卞文瑜

卞文瑜,约1576 -1655 年,明代江苏苏州人,字润甫,号浮白、萝庵。艺芳书画录云:“本姓徐,非姓卞,盖因有避而托者。”善山水、树石勾剔,甚有笔意。尝从董其昌讲求笔法,故笔墨亦相近,但落墨太松,失之弱耳。万历三十九年(1611)作荷亭销夏扇,康熙十年(1671)作湖庄清夏扇,均藏故宫博物院。主要作品有《图绘宝鉴续纂》、《明画录》,《桐阴论画》、《江南通志》、《艺芳书画录》、《画史会要》。

  • 中文名卞文瑜
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏苏州人
  • 出生日期约1576
  • 逝世日期1655
  • 职业明代画家
  • 所属年代明代
  • 润甫
  • 浮白、萝庵
简介

字润甫,号浮白、萝庵,长洲(今江苏苏州)人,生卒年不详。艺芳书画录云:“本姓徐,非姓卞,盖因有避而托者。”善山水、树石勾剔,甚有笔意。尝从董其昌求笔法,故笔墨亦相近,但落墨太松,失之弱耳。
       据徐邦达先生考证,他生于1576年(明万历四年丙子),卒于1655年(清顺治十二年乙未),有的书中说他卒于1671年以后,康熙十年尚在世,这种说法不正确,按:王鉴壬寅年(1662)所跋卞文瑜《仿古山水册》时已称他为“故友”,而王鉴卞文瑜同为“画中九友”,晚年关系密切,不会误言其生死,因此徐先生所定其卒年为1655年,较1671年可靠。关于卞文瑜的生平,史籍中的记载亦颇为简略,《艺芳书画录》说他“本姓徐,非姓卞,盖因有避而托者”;彭蕴灿《历代画史汇传》中说他“生平无定居,炉香茗到处自随”,因此后人多以“不食人间烟火”来评价他超脱世外的人生经历。

绘画风格

卞文瑜以擅画山水著称于世,其绘画风格大致可分为两个阶段:早年和中年的山水画受赵左影响较深,承袭吴门遗风;同时又从董其昌讲求笔法,将董以笔墨气势取胜的特点与吴门强调诗意的结构布局相结合,形成了其特有的绘画风格。因此后世多用“布局结构殊有思致,树石钩剔颇具笔意”评价他这一时期的作品特点,但过于强调笔墨风趣与形象脱略,故未免缺乏自然山川之真实感,因此对其画又有“落墨太松,失之弱耳”、“山水多滑,少苍老”的批评。
卞文瑜晚年的山水画风格变化较大,开始摆脱赵左的影响,而上追宋元诸家。这一变革主要是受王时敏王鉴的影响,据王鉴卞文瑜《仿古山水册》云:“先生(卞文瑜)学画五十载,惟知赵文度(赵左)一派。晚年始与余交,及遇娄东奉尝烟翁(王时敏),乃见画中董、巨及元季四家真迹。每至娄中观古人画,则伏卧其下,不忍释手。”由于结识王时敏王鉴等人,使得卞文瑜在其晚年得以看到董源巨然黄公望王蒙吴镇倪瓒等大家的真迹名品,并且潜心临习,因此王鉴评价他晚年的作品:“笔法遒美,元气灵通,与生平画迥不相类。”从卞文瑜传世的作品看,他晚年的画作多题临仿古人之名,且多是小景山水,如故宫博物院藏《仿古山水册》,上海博物馆藏《仿宋元山水图册》,天津艺术博物馆藏《山水扇面》等,笔墨苍润,意境深远,较其早年、中年学赵左的作品要成熟得多。正如吴梅村在《画中九友歌》中评价卞文瑜时说:“画龛巨幅千峰稠,小景点出林塘幽。晚年笔力真沧州,幅中鹤绿轻王侯。”这是对他晚年绘画风格和艺术特色的准确概括。

English is introduced

Bian Wenyu, about 1576 -1655 years, the Ming Dynasty, Suzhou, Jiangsu, the word Run Fu, floating white, Luo An. Yi-fang painting and calligraphy, said: "The surname Xu, non-surname Bian, cover due to avoid and care." Good landscape, tree hook tick tick, very pen. Taste from the Dong Qichang emphasizes the brushwork, so ink is also similar, but the ink is too loose, the weak ears. Wanli thirty-nine years (1611) for the Dutch Pavilion pinnacle fan, Kangxi ten years (1671) for the Houchang Qingxia fan, are possession of the National Palace Museum. The main works are "drawing treasure Baojian continued compilation", "Ming painting recorded", "Tong Yin painting", "Jiangnan Annals", "Yi-fang calligraphy and painting", "painting history to".
       According to Mr. Xu Bangda research, he was born in 1576 (Ming Wanli four years Bingzi), died in 1655 (Qing Shunzhi twelve years), some books that he died in 1671, Kangxi ten years still alive, This argument is incorrect, according to: Wang Jian Renyin (1662) Postscript Bian Wenyu "antique landscape book" has been called him as "old friend", and Wang Jian and Bian Wenyu with "painting nine friends", old age is not close, not Will be mistaken for their life and death, so Mr. Xu set his death year in 1655, more reliable than in 1671. On the life of Bian Wenyu, historical records in the book is also quite brief, "Yi-fang painting and calligraphy," said he "the surname Xu, non-surname Bian, cover due to avoid and care"; Peng Yuncan " "Life without settled, furnace tea everywhere since the", so many people later to "do not eat earthly fireworks" to evaluate his life beyond the world beyond the experience.
 

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