王致诚

王致诚(Jean Denis Attiret,1702-1768),天主教耶稣会传教士,法国人,自幼学画于里昂,后留学罗马。工油画人物肖像。清乾隆三年(1738)来中国,献《三王来朝耶稣图》,乾隆时受召供奉内廷。初绘西画,然不为清帝所欣赏,后学中国绘画技法,参酌中西画法,别立中西折中之新体,曲尽帝意,乃得重视。与郎世宁、艾启蒙、安德义合称四洋画家,形成新体画风。
乾隆十九年奉命至承德避暑山庄为蒙古族厄鲁特部首领作油画肖像,二十三年曾制作紫光阁武功图中《阿尔楚尔之战》图。传世作品有《十骏图》册,纸本,设色,纵24.2厘米,横29.1厘米,画乾隆帝之坐骑,用笔工细缜密,注重解剖结构,造型准确,形态生动,富有立体感和皮毛质感,现藏故宫博物院。

 

  • 中文名王致诚
  • 外文名Jean Denis Attiret
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生日期1702
  • 逝世日期1768
  • 信仰天主教
  • 职业天主教耶稣会传教士
  • 代表作品《十骏图册》
  • 所属年代清代
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绘画作品

十骏马图册
《十骏马图册》,纸本设色,全册共十开,每页幅面24.2cm×29.1cm,是法国画家王致诚唯一署有名款的传世作品,现藏于北京故宫博物院。
该画册精绘了乾隆皇帝的十匹由西域进呈的坐骑,它们分别是万吉骦、阚虎骝、狮子玉、霹雳骧、雪点雕、自在驹、奔雪驰、赤花鹰、英骥子、蹑云驶。手法精致工整,外轮廓用线条勾出,再敷色隐去线迹,质感鲜明。马匹的肌肤皆合解剖,姿态闲雅安适,富有活力,体现了画家对马匹个性的认识和精湛的艺术表现力。每页中的山水、树石配景均采用中国传统笔墨技法,堪称中西合璧之作,实为千古一绝。画上有作者款“臣王致诚恭绘”,钤白文、朱文印各一方。每页均有满文榜题,钤有清“乾隆鉴赏”、“三希堂精鉴玺”、“太上皇帝”、“宝笈重编”等印。
王致诚(1702—1768),法国人,是天主教耶稣会传教士。自幼学习里昂,后留学罗马,工油画人物肖像。乾隆三年(公元1738年)来中国,供奉内廷,死后葬于北京正福寺法国传教士墓地,与郎世宁艾启蒙安德义合称四大洋画家,形成新体画风。其传世作品还有《三王礼拜耶稣图》、起草的铜版组画《乾隆平定准部回部战图》的部分底稿等。
 

万树园赐宴图

【名称】清 王致诚 万树园赐宴图
【年代】清代
【简介】绢本,纵221.2厘米,横419.6厘米。故宫博物院藏。
画的内容反映了1754年乾隆在避暑山庄万树园接见三策凌的壮观场面。漠西蒙古在明末称厄鲁特,分准噶尔、和硕特、杜尔伯特和土尔扈特四部。四部中以准噶尔部势力最强大。乾隆十年(1745年),准噶尔贵族内部展开了争夺汗位的斗争。杜尔伯特部也被迫参加了这场混战,乾隆十八年(1753年),达瓦齐夺得准噶尔汗伉后起兵,对在夺权斗争中持观望态度的杜尔伯特部进行报复,在部族危亡的时刻,部长策凌台吉、策凌乌巴什、策凌孟 蒙古族杜尔伯特部在首领“三车凌”(即车凌、车凌乌巴什、车凌孟克)率领卜于乾隆十九年(175)来归。乾隆听到这一消息后非常高兴,十分重视,接济大量的牲畜粮食,解决杜尔伯特部众的生活困难,并编设旗分佐。
次年创作此图,描绘乾隆皇帝在承德避暑山庄万树园设宴招待“三车凌”等人的情景。画上气氛庄严肃穆,乾隆皇帝坐在步辇上缓缓进入宴会场地,被接见的杜尔伯特部首领及文武官员在旁跪迎。乾隆皇帝分别册封他们为亲王、郡王、贝勒、贝子的称号及爵位,并赏赐金银工艺品、玉器、瓷器'绢帛等物。因画上书款处绢脱落,作画者已不能确指,但从画风及档桉记载可知,郎世宁王致诚及部分中国画家参加了绘製工作。对照真人写生,收集素材,历时一年才完成。画幅完成后亦悬挂在承德避暑山庄卷阿胜境殿内,与马术图相对,一动一静。在构图上也有新的突破和创造。两幅图中的乾隆皇帝,都并不在画幅的正中,而是偏在一旁,归顺的蒙古族首领反而居于画面中央,可见乾隆皇帝对他们来归的重视;另外,画家在这几幅作品中,并不是依靠将皇帝的形象画得比其他人更大,体魄更魁伟,以此来突出他的尊贵地位,画中乾隆皇帝形象的大小基本与其他人一样,这与中国此前将皇帝的形象画得远远要大过臣民百姓的做法有很明显的区别。

English is introduced

Jean-Jacques (Jean Denis Attiret, 1702-1768), Catholic Jesuit missionaries, the French, since childhood to learn painting in Lyon, after studying in Rome. Oil painting portrait. Qing Emperor Qianlong three years (1738) to China, offer "three kings to Jesus map", Qianlong was called to worship the inner court. Western painting, but not for the appreciation of the Qing emperor, after learning Chinese painting techniques, taking into account the Chinese and Western painting, do not set up a compromise between the new body, the best of the Emperor, is important. And Lang Shining, Ai Qimeng, Ande Yi collectively known as the four foreign painters, the formation of new style.
Qianlong nineteen years was ordered to Chengde Mountain Resort for the Mongolian leader of Oulut oil painting portraits, twenty-three years had made Ziguang Court martial arts figure in the "Arzur battle" map. The masterpieces of the "Ten Heroes" are in the form of "Ten Horses", which are in the form of paper and color. They are 24.2cm in length and 29.1cm in width. They are painted in the Qianlong emperor's armor. They are careful and careful in their anatomical structure. They are accurate in shape, vivid, rich in three-dimensional feeling and fur. Texture, is the possession of the National Palace Museum.

Artwork

Ten Horse Atlas
"Ten Horse Atlas", the paper color, the book a total of ten open, each page format 24.2cm × 29.1cm, is the only French painter Wang Zhicheng Department of famous works handed down, now hidden in the Beijing Palace Museum.
The album depicts the ten emperors of the Qianlong emperor from the Western Regions. They are Wanji, Kanhu, Monkey, Lion, Thunderbolt, Snowdrop, Horse, Benchi, Chihuahua, Yingji Cloud driving. Manipulation neatly neat, the outline of the line with the hook out, and then deposited color hidden stitching, texture and distinct. The skin of the horses is anatomical, the posture is quiet and comfortable, full of vitality, reflects the artist's understanding of horse personality and exquisite artistic expression. Each page of the landscape, tree and stone are used traditional Chinese ink painting techniques, called the Chinese and Western, as a real eternity. There are paintings on the author, "Wang Zhi-Gong Wang painted", seal white, Zhu Wenyin the party. Each page has Manchu chart questions, Qian Qing "Qianlong Appreciation", "three Xi Tang Jing Xi Xi", "too on the emperor", "Bao Ji re-edited" and India.
Wang Zhicheng (1702-1768), a Frenchman, a Catholic Jesuit missionary. Lyon since childhood, after studying in Rome, working oil portrait portraits. Qianlong three years (AD 1738) to China, dedicated to the inner court, buried in Beijing after the death of the French missionary cemetery, and Lang Shining, Ai Qimeng, Ande Yi collectively four ocean painter, the formation of new style. His handed down works are "three weeks of Jesus Christ", the drafting of the copperplate group painting "Qianlong Pingbian quasi-Ministry of the Ministry of war plans" part of the draft and so on.

Million tree garden to give feast chart

[Name] Qing Wang Zhicheng million tree garden gift chart
[] Qing Dynasty
【Introduction】 silk, 221.2 cm vertical, horizontal 419.6 cm. National Palace Museum.
The contents of the painting reflect the 1754 Qianlong in the Mountain Resort million trees received three Ling Ling spectacular scenes. Desert Mongolia in the late Ming called E Rute, sub-Junggar, Heshuo, Duerbote and Tuerhute four. Junggar in the four forces in the most powerful. Ten years of Qianlong (1745), the Junggar aristocracy started the struggle for the sweat bit. Duerbet was also forced to participate in this scuffle, eighteen years of Qianlong (1753), Dawazi won the Junggar Khan husband after the troops, in the struggle to seize power in the sidelines of the Duerbote retaliation , At the moment of tribal peril, the Minister Cailing Lingji, Chelingbaibashi, policy Ling Meng Mongolian Duerbote in the leader of the "three-car Ling" (car Ling, car Lingbashi, car Ling Meng And led to the reign of Emperor Qianlong (nineteen years). Qianlong very pleased to hear the news, attaches great importance to help a large number of livestock food, to solve the Duerbote tribal life difficulties, and the establishment of flag points.
The following year the creation of this map, depicting the Qianlong Emperor in Chengde Mountain Resort million trees park hosted a banquet "three cars Ling" and others. The atmosphere was solemn and solemn, the Emperor Qianlong sitting on the step chariot slowly into the banquet venue, met with the Duerbote ministry chiefs and civil and military officials in the next kneeling. Emperor Qianlong of the emperor were able to canonize their titles for the Prince, the king, Baylor, shells and title, and reward gold and silver handicrafts, jade, porcelain 'silk and other objects. Because of the painting, the silk is falling off, and the painter can no longer point to it. However, from the records of paintings and archives, Lang Shining, Wang Zhicheng and some Chinese painters took part in the drawing work. The real painting, to collect material, which lasted a year to complete. After the completion of the frame is also suspended in the Chengde Mountain Resort A Shengjing inside the hall, and the equestrian figure relative, a dynamic one. In the composition also has a new breakthrough and creation. The two Qianlong emperors in the picture, not in the middle of the frame, but rather aside, the submission of the Mongolian leader but living in the center of the screen, we can see the Emperor Qianlong to their return to the attention; In addition, the painter in these works, and Not to rely on the image of the emperor to draw more than others, the body is more burly, in order to highlight his distinguished position, the size of the Qianlong Emperor image of the basic and others, as with the Chinese image of the emperor had painted Far greater than the practice of people have a very obvious difference.

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