文嘉

文嘉(1501~1583),字休承,号文水,明湖广衡山人,系籍长州(今江苏苏州)。文徵明仲子。吴门派代表画家。初为乌程训导,后为和州学正。能诗,工书,小楷清劲,亦善行书。精于鉴别古书画,工石刻,为明一代之冠。画得徵明一体,善画山水,笔法清脆,颇近倪瓒,着色山水具幽澹之致,间仿王蒙皴染,亦颇秀润,兼作花卉。明人王世贞评:“其书不能如兄,而画得待诏(文徵明)一体。”詹景凤亦云:“嘉小楷轻清劲爽,宛如瘦鹤,稍大便疏散不结束,径寸行书亦然,皆不逮父。”

  • 中文名文嘉
  • 性别
  • 祖籍系籍长州(今江苏苏州)
  • 出生日期1501
  • 逝世日期1583
  • 信仰儒学
  • 职业明代画家
  • 代表作品《山水花卉图册》、《垂虹亭图》、《寒林钟馗图》
  • 所属年代明代
  • 休承
  • 文水
人物简介

吴门派代表画家文徵明的次子,兄文彭。是明清篆刻的一代宗师。文家后来还出了位名气极大的人:文震孟。长洲(今江苏苏州)人。文嘉精于鉴古,临古之功也深,画风传乃父衣钵,惟所闻古人名迹至多,故下笔能脱去习俗,颇不易得。
       文嘉初为乌程训导,后为和州学正。能诗,工书,小楷清劲,亦善行书。精于鉴别古书画,工石刻,为明一代之冠。继承家学,小楷轻清劲爽,宛如瘦鹤,稍大,便疏散不结束,迳寸行书亦然,皆不逮父兄,画得征明一体,善画山水,笔法清脆,颇近倪瓒,着色山水具幽澹之致,间仿王蒙皴染,亦颇秀润,兼作花卉。明人王世贞评:“其书不能如兄,而画得待诏(文徵明)一体。”詹景凤亦云:“嘉小楷轻清劲爽,宛如瘦鹤,稍大便疏散不结束,径寸行书亦然,皆不逮父。”然,文嘉一生一直在追求,王世懋在《跋文嘉书古诗十九首》后称:“休承晚年书奇进,几不减京兆。”
       他还对藏书亦不遗余力,藏书楼有“归来堂”,藏书印有“五峰山人”、“元珠室”、“五峰樵客”、“肇锡余以嘉名”等。精于书画和鉴别古籍,著名藏书家项元汴每遇到宋椠元刻时,则聘文彭文嘉兄弟,为其鉴定版本,故项墨林藏书皆精妙绝伦。文氏藏书散佚约在明万历末年至崇祯间,清代藏书家如张均衡、张金吾等曾收藏有文氏旧藏,多是宋刻善本。著有《和州诗》、《严氏书画记》等。孙文从鼎,字定之,继承藏书,并另有藏书处为“心远阁”、“园贤堂”、“惜阴斋”等。孙文从简(1574~1648),字彦可,号枕霞老人,亦能藏书,有“开云楼”。
 

传世作品

嘉靖十九年(1540年)作 《山水花卉图册》
嘉靖二十年(1541年)作 《垂虹亭图》,现藏苏州博物馆
万历元年(1573年)作 《寒林钟馗图》,现藏南京博物院
《江南春色图》,现藏沈阳故宫博物院
《水亭觅句图》轴、《设色山水图》轴,现藏辽宁省博物馆
《秋塘红藕图》,现藏天津市艺术博物馆
《石湖小景图》轴、《夏山高隐图》轴、《琵琶行图》轴、
万历二年(1574年)作 《溪山行旅图》轴,现藏故宫博物院
《沧江渔笛图》《曲水园图》卷,现藏上海博物馆
万历八年(1580年)作 《村径稻香图》轴
绘画作品
卒年八十三。文嘉作品,行书《七绝诗》轴 纸本,纵121.3cm,横25.3cm,北京故宫博物院藏。
嘉靖十九年(1540年)作 《山水花卉图册》十开
嘉靖二十年(1541年)作 《垂虹亭图》,现藏苏州博物馆
万历元年(1573年)作 《寒林钟馗图》,现藏南京博物院
《江南春色图》,现藏沈阳故宫博物院
《水亭觅句图》轴、《设色山水图》轴,现藏辽宁省博物馆
《秋塘红藕图》,现藏天津市艺术博物馆
《石湖小景图》轴、《夏山高隐图》轴、《琵琶行图》轴、
万历二年(1574年)作 《溪山行旅图》轴,现藏故宫博物院
《沧江渔笛图》《曲水园图》卷,现藏上海博物馆
万历八年(1580年)作 《村径稻香图》轴,现藏于上海博物馆
著作
《钤山堂书画记》
《和州诗》

三日歌

昨日歌
昨日兮昨日,昨日何其好!昨日过去了,今日徒烦恼。世人但知悔昨日,不觉今日又过了。水去汩汩流,花落日日少。万事立业在今日,莫待明朝悔今朝!
今日歌
今日复今日,今日何其少!今日又不为,此事何时了?人生百年几今日,今日不为真可惜!若言姑待明朝至,明朝又有明朝事。为君聊赋《今日诗》,努力请从今日始!
明日歌
明日复明日,明日何其多!日日待明日,万事成蹉跎。 世人皆被明日累,明日无穷老将至。 晨昏滚滚水东流,今古悠悠日西坠。 百年明日能几何?请君听我《明日歌》。
关于《明日歌》的作者,有两种版本。一为明代的文嘉,一为同为明朝的钱鹤滩。钱鹤滩生于公元1461年,卒于公元1504年。如两种版本确实有联系,则原本《明日歌》的著作权应归钱鹤滩,文嘉版本系修改而成。

雕制端砚

砚石品集石眼、焦叶白、青花、鱼脑、火捺、虫蛀皮于一身,极为难得。砚首部随形镌刻金鲤戏水深浮雕,虚实相间,形神俱佳。砚背面的刻款更是诗、书、印、刻,水乳交融,精彩完美。刻款内容是一首咏笔的绝句:“紫竹纤毫线扎成,如龙似虎伴书生。渴来玉砚池中饮,饱向花笺纸上行。”书法劲挺秀美,正是文嘉最为擅长的小楷行书;诗句也工正流畅,其对书画艺术的热爱之情跃然而出。刻工刀随笔势,具铁划银勾之力而又细致入微,非深谙书法点画之美者莫为。落款“文水道人”下刻有“文嘉”阳文印,与《倪瓒真书江南春词图卷》(1523年)和《文嘉两洞记游图册》(1544年)上的“文嘉”用印如出一辙,毫无二致。可以想见,笔、墨、纸、砚文房四宝在文嘉的生活中扮演了多么重要的角色。他动用了诗歌、书法、绘画、雕刻的各种手法,将对文房四宝的深厚感情和文学艺术的深厚造诣熔铸在这方端溪佳石上,使得该砚具备了丰富的审美内涵,而文嘉多方面的艺术才华也由此得到了极生动难得的彰显。

English is introduced

Wenjia (1501 ~ 1583), word off for, water text, Ming Hu Guang Hengshan people, the Department of long state (now Jiangsu Suzhou). Wen Zhengming Zhong Zi. Wu sent on behalf of painter. At the beginning of the Ukrainian discipline, after the state school and is. Can poetry, work book, small Kai fresh, but also good books. Expertise in the identification of ancient paintings, stone carving, the highest generation for the next generation. Painted a clear that one, good painting landscapes, brush clear, very close to Ni-chan, coloring the landscape with a quiet Danzhi, between the imitation Wang Meng chun dye, is quite Xiurun, doubles as flowers. Zhan Jingfeng Yiyun: "Jia Xiaokai Qingqing fresh cool, like a thin crane, a little stool evacuation is not the end, the diameter of the line of the book is also the script of the Ming Dynasty, However, they do not arrest the father.
       Wu sent on behalf of the painter Wen Zhengming's second son, brother Wen Peng. Is the Ming and Qing Dynasties seal carving master. Wen family was also out of a great fame: Wen Zhen Meng. Cheung Chau (now Jiangsu Suzhou) people. Wen Jia is good at Jian Gu, Pro ancient power is also deep, painting style is the mantle of the father, but the smell of the ancients at least, so pen can take off customs, quite difficult to get.

Biography

Wen Jiachu for Wu Cheng discipline, after and state school is. Can poetry, work book, small Kai fresh, but also good books. Expertise in the identification of ancient paintings, stone carving, the highest generation for the next generation. Inheritance of family learning, small Kai Qingqing fresh cool, like a thin crane, slightly larger, then evacuation is not the end of the run-inch script is no different, are not arrested father and brother, painted a levy one, good painting landscapes, clear brushwork, Landscape with a quiet Danzhi, between the imitation Wang Meng chun dye, is also quite Xiurun, doubles as flowers. Zhan Jingfeng Yiyun: "Jia Xiaokai Qingqing fresh cool, like a thin crane, a little stool evacuation is not the end, the diameter of the line of the book is also the script of the Ming Dynasty, However, Wen Jia life has been in pursuit of Wang Shimao in the "Postscript Wen Jiabao ancient poetry nineteen," said: "Hugh in his later years of the book into the odd, a few unabated Jingzhao."
       He also spare no effort to the collection, the library has a "return to the Church," printed with "Wufengshan people", "Yuan Chu Room", "Wufeng Qiaoke", "Zhao Xi Yu Jia name. Familiar with calligraphy and painting and identification of ancient books, the famous bibliophile Xiang Yuan Bian every encounter Song Yuan Yuan carved, the appointment of Wen Peng, Wenjia brothers, for its identification version, the original Molin collection are exquisite. About the end of the Ming Dynasty Wanli to Chongzhen, the Qing Dynasty books such as Zhang Hengheng, Zhang Jinwu, who have a collection of Wen's old, mostly Song rare. Author of "and the state poem", "Yan's painting and calligraphy" and so on. Sun Wen from the tripod, the word set, inherited books, and another collection office for the "heart far Court", "Garden Yin Tong", "Xi Yin Yin" and so on. Sun Wen from Jane (1574 ~ 1648), the word Yan can, No. pillow Xia elderly, can also be a collection of books, "Kaiyun floor."

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