王石谷

 康熙三十年(1691),大师王石谷(王翚,字石谷1632-1717年,清初“四王”之一)其山水画源于家学,后受到王鉴和王时敏的指导。他学习古人的范围较广,从元四家到宋人的大青绿山水都有涉猎。

人物关系
  • 中文名王石谷
  • 别名耕烟散人、乌目山人、清晖主人
  • 性别
  • 国籍清朝
  • 出生地江苏常熟
  • 出生日期1632年
  • 逝世日期1717年
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《山水图》
人物简介

 王翚(1632-1717),字石谷,号耕烟散人、乌目山人、清晖主人等。师王鉴王时敏,临摹宋、元名迹,吸取名家技法,治为一炉。是清代著名画家,被称为清初画圣。是清初“四王”中技法比较全面,成就比较突出的一位。曾受清康熙帝之命主绘《南巡图》。画成,由皇太子胤礽亲书赐“山水清晖”匾额,声名益着。晚年的山水画,在简练中求苍茫﹔偶画花卉,秀隽有致。有“画圣”之誉。与同时代的画家太仓王时敏王鉴王原祁并称“四王”;合吴历恽寿平,世称“清六家”。其画风影响后代。

王石谷进京主持绘制康熙六下江南的二百米长卷。七年后,他回到故乡常熟虞山。虞山的耕烟草堂,“宅临流水,门对青山,花鸟追随,烟云供养,”王石谷作画草堂,白发满头,一天又一天。面对宋元绘画,王石谷空对销魂“平生最爱云林子(倪云林)。”他说,元人胸中真无一点俗气。他与恽寿平论笔谈墨几十昼夜,醉酒歌呼,解衣盘礴,他作《山水图》,恽寿平题跋。梅花开了,子惠弹三弦,他和杨晋合作《看梅图》。有时他去破山寺见山僧。作为摹古而创新的集大成者,周亮工说他是“百年以来第一人”(《读画录》),吴伟业称“画有南北宗,至石谷而合焉”。(《梅村诗笺编年》)他画“帘卷西窗浪接天”,笔墨古淡,气韵萧爽,一叶扁舟漂泊远山尽头,画面却不着一点风浪。旧时常熟虞山,青山绿水,是他最后的浪漫。

人物经历

 大师王石谷山水画源于家学,后受到王鉴王时敏的指导。他学习古人的范围较广,从元四家到宋人的大青绿山水都有涉猎,在四王中,王石谷是个真正的职业画家,而其他三位都有为官做宰的经历。他之所以在画坛被推为画圣,主要是因为他的画艺,当然这和他主持绘制了《康熙南巡图》有一定的关系。他的山水画是四王之中技法最全面的画家,同文人画的逸笔草草不同,他的画无一不是精心构思,恭笔为之。对那些粗俗丑怪的江湖派的画风是有一定纠正作用。《山水图》就是他学习元人山水的代表作。

王(辉)出身于文人世家,祖上五世均善画,王(辉)自幼也喜爱绘画,曾拜同乡张珂为师,经常为画商摹制假古画出售,20岁时已具有极高的仿古能力。他的才能被王鉴发现,收为弟子,又介绍给王时敏,遂得到二王指授,并拿出家藏珍品让他临摹,王(辉)画艺又有大进。40岁左右已成为一代大家,时人称为“画圣”、“海内第一”。60岁时,他由王原祁推荐,被康熙召幸,作《南巡图》。《康熙南巡图卷》共十二大卷,堪称王(辉)创作画中的钜制,画面自京城永定门开始,至绍兴大禹庙,再经金陵回京城,沿途城乡风光、社会生活、山川景色以及康熙南巡时的盛况,安排得井然有序,又富于穿插变化,场面之浩繁,内容之丰富,笔墨之多样,实为清代手卷中的宏篇,可以看出王(辉)驾驭场景的高超能力。

王(辉)因作此画而名声日隆,一时求画者挤破门。此后王(辉)作画就不象以前认真了,应付之画甚多。后人学他风格者很多,形成“虞山派”。

人物评价

 师王鉴王时敏,临摹宋、元名迹,吸取名家技法,治为一炉。曾受清康熙帝之命主绘《南巡图》。画成,御赐“山水清晖”匾额,声名益着。晚年的山水画,在简练中求苍茫﹔偶画花卉,秀隽有致。有“画圣”之誉。与同时代的画家太仓王时敏王鉴王原祁并称“四王”;合吴历恽寿平,世称“清六家”。其画风影响后代。

王石谷墓

 在西门外程家桥,为清朝王翚之墓。王翚,字石谷,号耕烟散人、乌目山人、剑门樵客,晚号清晖主人。江苏常熟人。清代著名画家。王石谷独创了兼蓄南北二宗的写意山水画,创立了影响中国画坛三百年的"虞山画派"。他的《南巡图》、《长江万里图》、《秋山草堂图》等都是清代艺术杰作。墓碑刻有“清画圣王石谷先生之墓”十字,系翁同龢所书。

Introduction to the artist

 Wang Fei (1632-1717), the word Shigu, the number of farming smoke scattered people, Wumushan people, Qinghui master and so on. Shiwang Jian and Wang Shimin imitated the famous places of Song and Yuan Dynasty, absorbed the techniques of famous scholars, and treated them as one stove. He was a famous painter in the Qing Dynasty, and was called a painting saint in the early Qing Dynasty. He was one of the "Four Kings" in the early Qing Dynasty who had comprehensive skills and outstanding achievements. He was appointed by Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty to draw the Southern Tour Map. Painted, the plaque "landscape clear" was given by Prince Xu's relative book, which is of great fame and benefit. Landscape paintings in old age seek vastness in conciseness; occasional flowers are delicate and meaningful. It has the reputation of "painting saint". With the contemporary painters Taicang Wang Shimin, Wang Jian and Wang Yuanqi, they are called "Four Kings". They are called "Six Schools of the Qing Dynasty" in combination with Wu Li and Yun Shouping. His style of painting influenced the future generations.

 

Wang Shigu went to Beijing and presided over the drawing of the 200-meter-long roll of Kangxi's Six Lowers to the South of the Yangtze River. Seven years later, he returned to his hometown, Yushan, Changshu. Yushan tobacco farming hall, "house facing running water, door to green hill, flowers and birds follow, smoke and cloud support," Wang Shigu painting hall, white hair, day after day. Facing the painting of Song and Yuan Dynasty, Wang Shigukong had a deep love for Yunlin (Ni Yunlin) in his life. He said that there was no vulgarity in the minds of the Yuan people. He talked with Yun Shouping about writing for dozens of days and nights. He was drunk, singing and unloading his clothes. He wrote Landscape Map and Yun Shouping's postscripts and postscripts. Plum blossoms blossom and Buhui plays three strings. He cooperates with Yang Jin in Seeing Plum Tu. Sometimes he goes to see monks in the mountain monastery. As a master of imitation and innovation, Zhou Lianggong said that he was "the first person in a hundred years" ("Reading Pictures"), Wu Weiye said that "painting has the Southern and Southern Sects, to Shigu and Yan". (The Chronicle of Meicun Poetry Notes) He painted "Curtain Roll, West Window Wave Connecting the Sky". His brush and ink were ancient and light, and his breath was refreshing. A flat boat drifted at the end of a distant mountain, but there was no wind and waves in the picture. Old Changshu Yushan, green mountains and rivers, is his last romance.

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