奥地利首都维也纳举行的世界人民和平大会,与苏联著名舞蹈大师乌兰诺娃在北京会面。
1953年10月,梅兰芳当选中国戏剧家协会副主席。
1954年9月,梅兰芳当选中华人民共和国第一届全国人民代表。
1955年1月,任命梅兰芳为中国京剧院院长,4月,文化部、中国文联、中国戏剧家协会联合为梅兰芳周信芳举办了舞台生活50年纪念活动,2月—8月拍摄《梅兰芳舞台艺术》戏曲片,12月制作完成。
1956年5月26日至7月16日,应日本朝日新闻社等团体邀请,在周恩来总理直接关心和帮助下,组建了阵容最强大的访日京剧代表团,梅兰芳任团长。这也是梅兰芳第三次访问日本。先后在东京、九州、大阪、京都、名古屋等地演出。
1957年4月15日,北京市人民委员会任命梅兰芳为梅剧团团长。6月7日,国际舞蹈协会主席海尔格来到北京授予梅兰芳荣誉奖章。7月9日,梅兰芳担任中国戏曲学院院长。
晚年生活
1959年5月25日,在北京人民剧场上演创编新戏《穆桂英挂帅》,加入中国共产党。
1960年1月21日,《游园惊梦》彩色电影片拍摄完成,4月15日,北京市人民委员会任命梅兰芳为梅剧团团长。
1961年5月31日,在中国科学院为科学家们演出《穆桂英挂帅》,这是梅兰芳在舞台生涯中的最后一次演出,7月9日,任命梅兰芳为中国戏曲学院院长,8月8日凌晨5时,梅兰芳在北京病逝,享年67岁。

婚姻家庭

祖父
梅巧玲,著名京剧旦角表演艺术家,咸丰年醇和堂歌郎,同治年脱籍自营景和堂,甚为名望,名列同光十三绝,为四喜班班主。
父母
父亲梅明瑞,字竹芬,小名二锁,原为京剧小生演员,后改花旦,景和堂二主人,因体弱,后患肺病而死。
母亲为杨隆寿之长女。
伯父
梅雨田(大锁),京剧京胡演奏家,梅兰芳父亲去世后由伯父养育成人。
妻子
王明华,出身京剧世家,1910年结婚。婚后王明华生了一双儿女,后来儿女不幸夭折,后王明华身体不好在天津养病。
福芝芳,京剧旦角演员,生在北京的一个旗人家庭,1921年梅兰芳娶其为平妻。
孟小冬,京剧老生演员,1927年与梅兰芳结婚,1933年离异,1949年,她离开上海赴香港定居,与杜月笙结识,次年结为夫妇。1967年移居台北,1977年逝世。
子女
福芝芳和梅兰芳共生有九个小孩,但只有四个长大成人,分别是梅葆琛、梅葆珍、梅葆玥、梅葆玖。
弟子传人
梅兰芳的弟子及梅派传人有:程砚秋、魏莲芳、李世芳、刘元彤、张君秋、言慧珠、杜近芳、丁至云、罗蕙兰、顾正秋、杨荣环、梅葆玖、沈小梅、陈正薇、杨秋玲、张春秋、李玉芙、李炳淑、夏慧华、李经文、杨葆荣、李胜素、董圆圆、魏海敏、张晶、梁维玲、李洁、王艳、郭睿玥、张馨月等。
梅兰芳的幼子梅葆玖致力于梅派艺术的传承和发展,培养了李胜素、董圆圆、张晶等梅派后学。

艺术特色

唱腔
梅兰芳的唱腔醇厚流丽,感情丰富含蓄。由于他嗓音高宽清亮、圆润甜脆俱备,故音色极其纯净饱满,唱工从不矜才使气,始终保持平静从容的气度,决无气馁音懈之处。他的唱腔基本上是从传统唱法中来,但又无一腔照搬传统,而是以自己的润腔方式和行腔规律,将其化为具有从容含蓄的梅派韵味的唱腔,旋律优美,顺畅流利。在每一出戏中,均结合表达人物感情和剧情内容的需求,设计出大量新的唱腔,悦耳动听,清丽舒畅,并不以花哨织巧、变化奇特取胜,但无论是柔曼婉转之音抑或昂扬激越之曲,都无不出自心声,感人至深。梅兰芳的嗓音脆、亮、甜、润、宽圆俱备,而最难得的是又甜又亮。甜而不宽,这只是一般好嗓子,梅的嗓音之宽,恰到好处。梅兰芳精通音律,五声尖。他的唱法,在成名之后,可以说既无腔不新,又无腔不似旧。其中打破藩篱的是“南椰子”唱腔,这是前人没有的,至于在“南梆子”中加“哭头”《春秋配》,“南梆子”转快流水以及反四平调,如《太真外传》的“盘舞”、“出浴”等,更是梅派所创的新扳腔了。
表演
梅兰芳善於运用歌唱、念白、表情、身段、舞蹈等技艺,把人物的心理状态刻画入微。他运用艺术手段自然、和谐、圆活、洒脱、出神、人化,富有节奏感和塑形美。他的表演艺术特点是质朴中见华贵,端庄中含俏丽,淑静中蕴情致,妩媚中显大方。
舞蹈
梅兰芳在京剧表演中选择了新旧相融合,在传承中去其不美与低俗,留其精华与清雅来积极学习与吸纳。梅兰芳所创造的“梅派”道路,也和其他流派创造者一样,先是走承师之道,而后在承师的基础上,走自己的创新道路。梅派最大的特点就是没有特点,抓住某一个特点很难抓,讲究的是范本之美,无论一招一式、一字一腔、发声运气都强调非常规范。
梅兰芳在表演《红线盗盒》中的“剑舞”、《西施》中的“羽舞”、《麻姑献寿》中的“袖舞”、《木兰从军》中的“戟舞”、《思》中的“拂舞”、《抗金兵》中的“戎装舞”这些多为反皇权、反暴政、反侵凌的内容剧目时,表现出中国古代受压迫妇女的苦难、挣扎与反抗,展示出梅兰芳所塑造中国古代各类女性形象的艺术才能。《汾河湾》中,他塑造一位苦守寒窑、痛失爱子的贤妻良母,《刺虎》中,他塑造一位舍生忘死、代主出嫁的复仇宫女,《打渔杀家》中,他塑造一位不堪苛政、走向反抗的渔家女儿,《宇宙锋》中,他塑造一位佯装疯癫、违抗圣命的名门闺秀;《虹霓关》中,他塑造一位武艺高强、被爱所伤的痴情女子;《贵妃醉酒》中,他塑造一位天生丽质、一度失宠的宫怨妃子。在京剧和昆曲中的一些经典的武打、舞蹈片段,都体现梅兰芳在舞台上多方面的技艺和擅长。梅兰芳饰演的晚年穆桂英,气度凝重,感情沉沉,唱、做艺术登峰造极,令人叹为观止。他晚年的艺术风格不似中期那样色彩浓艳,而趋于清淡含蓄,更富有内在的魅力。这标志着他的舞台艺术达到了炉火纯青的境界。
化妆
梅兰芳对旦角角色化妆进行了创新,北方的旦角,不讲究画黑眼圈,淡淡的画上几笔就行了。片子贴的部位,又高又宽,往往会把脸型贴成方的,如果在鬓边贴出一个尖角,内行叫“大开脸”。头上再打个“茨茹叶”,这就是标准的青衣扮相。梅兰芳就采用了南方的旦角化妆法,把眼圈画得相当黑,加上一吊眉,眼睛显得格外好看有神。并根据个人的脸型,在适当部位贴上片子,观众看了就有美的感觉,为演出增加了光彩。同时也为北方旦角的化妆开了先河。

人物成就

创立梅派
梅派形成初期
京剧形成初期,以梅巧玲为代表的一代老前辈艺术家开启了京剧男旦艺术的篇章。梅巧玲开创的梅派艺术,对京剧旦角表演艺术的提高与发展做出了卓越的贡献,也成为了梅派男旦的重要奠基人。到第二代梅派传人梅巧玲之子梅竹芬承父衣钵,良好地继承了梅巧玲的唱法,他对梅派艺术的传承功不可没。
梅派的创立
二十世纪二三十年代,梅巧玲之孙梅兰芳继承并发展了梅派艺术,当时的男旦艺术在京剧史上出现了“梅尚程荀”四大名旦,让整个京剧发展步入了巅峰时期,这是京剧走向兴盛的重要标志。
梅兰芳旦行立派也是从“梅派”开始的,而京剧行当中梅兰芳最擅演的是“旦”,故梅兰芳是中国旦角创艺立派的第一人。
京剧中把女性统称为“旦”,其中按照人物的年龄、性格又可细分为许多行当,饰演大家闺秀和有身份的妇女称为“正旦”,正旦在京剧中俗称“青衣”,这就是因为正旦所扮演的角色常穿青色的长衫而得名。京剧《窦娥冤》中的女主角窦娥就是典型的青衣角色。青衣的表演庄重娴静,秀雅柔婉,以唱功为主,一般说来,青衣的唱腔旋律优美,细腻婉转。
梅兰芳通过不断的努力,终于集京剧旦角艺术之大成,融青衣、花旦、刀马旦行当为一炉,创造出独特的表演形式和唱腔,世称“梅派”,影响很大。
梅派的创新
梅兰芳所创新的京剧梅派艺术,不仅是中国京剧与整个中国戏曲艺术的高峰,而且还位列世界三大表演体系之一,梅派艺术的发展,自是得益于时代的机遇,当时北京精英荟萃,戏楼茶馆云集,在梅兰芳缀玉轩聚集的“梅党”也各显其长,盛举共襄,进而成就了当时梅兰芳的梅派艺术。
艺术戏剧融合
中国戏剧在服装、道具、化装、表演上综合起来可以说是活动的水墨画,梅兰芳深知应该从绘画中吸取对戏剧有帮助的养料。于是他研习作画并向一些绘画名家求教,其中包括齐白石,而齐白石又非常喜爱梅兰芳的戏剧。齐白石梅兰芳而言是亦师亦友。梅兰芳将艺术和生活,和兴趣走到了一起,让中国传统书画走进戏剧,扩展了艺术领域,同时将原有的艺术壁垒打破,开创出新的出路,并将这种新式事物传到了国外。
梅派传承
梅兰芳的一生,体现了不断革新、精益求精的敬业精神,他将诸多艺术领域的创作思想融于了京剧艺术舞台表演之中,使京剧旦行的唱腔、表演艺术臻于完美的境界,成为旦行中影响深远的流派。形成独特的艺术风格。其中最能体现梅派艺术代表剧有《霸王别姬》《贵妃醉酒》《穆桂英挂帅》等。
所以在梅派艺术的传承上,梅兰芳之子梅葆玖,深得其父教诲和指导,作为梅派艺术的领军人物,京剧界举足轻重的男旦演员,梅葆玖在致力于梅派艺术的传承和发展工作中,深切感受到男旦艺术传承的重要性和迫切性,并为之积极努力着。
而在梅派艺术的优秀传人中,胡文阁被认定为梅派后背青年京剧男旦演员中的佼佼者。他师承梅葆玖等艺术家,拜梅葆玖为师。跟随梅葆玖学习的过程中,他良好地继承了梅派艺术,展现了男旦艺术的魅力,为梅派艺术、男旦艺术的传承与发展,贡献着自己的力量。
戏曲理论
梅兰芳一生主要从事京、昆表演,创作了一批时装戏和古装戏,加工整理了一批传统戏,如《牢狱鸳鸯》、《宦海潮》、《邓霞姑》、《一缕麻》、《嫦娥奔月》等。他对中国戏曲的贡献是多方面的,之于戏曲理论的贡献仅是其中一面。
梅兰芳提出了“中国戏剧之三要点”。第一点,西方戏剧与中国戏剧的隔阂是可以打破的。第二点,中国戏剧的一切动作和音乐等,完全是姿势化。所谓姿势化,就是一切的动作和音乐等都有固定的方式。例如动作有动作的方式,音乐有音乐的方式,这种种方式,可作为艺术上的字母,将各种不同的字母拼凑一起,就可成为一出戏。但是中国戏的演员们,都不被这种字母所束缚,他依旧可以发挥他在艺术上的天才与创造,《贵妃醉酒》就是其中代表作之一。第三点,中国(戏)未来之趋势必须现代化,并不一定是戏剧、本体的现代化,是要使剧中的心情和伦理成为现代化,如背景与灯光也可使其成为姿势化,使其有固定的方式来表现剧中各个情绪,这是中国戏剧今后可试验的途径。
这三点很有理论意义和实践价值,可以为中国的京剧传承发展,提供有益的启示。梅兰芳先生的理性阐述,根植于中华民族文艺理论的沃土之中,深入浅出、通俗易懂。这是一份难得的戏曲理论遗产,不仅对梅兰芳京剧表演理论体系的总结至关重要,而且丰富了中国戏曲表演理论体系,值得深入总结研究。
书画艺术
梅兰芳的画清丽秀雅、神形兼备,有深厚的艺术修养。在抗战时期蓄须铭志,曾以卖画为生计。梅兰芳先生的书法虽没有他的画出名,但是其书法功底深厚、清静隽秀。以行楷书为主,小楷尤精。小楷风格来源于《乐毅论》、《黄庭经》、《十三行》等二王小楷,并伴有唐人写经笔意。

人物评价

国内评价
梅兰芳之青衫亦为都中第一流人物,色艺之佳,早已名满都下二难兼并,必有特异之技艺以动人,观听者有梨园癖者自必联翩往观,第一台又将座物隙地矣。(申报)
他是个勤勉好学的演员,从青年时代起就认真钻研古典文学、国画、民族音乐、民族舞蹈、民俗学、音韵学和服饰学等多方面的祖国传统文化,并把这些知识融合到他的艺术中去,从而创造了大量优秀剧目,形成了具有独特风格、大家风范的艺术流派--梅派。(中国评论家、戏剧家梅绍武)
忽然听到梅兰芳同志病逝的消息。我们都黯然久之,热泪欲坠!我们之中,有的是梅大师的朋友,有的只看过他的表演,伤心却是一致辞的。谁都知道这是全国戏曲界的一个重大损失!(中国作家老舍
梅兰芳先生是世人景仰的京剧艺术大师,他创造的独树一帜“梅派”艺术,在国内外享有盛誉。他所取得的辉煌成就,给我们留下了弥足珍贵的艺术遗产,他为中国戏剧艺术做出的杰出贡献,将永载戏剧史册。梅先生属于世界、属于中国,更属于他的家乡泰州。(泰州市委书记蓝绍敏)
他之为人不但谦和,且极讲信用而仁慈,又自爱而讲气节。(戏曲理论家齐如山)
梅兰芳是“真正的演员,美的创造者”。(中国戏剧艺术家欧阳予倩)
国外评价
梅兰芳是所见过的最杰出的演员之一,纽约还从来没有见识过这样的演出。”纽约《世界报》
梅兰芳的哑剧表演和服装展示的演出真是精美优雅,可爱绝伦,美妙得就像中国古老的花瓶或是刺绣的帷幔。这是一次接触,与一种在数世纪中不可思议地圆熟起来的文化的接触。”美国《时代》
“几乎是一种超乎自然的发现,通过许多世纪,中国人建立了一种身体表情的技巧。”无论理解与误解,梅兰芳让美国人第一次见识了中国的京剧艺术。美国《太阳报》
梅兰芳的戏剧艺术并非完全没有现实主义的成分,它并不具有立体派绘画、抽象的阿拉伯装饰或几何舞蹈设计所具有的那种涵义。跟它确切相似的是中国绘画和雕刻。遗留在我们记忆里的是对他们的抽象画和装饰性的印象,但是我们往往对那种精确性感到惊讶,自然界,一片叶子,一束花朵,一只鸟,一只手,一件斗篷,都被观察得极为精确细致,同时我们也对它们那具有特征的细节所呈现的使人眼花缭乱的色彩缤纷标志感到惊奇。这种精确的标志绝妙地镶嵌在整个艺术之中,这种艺术臻于完美而理想”。他从中国艺术的写意性美学原则出发,在一定程度上厘清了西方人对中国戏曲的某种误读。(美国诗人、小说家、评论家斯达克·扬StarkYoung)
梅兰芳的到来,改变了长久以来西方对中国艺术所持的“异国情调”的说法,中国戏剧“有这样的悠久的历史”,非但没有走向僵化,在这些五光十色的固定形式之中,却跳动着生命盎然的脉搏。(苏联剧作家特烈杰亚柯夫)
梅兰芳的舞台动作——手的艺术表现力,他说:“我没有在舞台上看见过任何一个女演员,能像梅兰芳那样传神地表现出女性的特点。”此外,他还深深折服于梅兰芳“表演节奏的巨大力量”,相比之下,他感到苏联戏剧的“很多缺陷”。他认为梅兰芳在苏联的演出对苏联戏剧产生持续的“特殊影响”。(苏联戏剧导演梅耶荷德)

English Introduction

Experience in the early years
Twenty years Guangxu (1894), Mei Lanfang was born outside Beijing before Tieguai Li Xie Jie a family of Peking Opera house.
Twenty-five years Guangxu (1899), Mei Lanfang in Beijing near the alley to a private school.
Twenty-eight years Guangxu (1902), the official worship Wu Lingxian as a teacher to learn to learn Tsing Yi, the first play is "war" after the Pu pass, and learn "to", "Godson" there are about thirty three play. Often followed Qin Zhifen and Hu Ergeng learn Huadan play.
Thirty years Guangxu (1904) August 17th, Beijing "and building" theatre on the stage for the first time, workers played Huadan, weaver in "the palace of longevity, Queqiao oath" in secret.
Thirty-three years Guangxu (1907), the Mei Lanfang family moved to Caoyuan Lu from the alley, a formal "happy together". After joy into Ye Chunshan Mei Lanfang received as a disciple.
Thirty-four years Guangxu (1908) August 14th, mother Yang Changyu died after the family moved to whip Xiang headlines.
Qing Xuantong two years (1910), Mei Lanfang and Wang Minghua married. Start dove hobby.
Deductive career
Xuantong three years (1911), held in Beijing from all walks of life opera actor award, Mei Lanfang posted a chrysanthemum list, ranked third overall.
The first year of the Republic of China (1912), the first time Tan Xinpei and performers, "send" mulberry productions.
In two years (1913), he went to Shanghai for the first time in the show, four road junctions show the first new osmanthus "color floor" with "Yutang Chun", "walled Muke such as drama, in October 31st, Xu Shaoqing went to Shanghai for the first time in Shanghai to accept the invitation (the show is the first time Mei Lanfang left Beijing), in four new road at the first performance of Osmanthus" color "," building with Yutang Chun "and other plays, November 16th for the first time with the theater play with" walled Muke he is also the first time to sing the shaft play, he absorbed the Shanghai civilization drama, new stage, lighting, makeup, costume design improvement components, create a fashion after Beijing the drama "torn" waves. Began to study and learn the new chamber opera. Family moved to Beijing whip Lane three.
In three years (1914) in January, Qingfeng hall and Wang Huifang worship Chen Delin as a teacher. And Qiao Huilan, Li Shoushan, Chen Jialiang has learned from the study of Kunqu opera. From the road, Wang Yaoqing learned to play sambo. From July to October, in the "Yi Wen" initially tried to compose a new fashion "torn" waves. Mei Lanfang reformed the makeup, hair hand. The same year, again to Shanghai, show "Wuhuadong", "true Pan Jinlian", "Drunken Beauty" and other masterpiece, sing for more than a month.
In four years (1915) in April 10th, creating new fashion shows staged "Huan tide in Beijing auspicious garden". In April 16th, Beijing auspicious Park staged creating fashion plays "Deng Xiagu", October 31st, in Beijing auspicious Park debut costume drama "Moon" creation. The first use of the spotlight in the Beijing opera stage, Mei Lanfang took the role of lighting a step forward, Mei Lanfang began to study painting, painting teacher painter Wang rose white. Since then, and met the painter Chen Shiceng, Kim Gongbei, father of Yao Mang, and so on, such as, such as, and so on, and so on, and so on, and so on, the father of the artist, such as the father of the. At the same time and agreed with the collector Zhu Yian, wide view painting and artifacts.
In five years (1916) in January 14th, Beijing staged drama creation "auspicious garden Daiyu", in April 19th to 21 in Beijing, creating new fashion "auspicious staged a wisp of hemp". The same year, the third Shanghai, singing 45 days.
In six years (1917), Mei Lanfang created the myth of the musical "The heavenly maids scatter blossoms.".
In seven years (1918), Mei Lanfang moved to Shanghai, the show "Peony Pavilion". The same year creating performance, "Ma Gu Xian Shou" "red box" pirates.
In eight years (1919), Yu Shuyan will do for his mother's birthday in the second temple, Mei Lanfang as Lv Bu performed at this stage. April to May, should be invited to the Japanese Imperial Theater, with the HI group Club Visit to Japan for performances. Has the performance in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, December modern industrialist Zhang Jian invited to Jiangsu for the first time in Nantong.
In nine years (1920), the first shot silent movie "maid trouble learning".
Republic of China ten years (1921), at the beginning, with Yang Xiaolou Cooperation Organization "Lin Lin club" troupe. At the end of the year, married Fuzhi fang.
In eleven years (1922 February 15th), in Beijing the first stage Premiere of "new creation" from October 15th to November 22nd Farewell to My Concubine, Hongkong Pacific theater invitation rate "Cheng Hua agency" company of more than 140 people in Hong Kong.
In twelve years (1923), the first increase in the accompaniment of Erhu in the Peking Opera, the opera music is more abundant, in November at the Beijing theatre on the creation of new enlightened "Luo", in November at the Beijing theatre drama creation of "low light" Jinfeng.
Thirteen years of the Republic of China (1924 May), apartment in Beijing received the India famous scholar, poet and writer Tagore. After the end of the show, Tagore a poem in Bengali, and personally translated into English to Mei Lanfang. Later, by the Peking University master Bengali Wu Xiaoling, Professor stone really original poem translated into Chinese vernacular poetry. October 9th to November 22nd, Mei Lanfang should be invited by the president of the imperial theatre of Japan, the second visit to japan. Successively in Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto and other places performances.
In fourteen years (1925), the two, the creation of new head "swordsman" too true.

In fifteen years (1926), three of the four, the creation of new drama "too true swordsman" in Sweden, the royal couple Beijing Dongcheng unlimited access to adult Hu Tongmei house reception.
In sixteen years (1927), was named the "four famous Peking Opera" the first, creating new "Jun" by the banker's, Feng Gengguang witnesses, Mei Lanfang married Meng Xiaodong.
In seventeen years (1928) in April 6th, in Beijing and creating new "nest" theater premiere, summer in Beijing staged the drama "full" cosmical second times to go to Hongkong to perform. In the same year, Mei Lanfang visited the United States before visiting the show Hu Shi.
In nineteen years (1930) from January 18th to July, the rate of "Cheng Hua" troupe part of the actors by the Japanese Yokohama, Vitoria, Canada to the United States performances. In Seattle, Chicago, Washington, New York, San Francisco, Losangeles, Santiago, Honolulu and other performances for 72 days, the United States took the old school of University of Southern Calif, were awarded a doctorate in honor of Mei Lanfang literature.
In twenty years (1931) in May, with Yu Shuyan, Qi Rushan, Zhang Boju and others founded "Opera Institute", the third led a delegation to Hongkong to perform, the same year Meng Xiaodong and dissolution of marriage.
In twenty-one years (1932), Mei Lanfang moved from Beijing to Shanghai.
In twenty-two years (1933) in Shanghai, creating a new stage Tianchan "anti Jinbing".
In twenty-four years (1935) from February 21st to April 21st, the rate troupe visited the Soviet Union performances. In the Soviet Union has met with drama master Stan Nirav J Ki, Bly Hitt, from April to August to Poland, Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Britain and other countries for theatrical investigation. After Egypt, India return.
In twenty-five years (1936) in February 26th in Shanghai, creating a new Tianchan stage "life and death".
In twenty-seven years (1938) at the beginning of the year, with families and staff again went to Hongkong to perform theater play. The whole family to stay in Hongkong.
In thirty years (1941), beard Mingzhi, celebrity stage.
In thirty-one years (1942) in summer, from Hongkong to return to Shanghai. Since then, close the gate and shut out visitors.
In thirty-four years (1945) in October, again on stage, Meggie in Shanghai Grand Theater and the Yu Zhenfei Orchestra of the opera "broken bridge", "Peony Pavilion" and other operas.
Thirty-seven years of the Republic of China (1948) from June to November, shooting in Shanghai Lianhua factory three color film "life and death".
Literature and art work
In 1949, the United States won the honorary doctorate of literature Pomona College and University of Southern California. July, attended the first National Congress of literary and art workers, in September 30th, was elected to the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee, in October 1st, attended the inauguration ceremony of People's Republic of China and the Central People's government.
In April 1951, Mei Lanfang was appointed dean of Chinese Opera Research Institute in July, the family moved back to Beijing from Shanghai, settled Gokokuji Street No. 1. (present Mei Lanfang Memorial Hall)
December 1952, attended the world peace conference in Austria, Vienna, and the Soviet Union famous dance master Ulanova met in Beijing.
In October 1953, Mei Lanfang was elected vice president of Chinese dramatists association.
September 1954, Mei Lanfang was elected the first National People's Congress of People's Republic of China.
In January 1955, Mei Lanfang was appointed dean of Peking Opera China, April, the Ministry of culture, Chinese Federation, Dramatists Association Mei Lanfang Zhou Xinfang Chinese jointly held the stage 50 years celebration, February - August film "Mei Lanfang" stage art opera films produced in December.
From May 26, 1956 to July 16th, the Japanese Asahi Shimbun and other organizations invited Premier Zhou Enlai in direct care and help, build the most powerful lineup of the Peking Opera delegation, headed by Mei Lanfang. This is Mei Lanfang's third visit to japan. Successively in Tokyo, Kyushu, Osaka, Kyoto, Nagoya and other places to perform.
April 15, 1957, the Beijing Municipal People's committee appointed Mei Lanfang head of Mei troupe. In June 7th, Helge, President of the International Dance Association, came to Beijing to award the medal of honor to the president of the. July 9th, Mei Lanfang served as Dean of Academy of Chinese Traditional Opera.
Life in old age
In May 25, 1959, creating new drama staged "Mu Guiying command" in Beijing people's Theatre, joined the Communist Party China.
January 21, 1960, "Peony Pavilion" color film filmed, April 15th, Beijing City People's committee appointed Mei Lanfang Mei troupe.
In May 31, 1961, China Academy of Sciences for scientists performing "Mu Guiying command", this is the last time Mei Lanfang performed in stage career in July 9th, Mei Lanfang was appointed president of the Academy of Chinese Traditional Opera, August 8th 5 am, Mei Lanfang died in Beijing at the age of 67.

grandfather
Mei Qiaoling, the famous Peking opera performing artist Dan Xianfeng years, alcohol and Doka Ro, Tongzhi years De Ji self king and church, for fame, among the thirteen light is vast, Sixi combo troupe.
parent
Father Mei Mingrui, the word bamboo fern, nicknamed two locks, formerly Peking Opera actor, after the actress, king and hall two master, due to weak lung disease after death.
Mother Yang Longshou's eldest daughter.
uncle
Mei Yutian (lock), Peking Opera performer Mei Lanfang, after his father's death by raising adult uncle.
Wife
Wang Minghua, born Peking Opera family, married in 1910. After marriage, Wang Minghua gave birth to two children, then children died, after Wang Minghua was not in Tianjin to recuperate.
Fuzhi Fang, Peking Opera actors, a Manchu family was born in Beijing in 1921, Mei Lanfang married his wife ping.
Meng Xiaodong, Peking Opera actor, and Mei Lanfang married in 1927, divorced in 1933, 1949, she left Shanghai to settle in Hongkong, Du Yuesheng met and married the following year. 1967 moved to Taipei, died in 1977.
children
Fuzhi Fang and Mei Lanfang produced nine children, but only four of adults are Mei Baochen, Mei Baozhen, Mei Baoyue, Mei Baojiu.
His successor
Mei Mei Lanfang sent his disciples and descendants are: Cheng Yanqiu, Wei Lianfang, Li Shifang, Liu Yuantong, Zhang Junqiu, Du Jinfang, Ding Zhiyun, Luo Huilan, Huizhu Yan, Gu Zhengqiu, Yang Ronghuan, Mei Baojiu, Shen Xiaomei, Chen Zhengwei, Yang Qiuling, Zhang Chunqiu, Li Yufu, Li Bingshu, Xia Huihua, Li Jingwen, Yang Baorong, Li Shengsu, Dong Yuanyuan, Wei Haimin, Zhang Jing, Liang Weiling, Li Jie, Wang Yan Guo Ruiyue, Zhang Xinyue, etc..
The inheritance and development of Mei Baojiu's son Mei Lanfang committed to the Mei School of art, culture, Dong Yuanyuan, Zhang Jing etc. Li Shengsu Mei school students.

Music for voices in a Chinese Opera
Mei Lanfang's singing and mellow, emotional implication. Because his voice is high, wide and clear mellow sweet and crisp ready, so full of extremely pure tone, singing never Jincaishiqi remain calm, calm manner, no sound is discouraged. His singing is basically from the traditional singing, but without a cavity but by their traditional copy, embellish cavity and cavity of the with calm implicit charm of the Mei School of singing, beautiful melodies, smooth and fluent. In every play, are combined with the expression of feelings of the characters and plot content demand, designed a lot of new style of singing, beautiful, beautiful happy, not to fancy fabric clever, but it is strange change win, mellow voice or spirited agitation of the melodious song, all from the heart sound, touching. Mei Lanfang's voice is bright, crisp, sweet, smooth, round and ready, the most rare is sweet and bright. Sweet but not wide, this is just a good voice, plum voice width, just right. Mei Lanfang in melody, five sharp sound. His style of singing, after becoming famous, can be said that neither cavity is not new, and not like the old cavity. Which is breaking the barriers of the "Southern coconut" singing, this is no predecessors, as in the "Southern Bangzi" and "cry" with "spring and Autumn", "Southern Bangzi" fast water and anti four level, such as "too true" swordsman "dance" and "bathing", more is the new plate cavity created by the Mei school.
perform
Mei Lanfang is good at singing, speaking, using facial expressions, gestures and dance skills, mental state character fleshes out the details. He uses artistic means natural and harmonious, lively, free and easy, trance, humanization, rhythmic and shaping beauty. His art is characterized in simplicity and luxurious, elegant with beautiful, modesty in Yun delight, enchanting generous.
Dance
Mei Lanfang in Peking Opera selection is a blend of old and new, in the tradition of its beauty and elegant and vulgar, leaving its essence to actively learn and absorb. Mei Lanfang created the "Mei faction" road, and other school creators, the first way to take the teacher, and then on the basis of the division, take their own innovative road. Mei faction biggest feature is no feature, seize a feature is difficult to grasp, exquisite is the beauty of the model, regardless of a move in a word, a cavity, vocal luck are stressed very standardized.
Mei Lanfang in the show "red box" in the "Pirates of dance" and "beauty" in the "feather dance", "" the birthday celebration "sleeve dance" and "Mulancongjun" in "halberd dance", "Si Fan" in the "wind dance", "" in the "anti Jinbing uniform dance" the anti imperial power, anti tyranny, anti aggression content repertoire, showing the struggle and resistance to oppress women suffering, ancient Chinese show Mei Lanfang, created Chinese ancient various female artistic talents. "The bay", he created a bitter guard cold kiln, the lost son of the "tiger" thorn as an understanding wife and loving mother, and he created a generation of master married risking his own life, revenge of the maid, "fish kill", he created an unbearable tyranny, rebelling the fishermen's daughter, "" he created a cosmical. A feigned madness, defy holy life mimocrys; "Rainbow Guan", he portrayed a Wu Yi high strength, love spoony woman; "Drunken Beauty", he created a fallen out of favour, a born beauty Palace concubine. In the Beijing Opera and Kunqu Opera in some classical martial arts and dance are reflected in many aspects of Mei Lanfang on the stage of skill and good at. Mei Lanfang plays Mu Guiying in his later years, bearing the heavy feeling, dignified, singing, art reach the peak of perfection is as the acme of perfection. His artistic style is not like the mid so rich in color and light and tend to be subtle, more rich inner charm. This marks his stage art reach the realm of perfection.
Makeup
Mei Lanfang carried out innovation on the role of Dan Dan North makeup, do not pay attention to painting, black eye, light strokes on the line. The film sticking part, is tall and wide, tend to stick into a square face, if the binbian posted a sharp expert called "big face". Head and a "Ciruye", which is the standard of the Tsing Yi costume. Mei Lanfang used Dan make-up method in the south, her eyes painted very black, with a hanging eyebrow, eyes look exceptionally good god. And according to personal face, in the appropriate parts posted on the film, the audience saw a beautiful feeling for the show adds luster. At the same time also open the door for the North Dan makeup.

Create the plum pie
Early formation of the plum school
In the early days of Peking Opera, a generation of older artists represented by Mei Qiaoling opened the chapter of Peking Opera male art. Mei Qiaoling initiated the Mei School of art, has made outstanding contributions to the improvement and development of the Peking Opera actor performing arts, has also become an important founder of the male Dan Mei school. To send second Daimei successor Mei Qiaoling's son Mei Zhufen inherited his father's good, inherited Mei Qiaoling's singing, he sent to art inheritance work may not.
The establishment of the plum school
In twentieth Century 20s and 30s, Sun Meilanfang may all the inheritance and development of the Mei School of art, the art of men once appeared "Mei Cheng Xun is" four famous in the history of Beijing opera, let the whole opera development has entered the peak period, which is an important symbol to prosperity of the Peking opera.
Mei Lanfang Jordan rippa also from the "Mei school" began, and in Mei Lanfang's speech at Peking Opera is "Dan", so Mei Lanfang is the first person Chinese Dan creative school.
The women in Peking Opera are collectively referred to as "Dan", according to the age of the person, which can be subdivided into a number of character and profession, and the identity of the woman as the great lady called "it is", it is commonly known as the "Yi" in Peking Opera, this is because it is the role of often wear blue gown named. Peking Opera "dou" in the heroine is a typical character of Tsing Yi dou. Tsing Yi show solemn and quiet, gentle and elegant, with vocals, generally speaking, Yi singing melodies, delicacy.
Mei Lanfang, through continuous efforts, finally in the Peking Opera actor art Dacheng, Tsing Yi, Dan, melting daomadan business as a furnace, creating a unique form of acting and singing, called "meischool", great influence.
Mei School of innovation
Mei Lanfang Mei School of Peking opera art innovation, not only is the China Chinese opera and opera art peak, but also ranked the world's three largest performing system of the development of the Mei School of art, since is to benefit from the opportunities of the times, at the time of the Beijing elite, the teahouse gathered, gathered in Mei Lanfang Zhui Yuxuan's "plum party" their long Hin, this grand, and the achievements of Mei Lanfang was the Mei School of art.
Fusion of art and Drama
Chinese drama in the clothing, props, costume, acting together can be said to be the painting, Mei Lanfang knew from painting should help to absorb nutrients drama. He studied painting and painting to some famous neighborhoods, including Qi Baishi, Qi Baishi and Mei Lanfang is very fond of drama. Qi Baishi to Mei Lanfang is also teacher also friend. Mei Lanfang, art and life, and interest together, let China into the traditional painting and calligraphy drama, expanded the field of art, while the original art will break the barriers, to create a new way, and the new things will spread abroad.
Inheritance of the Mei school
The life of Mei Lanfang, embodies the innovation and improvement of professionalism, he will be many in the field of art creation thought contained in the art of opera performances, the opera singing and performing arts Dan line perfect realm, become influential schools in dan. Form a unique artistic style. One of the most embodies the Mei School of art on behalf of drama "Farewell to My Concubine" "Drunken Beauty" "Mu Guiying command" etc..
So in the Mei School of art heritage, the son of Mei Lanfang Mei Baojiu, won his father's teachings and guidance, as leader of the Mei School of Peking opera art, an important female impersonators, inheritance and development of the work of Mei Baojiu is committed to the Mei School of art, deeply felt the importance of male Dan art heritage and urgent, and is actively trying.
Excellent successor in the Mei School of art in Huwenge was recognized as the leader in the Mei School of Peking Opera back young female impersonators in. He learned from artists such as Mei Baojiu, Mei Baojiu worship as a teacher. Follow Mei Baojiu learning process, he inherited the art of Mei faction, showing the charm of male art, for Mei faction art, male Dan art inheritance and development, contribute their own strength.
Drama theory
The life of Mei Lanfang is mainly engaged in Beijing, Kunming performances, creating a number of fashion show and costume drama, finishing a number of traditional opera, such as "prison", "Yuanyang", the official "Deng Xiagu", "Ray Ma", "the moon lady" etc.. His contribution to Chinese opera is various, and his contribution to opera theory is only one side.
Mei Lanfang puts forward three points of Chinese drama". The first point is that the estrangement between western drama and Chinese drama can be broken. Second, all movements and music of Chinese drama, is completely postural. The so-called posture, is all the action and music have a fixed way. For example, action mode of action, music is music, this way, as the art of letters, the various letters together together, can become a play. But China drama actors are not bound by this letter, he can still play his genius in art and creation, "Drunken Beauty" is one of the representative one. Third, Chinese (play) the trend in the future to modernization, is not necessarily a drama, the ontology of modernization, is to make the mood and ethics become modernization, such as background light and also can make it become the fixed position, the way to express the various emotions, which is a way to Chinese drama in the future test.

These three points are of theoretical and practical value, which can provide beneficial enlightenment for the development of Chinese opera. Mr. Mei Lanfang described the rational, rooted in the fertile soil of Chinese literary theory, simple and easy to understand. This is a rare heritage of traditional opera theory, not only for Mei Lanfang Peking opera performance theory system is very important, but also enrich the Chinese opera performance theory system, it is worth summing up research.
Art of painting and calligraphy
Mei Lanfang's paintings are beautiful and fair, both God shaped, with profound artistic accomplishment. In the period of Anti Japanese war had a beard, to sell the painting for a living. Mr Mei Lanfang is not his famous calligraphy painting, but his calligraphy skills, quiet juanxiu. With the example of the main characters, especially fine. The small style from theory "," Yue "Huang Ting Jing", "Thirteen elements" such as Wang Xiao Kai, accompanied by written by Tang italy.

Domestic evaluation
Mei Lanfang: for first class characters, color art is good, already full are two difficult mergers, there will be specific skills to view the listener moving, Liyuan pedophiles will flock to the view, the first building will play. (Declaration)
He is a diligent actor, from his youth to seriously study classical literature, Chinese painting, folk music, folk dance, folklore, phonology and clothing and other aspects of the science of traditional Chinese culture, and put the knowledge into his art, thereby creating a large amount of outstanding plays, has formed a unique the style and genre of Art - Mei School of great ingenuity. (Chinese critic and dramatist Mei Shaowu)
Comrade Mei Lanfang died suddenly heard the news. We have had for a long time, tears falling! Among us, some are plum master's friends, some only saw his performance, sad is a speech. Everyone knows that this is a major loss in the National Opera circles! (Chinese writer Lao She)
Mr. Mei Lanfang is a respected opera art master, become an independent school "he created the Mei School of art, renowned at home and abroad. He has made brilliant achievements, leaving us a precious artistic heritage, he made outstanding contributions to Chinese drama art, will forever carry drama history. Mr. Mei belongs to the world, belongs to China, more belongs to his hometown Taizhou. (Taizhou municipal Party committee secretary Lan Shaomin)
He is not only very modest, and honesty and kindness, and love and integrity. (Drama theorist Qi Rushan)
Mei Lanfang is the real actor, the creator of beauty". (Chinese drama artist Ouyang Yuqian)
Foreign evaluation
"Mei Lanfang is one of the most outstanding actors ever seen, and New York has never seen such a performance before." New York "world news"
"Mei Lanfang's pantomime and clothing display performance is really exquisite and lovely wonderful peerless, like China ancient vase or embroidery. This is the first contact, and a number of century to the unbelievable cultural contact mellow." Time of the United States
"Almost an unnatural discovery, through centuries, the Chinese have developed a technique of physical expression." Regardless of understanding and misunderstanding, Mei Lanfang let Americans first experience Chinese opera art. The United States, "the sun"
"Mei Lanfang's dramatic art is not totally without realism, it does not have the meaning of Cubist painting, abstract Arabia decoration or geometric dance design. Exactly like it is Chinese painting and sculpture. We left in the memory of their abstract painting and decorative impression, but we tend to feel that the exact nature, surprise, a leaf, a flower, a bird, a hand and a cloak, was observed very accurately, at the same time we have for them it is characterized by the details presented by the dazzling colorful sign of surprise. This precise sign is perfectly embedded in the whole art, which is perfect and ideal ". Starting from the impressionistic aesthetic principle of Chinese art, he clarifies the Western misreading of Chinese opera to some extent. (American poet, novelist and critic stark young StarkYoung)
The arrival of Mei Lanfang, changed for a long time on the western Chinese art "exotic", "Chinese drama has such a long history, not only did not go rigid, fixed in the form of the resplendent with variegated coloration beating, with the pulse of life. (especially strong Soviet playwright Ke Fu Jr)
Mei Lanfang's stage movement, artistic expression, the hand he said: "I have not seen any actress on the stage, like Mei Lanfang can vividly show the characteristics of women." In addition, he was also deeply impressed by Mei Lanfang's "rhythm great power", in contrast, many defects he felt Soviet drama "". He thought that Mei Lanfang's performance in the Soviet Union had a "special influence" on Soviet drama ". (Meelho De, Soviet drama director)

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