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萧谦中

萧谦中(1883-1944)原名萧逊,字谦中,号大龙山樵。安徽安庆市杨桥镇龙山村人。早年师从姜筠学习山水画,成绩显著。后出游西南、东北名胜,行万里路,开阔艺术视野。1921年重返北京,广泛涉猎历代名家作品,深得传统艺术精华,尤醉心石涛龚贤梅清。1920年与周肇祥、金城、陈师曾等人发起成立中国画学研究会。曾任教北京美术专科学校及中国画学研究会。

人物关系
  • 中文名萧谦中
  • 别名萧逊
  • 性别
  • 民族
  • 祖籍安徽安庆桐城
  • 出生日期1883
  • 逝世日期1944
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《萧龙樵山水精品二十四帧》、《课徒画稿》
  • 所属年代民国
  • 谦中
  • 大龙山樵
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荣宝斋藏品欣赏——萧谦中

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

摘要:《山水册》十二开之一纸本设色、水墨纵一七·二厘米横二五厘米创作年代:一九四四年题识:古木积雪冰槎丫。龙樵萧愻。钤印:龙樵(朱文一)萧郎萧谦中萧谦中(一八八三—一九四四)名愻,号龙...
人物经历

在上个世纪初,整个国家都处于一种极度的不平衡状态,外国的月亮在那个时候当然是又圆又大的,就算有人提出疑问,也会被要求拿出证据来,其实这只是一个说辞,跟法律上人人平等的口号差不多,你有证据甚至还不如没有证据,举国都沉溺于西方科技文化的时候,你站出来反对,不是被唾沫淹死就是被行政扼杀,这其实是一种大势,不是个人力量可以反抗的。所以,齐白石的成功是一个非常特别的例子,不具有典型性。而萧谦中,作为那个时代文人画家的一个代表,他的经历,却具有典型性特征,真正能说明为什么传统绘画会在那个时候衰落如风中之烛,随时可灭的样子。
        曾几何时,萧谦中是一个可以与齐白石张大千陈师曾金城等人齐名的人,但时至今日,知道他的人,除了专业人士,恐怕十无一二了。但这并不能足以证明萧谦中的艺术水平不高,我们应该认识到,这里面固然有他们人世沧桑的因素,个人才情的问题,但更多还是因为一个大的社会趋势所导致的。萧谦中生于安庆,1883年,年轻的时候来到北京,被地方名家姜筠看中,又因两人算是亲戚,故收做入室弟子。但据说因为姜先生流连于打麻将,常常令萧代笔,可惜两个人没有清朝画家罗聘金农的融洽合作精神,不能“师借门生得画钱,门生画亦赖师传,”大概姜筠打麻将的技术比较烂,所以经常克扣萧的分成,于是萧出走京城十数年,在32岁左右回京。之后一直在北京作为职业画家生存,一段时间之内,他的润格甚至高出齐白石很多,说明还是比较有名的。1944年卒于北京,原因不详。
       他的画笔从不被俗情时务所乱,他曾得意地宣称:“近多任意涂抹,居然为可食者所喜,于此可觇世风矣,吾人敢谢不敏!”赏观黑萧,苍润吞浑的表象下,蕴藉良多的还是传统笔墨的因素,在他的黑萧山水中,总是精心营造,以十分娴熟的笔法,一气呵成属于自己的艺术氛围。天光、山光、水气、空气,交映汇聚而成自然之态,深刻于缣素之中,长留于天地之间。
 

推崇与没落

对于萧谦中作品的推崇,这是近年来的一个现象,我想大概跟近现代书画市场热有很大的关系,尤其是琉璃厂的一些画商,手中萧谦中的画应该有不少,如果不能高价推出,显然不符合市场规律,于是开始资助也好,参与也好,对萧谦中进行了有意的普及。笔者在琉璃厂混饭吃的时候,第一次看到萧谦中的原画,感觉其画作中规中矩,功夫不错,气韵尚可,但非要说是“天马一出,远非凡骨可比”的大师,我觉得还是值得考量的
       与萧谦中同时代的画家胡佩衡对萧谦中的作品评价除了恭维之外,就是“惜乎布置太密,缺灵疏之气。”所谓布置太密,我想应该是指他的作品主题不突出。作画本来就如作文,无论句子怎么精美,总要有个中心思想,紧扣主题,环环相扣,这样文字的气势和思想才能豁然而显。如果仅仅满足于句式的工整,而忘记突出主题,这就有些舍本逐末的感觉。
       所以,考虑到时代因素,崇洋媚外的风气当时已然日嚣尘上,对于萧谦中的苛求是没有必要的。他在当时能获得声名也不属于欺世盗名,我们并不能单纯以过来人的身份来审视萧谦中的绘画,毕竟他在他所属于的时代,即使算不上第一流的画家,成绩还是比较突出的。事并且可以这么说,萧谦中是一个时代将要结束,或者衰落时的艺术典型,他的艺术生命史是可以说明为什么中国传统绘画从上个世纪初就走向衰落。

绘画特点

萧谦中刚学绘画时,主要临摩“四王”(王翚王鉴王时敏王原祁)山水,接着学习宋元诸家,也终受明清之际黄山画派影响。对于前贤,他的画黑中透亮吸收黑龚墨法,又兼取石涛用笔的苍秀空灵所致。龚贤吴镇,却未墨守吴镇之法,跳出藩篱,赋于水墨山水画以新的生命力,萧谦中龚贤,加之自己多年揣摩的用墨技法经验,发展了水墨画的技巧,将中国山水画的用墨之法,推向更为雄厚苍莽的境界,充实完善了用墨技法,雄浑朴茂、苍润遒劲中,蕴藏着中华民族浩荡高远的昆仑元气。尤其对龚贤所言“心究万物之源,目尽山川之势”、“无笔法墨气之分”、“笔墨互为表里”有独到领悟。他从龚贤遗法中融汇、提炼,使其皴、擦、点、染、干、润、浓、枯综合表达极为优美,求取丘壑的丰富与笔墨的凝重,笔下境界雄浑深秀,所作山水往往山重水叠,构图饱满,层次分明,笔墨基本不脱离山川造型,因而在当时雅俗共赏。虽广学前贤,但也自成“萧家山水风貌”。
      萧谦中绘画有两大特点:一、勾加皴,有创新。纵观古代青绿山水画,基本走的是张僧繇的没骨法,就连近代的张大千、郑昶等人亦属此类型。他们在画青绿山水时先勾轮廓,后填青绿,不加皴点或少加皴点。但萧谦中却用元人笔法,画宋人丘壑,敷唐人色彩,勾、皴、点、染并举,所作既有唐人之富贵,又有宋人之严整,也有元人之逸趣。虽属传统,已有创新于其间;二、画金碧,有创意。金碧山水画在唐、宋盛行,之后的千年时间几成绝响。如张大千所说:“明则董玄宰墨戏之余,时复为之,然非当行。有清三百年,遂成绝响。或称新罗能之”。

English is introduced

Xiao Qian (1883-1944), formerly known as Xiao Xun, the word modest, No. Longshanqiao firewood. Anqing City, Anhui Province town of Longshan Village. In the early years under the tutelage of Jiang Yun learning landscape painting, achievement is remarkable. After traveling southwest, northeast attractions, line Miles Road, open art vision. 1921 to return to Beijing, widely studied under the famous works, won the essence of traditional art, especially obsessed with Shi Tao, Gong Xian, Mei Qing. 1920 and Zhou Zhaoxiang, Jincheng, Chen Shizeng, who initiated the establishment of Chinese Painting Research Association. He taught at the Beijing Fine Arts Academy and the Chinese Painting Research Society.

Biography

At the beginning of the last century, the whole country was in a state of extreme imbalance. The foreign moon was, of course, round and big at that time, and even if it was queried, it would be asked to produce evidence. Rhetoric, with the slogan of equality of all people on the legal almost, you have evidence even less than there is no evidence of the country are indulging in Western science and technology culture, you stand up against, not by saliva drowned by administrative strangulation, which is a Kind of trend, not individual forces can resist. Therefore, the success of Qi Baishi is a very special case, not typical. Xiao Qian, as a representative of the era of literati painter, his experience, but has typical characteristics, can really explain why the traditional painting will decline at that time, such as the candle in the wind, at any time off the way.
        Once upon a time, Xiao Qian is a person with Qi Baishi, Zhang Daqian, Chen Shizeng, Jincheng and others, but today, know him, in addition to professionals, I am afraid ten no two. But this is not enough to prove that the artistic level of Xiao Qian is not high, we should realize that there are of course there are vicissitudes of their human factors, personal talent, but more because of a large social trends caused. Xiao Qian was born in Anqing, 1883, when young came to Beijing, by the local famous Jiang Yun fancy, but also because the two be relatives, it is done to do burglary disciples. But it is said that because Mr. Jiang linger in playing mahjong, often make Xiao generation pen, but unfortunately two people do not have the Qing Dynasty painter Luo hired and Jinnong harmonious co-operation spirit, not "division students have to draw money, students painting also Lai division," probably ginger Jun playing mahjong more rotten technology, so often deduct Xiao share, so Shaw out of the capital for more than a decade, in the 32-year-old back to Beijing. Has been in Beijing as a professional painter to survive, for some time, his Ranger even higher than Qi Baishi a lot, that is quite famous. Died in 1944 in Beijing, for unknown reasons.
       His brush has never been vulgar affairs of the chaos, he has proudly declared: "nearly more arbitrary painting, actually for the edible may be pleased, this can be the World Wind men, and I dare not Xie Min! , Cang Run swallowed the surface, the implication of many of the elements of the traditional pen and ink, in his black Xiaoshan landscape, always carefully crafted to very skilled brushwork, at one go into their own artistic atmosphere. Sky, mountain, water vapor, air, the convergence of natural and into the state, deeply in the element of Su, long stay in between heaven and earth.

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