林良

林良(约1428-1494),字以善,南海(今广州)人,中国明代著名画家。史料曾记载“林良吕纪,天下无比”,他因善画而被荐入宫廷,授工部营缮所丞,后任锦衣卫指挥、镇抚,值仁智殿。绘画取材多为雄健壮阔或天趣盎然的自然物象,笔法简练而准确,写意而形具。

  • 中文名林良
  • 性别
  • 祖籍广东省佛山市南海
  • 出生日期约1428
  • 逝世日期1494
  • 职业明代著名画
  • 代表作品《百鸟朝凤图》《灌木集禽图》《双鹰图》《松鹤图》
  • 所属年代明代
  • 以善
人物简介

林良(1428年~1494年)字以善,明代著名画家,南海(今广州)人。擅画花果、翎毛,着色简淡,备见精巧。其水墨禽鸟、树石,继承南宋院体画派放纵简括笔法,遒劲飞动,有类草书,墨色灵活,为明代院体花鸟画的代表作家,也是明代水墨写意画派的开创者。传世作品有《灌木集禽图》、《山茶白羽图》、《双鹰图》等。
       林良,约生于1428年(宣德三年),字以善,南海(今属广东省)人,卒于1494年(弘治七年)前,享年六十余岁。且按照1464年(天顺八年)前林良入宫计算,其时林良三十余岁,画艺已经成熟。“始,主事颜宗善山水,知府何寅善人物,皆乡先生也。良每学之,独畏宗,曰:颜老天趣为不可及也。晚复为白描小景,然终不及翎毛花草之工。后拜工部营缮所丞。夤缘巨挡,得直仁智殿,改锦衣卫镇抚。良善谑咏,已而沾士大夫膏馥,为诗始颇有可观者。都御使何经号敏捷,日与之剧饮唱和,或顷刻成诗百篇,因结为兄弟,良由是名益显云。”这两位可以说是林良较早的师承,“虽然后来他以花鸟著称,山水和人物均无闻,但无疑在造型和笔墨上有所得益,从而奠定了较扎实的根基”。
       在永乐至成化年间(1403-1487),以绘事供奉内廷者多直仁智殿。林良直仁智殿时地位也不高,与百工杂流为伍,尚属画工之列。后改锦衣卫镇抚,才算有了从六品的较高官职。所授为武职,有品级之分,官阶一般比文官高。由于锦衣卫恩荫寄禄无常员,没有固定的员额限制,故很多受皇帝恩宠的宫廷画家得授锦衣卫武职。但他们仅领奉薪,不事其职,亦无实权。“林良任锦衣卫镇抚后级别有所提高,能经常应诏作画而接近皇帝,并有机会观赏到不少内府藏画,还结识了其他宫廷画家和一些朝廷王公大臣,这些都对他的画艺提高和声名播扬起了重要作用。

人物贡献

明初洪武至弘治的百余年内, 占据画坛主位的是皇家画院的宫廷绘画。时代特色和风格成型主要体现在宣德、成化、弘治三朝。尤其是花鸟画, 突破“院体”程式,出现了工笔重彩、水墨写意、设色没骨等多种风格, 并有所创新。其中水墨写意的开派人物便是林良
       他创作的“文人画化”的水墨写意花鸟画,使明代“院体”花鸟出现了新的生机。虽然在明之前也有水墨写意花鸟,但仍以勾染为主流形式,而且宋“院体”花鸟在元代仍保持着很大的影响力。
       明代的水墨写意花鸟画, 由林良开派, 以后耕耘其间者接踵而至, 如沈周陈淳徐渭等, 一步步将写意法推向臻境,并成为明代花鸟画最流行和最富成就的一种形式, 终汇就明清泱泱大观的写意花鸟画风。林良无疑起了先导作用。他在花鸟画的发展史上, 是不可或缺的重要人物。

艺术风格

取材新颖
“院体”花鸟画为适应宋代帝王宫廷需要,注重华贵细腻、色彩绚丽富贵的风格,尤其是题材以宫廷苑囿中华贵锦绣的珍禽异鸟、名花奇石为主,“花之于牡丹芍药,禽之于弯凤孔翠,必使之富贵;而松竹梅菊,鸥鹭雁鹜,必见之幽闲;至于鹤之轩昂,鹰隼之击搏,杨柳梧桐之扶疏风流,乔松古柏之岁寒磊落,展张于图绘”。(《宣和画谱》卷第15.四库全书第812册,P57,上海古籍出版社1987版)道出了宋代宫廷绘画的模式,也揭示了宫廷花鸟画艺术的社会性与阶级性。
       然而林良不再囿于宫廷苑囿中的珍禽异鸟、名花奇石,而是继承了徐熙“多状江湖所有,汀花野竹、水鸟渊鱼”的文人风格,描绘各类雄健壮阔、天趣盎然的荒滩田野间的雁、鹰、鹤野禽以及汀花、蒲苇、水草等。林良善于描绘飞鸣饮啄等不同姿态的禽鸟,尤其是画鸟之羽毛,层次分明。其画不事浓艳而醉心于水墨,不求工而见工于笔墨之外,李空同曾有句诗云:林良写鸟只用墨,开缣半扫风云墨;水禽陆禽各臻妙,挂出满堂皆动色。与当时山水中流行的古木寒林题材一样,能放笔纵横,如意挥写,追求一种超然的林泉之趣,以标榜其风雅。林良曾描绘过芦雁飞行、栖止、偎依、嬉闹等等多种情态,各方面展露大雁聚居、群飞、惊觉、坚韧的秉性,这类作品的取材、立意都充满了民俗趣味,画法豪放,体现了他平民化的贵族品味,充分表达出他的情怀意趣。如《雪景芦雁图》轴(现藏烟台市博物馆),表现一双大雁在寒冷雪天的苇塘边暂时歇息的场景,整个画面突出了一个“饥”,强调一“寒”。
“意”的凸显
       宣德以后明宪宗执政期间正值整个宫廷绘画的“文人画化”倾向,林良借机将文人画的气质引入画中,并且加以重新诠释,创造出注重笔情墨趣,简逸悠淡的绘画格式。
       俞建华在其《中国绘画史》中曾指出:文人画者以气韵为主,以写意为法。林良“以书入画”响彻整个画坛,他是有史以来第一个引入草书到绘画创作当中的“院体”画家,在当时的宫廷绘画当中,他的水墨写意花鸟画水平被推为最高。《灌木集禽图》(现藏北京故宫博物院),有林良的行草书款。这件作品落款十分简单,只有草书的“林良”二字。林良在画作上的署款以行草书为主。自识“东广林良”。钤“以善图书”印。林良“文人画化”的花鸟画比文人画多了几分雅气,比院画多了几分放逸,形成一种与众不同的美学效应,因而深得文人雅士的青睐,经常有陈宪章、明萧镃、李梦阳等雅士为林良题诗,林良画作自题诗不多,他的《古木苍鹰图》(现藏南京市博物馆)轴有陈白沙题诗:落月平原散鸟群,秋风爽气动秋旻。江边老树真如铁,独立槎栎一欠伸。
      自宣德年以后,由于宫廷美术的“文人画化”,林良后期不乏“以气韵为主,以写意为法,以笔情墨趣为高逸,以简逸悠淡为神妙”的作品。林良醉心于水墨花竹、水边沙外凫鸭鹭雁等江湖荒野之景,以标榜其风雅。他驻足于各类雄健壮阔、天趣盎然的水陆禽鸟、苍松及古树等山野江湖景色。每幅作品简练而富有深意:1.不乏“心意”。当你驻足思索,会发现整幅画所表现的不再只是双雁,似乎双雁是现实中真人的写照,突出了这个人的“饥”和“寒”。由此挥发出林良由“物意”转为“心意”的凸显,重“心意”而薄“物意”。2.“意境”的释放。林良不去画宫廷苑囿中华贵锦绣的珍禽异鸟、名花奇石去迎合帝王,而去画寒冬中双宿双栖的孤雁?那些生活在上层阶级的达官贵人在饮酒当歌的同时,有多少劳苦大众在呻吟中挣扎?林良身为御用画师衣食无忧,但作为一个爱国的子民,他在采风中对所碰到的这每一个场景都历历在目,感触尤深。但是他充其量是一个帝王娱乐的工具,即便他再怎么关心民间疾苦,也只是敢怒不敢言。然而,他手中之笔却道出了心中所思,也使林良获得了较以往宫廷苑囿中截然不同的鲜有的素材。因此在林良整幅画里看到的不仅是审美主体对外在审美物象的描绘,而更多的是他自己内在心灵的抒发。林良对于美的追求不再囿于客观物象本身的形似、神似,而是在其客观美的创作中融入了其主体本人的所思所想,他笔下的美更多的是本人对自身思考的流露与外化。这应该就是“意境”的释放。3.“笔意”的转变。林良后期“文人画化”的作品里,不再以单纯简劲的线条、艳丽华贵的设色意象来表现,而是转向于笔墨的浓淡干湿变化。
林良更发展了笔和墨的技巧,独具艺术特色,创造出“文人画化”的水墨写意花鸟画风格,其水墨写意花鸟画成为花鸟画坛的主流。

作品鉴赏

林良的花鸟画有工笔、设色两种,其设色花鸟精巧,虽祖黄筌、边景昭,然荣枯之态,飞动之势,颇有心得,遂成一家。林良的水墨写意画更负盛名,取水墨为烟波,出没凫雁喋唼容与之态,颇见清远,运笔遒上,有类草书,能令观者动色。画法源于宋代院体,但更多吸取南宋放纵简括的画风,也受劲健狂逸的浙派的一定影响,遂成为一大流派。
       林良多取材为雄健壮阔或天趣盎然的自然物象,如苍鹰、芦雁、鹤鹭、孔雀、锦鸡、寒鸦、麻雀、喜鹊等禽鸟,以及苍松古树、芦荻、灌丛等野生草木;以遒劲纵逸、气势雄阔的笔墨,来表现富勇猛、野逸之趣的生物,两者结合恰当完美,生动传神。每幅必以两大鸟为主,树梢空中点以小禽,皆粗笔仗大点大抹而成,如金鸡之腹,以巨笔蘸朱砂自膝下至尾,一直扫下,而圆厚胜细匀者万万,尤妙绝者,一幅作暮景晚烟横树,而以淡墨写栖鸦,只一笔点成,不加嘴爪,不分翎毛,为烟中宿者,入神之笔也。然而他的水墨写意画,亦非逸笔草草,不求形似所绘扬逸造型仍很准确,类属品种一一可辩,在一抹阔笔中,也时时补以较细勾勒,以呈现轮廓。
       林良传世作品工笔画较少,大多是水墨写意画。有较早的工笔重彩《山茶白鹇图》轴。水墨写意的较多,如《灌木集禽》卷,《秋林及琴图》卷《芦雁图》轴,《荷塘集禽图》轴,《雪景芦雁图》轴,以及晚年的《双鹰图》轴这些画中,禽鸟一般都用劲笔重墨勾划出结构轮廓,兼以淡墨渲染,显得形体坚实羽翼丰满,真实而又生动。树石背景多用阔笔,淡漠勾皴点染,自由飞动粗简泼辣,粗中带细,放而不乏工整,气势雄强又各具禀性的画风,反映了他的典型面貌。
       在众多的禽鸟题材中,林良尤其喜欢画鹰。他的作品仅涉及鹰的就有《雪景鹰雁图》、《双鹰图》、《古木苍鹰图》、《双鹰图》轴、《双鹰图》《双鹰图》、《鹰》等。猛禽枯木的题材与雄强劲逸的笔墨相融合,共同汇成了一股给人以震撼的审美冲击力,并且影响久远,从八大山人、齐白石等大家的艺术创作中有关鹰的画法都能明显看出对林良技法的引鉴。
       就以林良最杰出的《灌木集禽图》轴、晚年的《双鹰图》轴为例简单分析一下他的绘画风格。这幅《灌木集禽图》是林良的一幅绢本手卷作品,绢丝紧致细腻,纵14.7厘米,横61.6厘米,落款只用草书林良二字,款底下有以善图书白文印。款印底下,有一方小小的英和审定(经过英和的收藏)白文印。整幅画墨笔间略施谈彩,描绘鸟禽在雪天嬉戏,觅食寻宿的场面。整个画面用淡墨晕染,中间留白的地方用来表现雪花。从远处看去,树枝上仿佛被覆薄薄的积雪,九只慈乌栖息于落满雪花的老树枯条之上,它们或相互簇拥、或窃私语,就像一家人一样和谐自在。群鸟振翅奋飞、欢呼跳跃,就连树枝和水草也随之摇戈起来。此情此景相互交融,群鸟聚集的热烈气氛被林良表达得淋漓尽致。整幅画面看似随意挥写,但鸟的自然形态却依然被把握得准确到位。作为一个宫廷画师来说,不讲求工致是不允许的,明代宫廷画院的花鸟画创作,依然沿袭南宋院体的风格,画家们通过细致的竺,追求物象的形似,精力也几乎投入到对鸟的翎毛数目的准确勾描上。工笔加写意,简略概括的笔墨造型,加上情趣化的渲染,构成了林良写意花鸟画的基本风貌。林良早期以工笔见长,有很好的写生功底,所以我们就把他的法度严谨作为一个鉴定的标准。比如说这幅作品上面的9只慈乌,每一只神态都不一样,都是呼应的,有感情交流的。
       有意思的是,树枝一共栖息了九只慈乌,也就是通常所说的寒鸦。据说它是有一种反哺的习惯。古代很多的书家常在绘画中用这个题材来彰显孝道,表现家庭当中的慈爱和睦。比如说明代沈周,还有唐寅都画过这种题材的作品。
       放逸中寻求法度这一特征在他的代表作品《双鹰图》中可以一目了然。画面上的花草树木呈现出放逸之姿,笔墨的遒劲犹如草书,但两只雄鹰仍带有工笔之意。所以林良的写意花鸟画与后世文人画的写意花鸟大有不同,笔墨在放纵中,还时时把握着院体花鸟中形似和法度的痕迹。

流派传人

林良所创立的水墨花鸟画风,在当时传人很多,如邵节“受业林良”,瞿杲“常执扫除于林良门下,得窥其法”,刘巢云“学林良花鸟芦雁,技称精绝”,(清人徐沁《明画录》卷六)稍后著称宫廷的花鸟画家吕纪,初学时亦仿林良林良“声名商在吕纪文上”,赤显时纪所作,多假书良名(明人李开先《闲居集》序)。
       实际上,明代中叶后的文人花鸟画家,亦多吸取林良的绘画特点。如沈周森严处近林良,“石田翁高致绝俗,山水之外,花卉、鸟兽、鱼虫莫不各极其态,草草点缀,而情意已足,文人戏墨,实无宗派可言;要之,则近徐氏,而与林良辈有同化焉。”唐寅的花鸟画大都水墨草草而成,其清刚笔墨接近林良为多,只不过从笔墨性情上,以文人画的精炼简洁纠正了林良的繁琐细碎之弊而已。明末的八大山人,更是从林良的笔墨中脱胎,其鹰的画法,从造型到笔墨,都与林良有着明显的渊源关系,只是他把林良的豪迈奔放,凝集在点滴如冰的苍凉、悲凄和含蓄之中,显得极其圆浑与蕴藉。

English is introduced

Lin Liang (1428 ~ 1494) to good character, the Ming Dynasty famous painter, South China Sea (now Guangzhou) people. Good painting flowers and plums, feathers, color Jane Dan, see the compact. The ink birds, trees, inherited the Southern Song Dynasty School Painting indulgence simple stroke, Emotion flying, cursive class, ink and flexible for the Ming Dynasty, the representative of the body of flowers and birds painting writer, ink painting is the pioneer of the Ming Dynasty ink painting. Handed down works of "shrub set poultry map", "Camellia white feather map", "double eagle map" and so on.
       Lin Liang, born in 1428 (Xuande three years), the word good, the South China Sea (now Guangdong Province), died in 1494 (Hongzhi seven years), at the age of sixty. And in accordance with the 1464 (Tianshun eight years) Lin Liang into the palace before the calculation, when Lin Liang more than 30 years of age, painting has matured. Good, each alone, the only fear of cases, saying: Yan old days of interest for the unattainable also. Late complex for the white trace of a small scene, but at the end of the feather flowers and grass workers do not work at the end of the day, After the worship of the Ministry of Industry and the repair of the Department of Cheng Cheng. 夤 edge giant block, was straight benevolence hall, change Jin Yiwei town ask. Good good chanting, and the Zhanshi Fu Fu cream, poem was quite impressive. Agile, and the drama of singing and singing, or instantly into a poem, due to become brothers, good by the name of benefit was cloud. "These two can be said to Lin Liang earlier," although he was known to birds and flowers , Landscapes and characters are unknown, but no doubt in modeling and ink on the benefit, which laid a more solid foundation.
       In the Yongle to Chenghua years (1403-1487), to paint things dedicated to the inner court more benevolent wisdom hall. Lin Liang straight benevolence hall when the position is not high, and hundreds of miscellaneous work for the company, is still a painter. After the change Jinwei Wei Fu, be considered from the six high-ranking officials. The award for the military, there are grades, the rank is generally higher than the civil service. Because JinYiWeiYin yinlu random members, there is no fixed post limit, so many by the emperor grace of the court painter was awarded JinYiWuWu. But they only receive salary, do not work, no real power. "Lin Liang Ren Jinyiwei town after the level has been improved, can often Chaozhao and close to the emperor, and have the opportunity to watch a lot of government painting, but also to get to know the other court painters and some royal court minister, these are his Of the painting to enhance the reputation and play an important role.

Art style

Draw novel
In order to meet the needs of imperial court in the Song Dynasty, the style of "Huayi" is to suit the royal court of the Song Dynasty. The style of the luxurious and delicate, colorful and rich style is especially the theme of the garden is the garden of the peony. , Birds of the bend Feng hole Tsui, will make the wealth; and Song Zhu Mei Ju, Oulu wild geese, will see the quiet leisure; As the Crane of the impassioned, Falcon's fight, Willow Indus of Fu Shufeng, Qiao Song Cooper Cold and above, Zhang Zhang in the map painting. (Volume 15, Siku Quanshu 812, P57, Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1987) revealed the pattern of court painting in the Song Dynasty, and also revealed the sociality and class nature of the palace flower-and-bird painting art.
       However, Lin Liang no longer confined to the Court Court in the rare birds and birds of different birds, flowers Kistler, but inherited the Xu Xi "multi-shaped rivers and lakes all, Ting Yushen, waterfowl Yuan Yu" literati style, depicting various magnificent, Tianmu wild desert wild fields between the wild, eagle, crane wild birds and Ting Hua, Pu Wei, such as water plants. Lin Liang is good at depicting fei ming drink pecking and other different attitude of the birds, especially birds of feathers, structured. The painting is not a rich and gorgeous and obsessed with ink, do not seek work and see the work in the ink, Li Kong had a poem with the poem: Lin Liang write birds only ink, open half-sweep cloud ink; Miao, hanging out are full of color. And the landscape was popular in the ancient wood cold forest theme, can put pen vertical and horizontal, wishful writing, the pursuit of a transcendental Linquan of interest, to flaunt its elegance. Lin Liang has described Luyan flying, habitat, nestling, frolic and so on a variety of modality, all aspects of the show geese gathered in groups, flying, Jingjue, tenacity of tenacity, such works drawn, conception is full of folk tastes, Painting uninhibited, embodied his civilian aristocratic tastes, and fully express his sentimental charm. Such as "snow Lu Yan map" axis (now Yantai City Museum), the performance of a pair of geese in the cold snow days of the reed pond edge rest scene, the whole picture highlights a "hunger", emphasizing a "cold.
"Italy" highlights
       During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong, Xuande took the opportunity to introduce the temperament of the literati painting into the painting, and reinterpreted it to create a new style of writing that emphasizes the artistic style of writing, Of the painting format.

Biography

Yu Jianhua in his "History of Chinese Painting" has pointed out: literati painting to charm-based, freehand as the law. Lin Liang 's "Painting in the Book" resounded through the whole painting circle. He was the first "courtyard" painter to introduce the cursive into the creation of painting. At the time of the palace painting, the level of his freehand brushwork was pushed to the highest level . "Shrub set of birds" (now the Beijing Palace Museum), Lin Liang of the cursive section. This work inscribed is very simple, only the cursive "Lin Liang" word. Lin Liang in the painting on the Department of the main line to cursive. Self-knowledge "East wide Lin Liang." Seal "good books" printed. Lin Liang "literati painting" of the bird painting than the literati painting a little more elegant, more than courtyard painting a bit more relaxed, forming a distinctive aesthetic effect, which won the favor of literati, often Chen Xianzhang, Ming Xiao Xiao, Li Mengyang and other elegant as Lin Liang poem, Lin Liang paintings from the poem is not much, his "ancient wood Eagle map" (now in Nanjing Museum) axis Chen Baisha poem: Scattered birds group, Qiu Feng Qiuqiuqiu Min. River as the old tree as iron, an independent extension of Oak oak.
      Since Xuande years, due to the court art of the "literati painting", Lin Liang late no lack of "spirit-based to freehand as the law to the writing of ink for the high-Yi Yi to Jane Yat light for the wonderful" works. Lin Liang obsessed with ink and bamboo flowers, water, sand, ducks, geese, ducks, geese and wild goose wilderness, to flaunt its elegance. He stopped at all kinds of magnificent, amusing nature of water and land birds, pines and old trees and other mountain rivers and lakescape. Each piece concise and full of profound meaning: 1. There is no lack of "mind." When you stop thinking, you will find the whole picture is no longer just the performance of the double goose, it seems that the two goose is a realistic portrayal of reality, highlighting the person's "hunger" and "cold." From this volatility out of Lin Liang from "material" to "mind" highlights, heavy "mind" and thin "material meaning." 2. "Artistic" release. Lin Liang not to draw the palace garden of the Chinese Jinxiu of rare birds and birds of different birds, flowers and rocks to meet the emperor, leaving the winter painting Shuangsushuangqi lonely goose? How many working-class people are struggling in the groans while drinking and singing the songs of those who live in the upper class? Lin Liang as a master painter painstakingly, but as a patriotic people, he encountered in the folk songs of this every scene is vivid, feeling particularly deep. But he is at best a tool for emperors entertainment, even if he no matter how concerned about the people suffering, only dare not speak. However, his hand has revealed the hearts of the thought, but also to Lin Liang won the Court Court in the past than in the very different material rarely. Therefore, the whole painting in Lin Liang saw not only the aesthetic subject's description of the external aesthetic image, but also his own inner spiritual expression. Lin Liang's pursuit of beauty is no longer confined to the object itself, but in the creation of its objective beauty into its own thoughts and thoughts, his beauty is more of my own reflections And externalization. This should be the "mood" of the release. 3. "Pen idea" change. Lin Liang later "literati painting" of the work, no longer simple pure lines, gorgeous color image to show, but turned to the ink shade wet and dry changes.
Lin Liang has developed pen and ink techniques, unique artistic characteristics, to create a "literati painting" ink and wash freehand brushwork style, the ink painting and calligraphy flowers and birds to become the mainstream of painting and calligraphy.

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