文震亨

文震亨(1585年—1645年,享年约60岁),字启美,汉族作家、画家、园林设计师,出生于明帝国长洲县(今中国江苏省江苏市),是文徵明曾孙,文彭孙,文震孟之弟,文元发仲子。天启五年(1625年)恩贡,崇祯初为中书舍人,给事武英殿。书画咸有家风,山水韵格兼胜。明亡,绝粒死,年六十一,谥节愍。

  • 中文名文震亨
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏苏州人
  • 出生日期1585
  • 逝世日期1645
  • 职业明末画家
  • 代表作品《长物志》十二卷
  • 所属年代明代
  • 启美
简介

文震亨(1585-1645),字启美,明湖广衡山人,系籍长州(今江苏苏州)。文徵明曾孙,文彭孙,文震孟之弟元发仲子。天启五年(1625)恩贡,崇祯初为中书舍人,给事武英殿。书画咸有家风,山水韵格兼胜。明亡,绝粒死,年六十一,谥节愍。
       文震亨家富藏书,长于诗文会画,善园林设计,著有《长物志》十二卷,为传世之作。并著有《香草诗选》、《仪老园记》、《金门录》、《文生小草》等。近年有学者从明代物质文化的角度深入探讨文震亨的《长物志》。
       文震亨的小楷清劲挺秀,刚健质朴,一如其人。他曾任中书舍人,小楷当是常用之体。从其传世的小楷作品来看,既有起曾祖父所开之家风,细观又不全类其曾祖小楷形体与笔法。而是吸收了欧体的某些笔法与结体,融入家法中,和他是曾祖稍有差距。
       文震亨:“尖”、“齐”、“圆”、“健”,笔之四德。
       文震亨曾任职弘光朝,亲身经历了弘光帝在南京监国及继统的过程。当时写有《福王登极实录》一文,体现了甲申之变后南都的一些基本情况。特别三文尾提到“所传辽东总兵吴三桂疾驰至山海结虏入关,大杀贼十数万,夺其辎重无算;边镇诸宿将,无不投袂奋剑,以报国仇者。中兴大业,岂灵武草次、靖康偏安之足比哉。”,证明当时吴三桂营造借兵入关勤王的骗局成功欺骗了南都朝廷的事实。

福王登极实录

南直吴县 文震亨
恭闻监国自福邸至淮也,南都文武大臣及科道诸臣方集议拥立之事。佥谓以亲、以贤、以序,即当推奉为臣民主。操臣诚意伯刘孔昭、督臣马士英,各传谕所部将士,以代来中兴之意。将士闻命感泣,亦愿奉为六军主,建义旗讨贼。诸臣恭谒陵庙,告非常大变,恸哭;乃告奉监国之议。议协,参赞机务兵部尚书史可法至浦口,具启迎驾于淮安;礼部司务官赍南都百官公启,迎驾于仪真。渡江,泊燕子矶,百官郊迎,命以王礼见。监国素袍角带,对百官恸哭;百官行礼,手掖之,寻赐茶。言及宗社震惊、大行异变,复哭失声。因流涕言『封疆大计,惟仗诸先生主持;至迎立,决不敢当。盖播迁以来,国母尚无消息,故不携宫眷一人,始意欲择浙东僻地暂居,以使迎奉。今值国难至此,迎立之事,何忍言』!睿音琅然,而睿容具日月表,百官瞻觐,感举额谓宗社之福。
次日,为五月朔戊子。从水西门启驾,由城外至孝陵,乘马导引官请从东门乡路入。监国逊避,从西门至飨殿,祭告礼毕,即向懿文大子陵园驻瞻良久。从朝阳门入,至东华门,步行过殿陛,行谒奉先殿礼,出西华门,暂以内守府为行宫,百官进见,行四拜礼,传令旨召诸臣入议事
兵部尚书史可法、魏国公徐弘基、灵壁侯汤国祚各有奏;国祚以户部靳饷,奏对微激,署礼部兵部侍郎吕大器谓非对君体,止之。
京畿道御史祁彪佳,因奏纲纪法度,为国之本;吏科李沾合诸科道奏,以朝班宜肃。盖时旧京朝仪久废也。彪佳又奏早颁大号、敬天法、祖诸事。监国皆虚怀纳之。
朝毕,群臣退议登极、监国次第,咸谓『仰窥睿意,必欲发丧誓师,晓然示天下以讨贼大义,而后正位。宜先上监国玺绶,而后劝进』。乃即范金铸监国宝。以次日入朝,大臣仍面奏劝进,监国复辞。谕诸臣谓:『人生忠孝为本,今大雠未报,孤不能事君;先王殉节、国母播越,孤不能事亲:无遽登大宝之礼。且闻东宫与永、定二王尚在贼中,或可致之。又桂、惠、瑞三王皆叔父行,惟诸先生择贤迎立』。言讫泪俱。大臣及言官再奏,求允所请。监国逊谢如前。署礼部臣大器率百官跪奏劝进第一笺,传旨暂领监国,百官退;逾时,又进第二笺,命传进,手书批签,仍允监国,余所请不允。
又次日,传旨:『官止服青锦绣,朝拜仍行王礼,不必穿带朝服』。百官以典礼重大,具朝服入。监国亲行告天礼,升座,百官四拜,魏国公弘基率百官跪进监国符宝。受讫,再行四拜礼,乃退。诸臣尚有言宜即登大位以镇人心者,御史彪佳谓『:令旨先受监国之请,其名极正,贤德益彰。既可以示谦让,海内闻之,皆知监国无因以得位之心。俟发丧,择吉登大宝,布告天下为当』。礼臣、魏国,皆然其议,议乃定。即用右都御史张慎言为吏部尚书,传旨合推阁员。疏上,先用兵部尚书可法进东阁大学士兼兵部尚书如故,户部尚书高弘图改礼部尚书、进东阁大学士;俱入阁办事。而召工部侍郎周堪赓为户部尚书,凤督士英进东阁大学士兼兵部尚书、都察院右都御史,总督凤阳等处如故。而以前会推疏词林仅推掌翰林院詹事府詹事姜曰广一人,传旨吏部:『予察祖制,阁员俱用词林;至先帝,间用别衙门官。今正推如何止列姜先生一人,似与祖制不符。着该部再行添推来看』。吏部会九卿再具疏,仍以曰广居首,而推礼部尚书王铎、礼部右侍郎陈子壮、詹事府少詹事黄道周、右春坊右庶子徐汧;令旨再点用首,次二员俱进东阁大学士兼礼部尚书入阁办事,诸臣以次待用。六卿九列既备官,复催补科道各员,皆一时人望。寻特遣彪佳颁赦谕江南云。
是举也,群臣当攀号愤变之后,天柱地维摧陷顷刻矣;值真主缵运,日月重光,实惟二祖列宗在天式凭以有此。海内闻当阳在即,用人行政,动协人情,未有朝端已见清宁而丑类不授首膏钺者。刻□□复神京,寸砾逆贼;虽在草莽,胥忍死拭目俟之。若诸臣思祖宗三百年德泽在人、大行十七载焦劳求治,洗涤肺肠,以事新主、扫除门户以修职业,何事不可办、何罪不可讨,亦何功名不可就哉!
闻法驾入都之日,都人聚观呼万岁;见两大星夹日而行,钟山紫气中五色云见。而先是龙江浮楩楠巨木千章,若为鼎新大内而出者;两都并建,聿还旧观。江北诸大师,皆上表劝进。所传辽东总兵吴三桂疾驰至山海结虏入关,大杀贼十数万,夺其辎重无算;边镇诸宿将,无不投袂奋剑,以报国仇者。中兴大业,岂灵武草次、靖康偏安之足比哉!

English is introduced

Wen Zhenheng (1585 - 1645, at the age of about 60 years), the word Kai Mei, Han writer, painter, landscape architect, was born in the Ming EmpireCountyCounty (now Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Province), is Wen Zhengming , Wen Peng Sun, Wen Zhen Meng brother, Wen Yuan made Zhong Zi. Apocalypse five years (1625) Ngong, Chongzhen early for the book Scheeren, to things Wuying Hall. Painting and calligraphy salty has a home style, landscape rhyme grid and wins. Ming death, death must die, sixty-one years, posthumous festival 愍.
 Wen Zhenheng family rich books, longer than the poetry will be painting, good garden design, a "long material" twelve volumes, for the handed down. And a "vanilla poems", "instrument old garden", "Golden Gate", "text of small grass" and so on. In recent years, some scholars from the perspective of material culture of the Ming Dynasty in-depth study of Wen Zhenheng's "long material."
       Wen Zhenheng the small case Qing Jin Ting Xiu, strong and simple, as the people. He was a book scheeren, small capital when the body is commonly used. From his handicraft work, both from the grandfather of the family style, not all the small scale of its great-grandfather Xiaokai form and brushwork. But the absorption of the European body of certain strokes and knot body, into the family law, and he is a great gap between the great-grandfather.
       Wen Zhenheng: "sharp", "Qi", "round", "health", the pen of Germany.
       Wen Zhenheng worked in Hong Guangchao, personally experienced Hong Guangdi in Nanjing and the process of monitoring the country. At that time wrote "Fu Wang Dengji recorded," a text, reflects the change of the South after some of the basic situation. In particular, the article refers to the three tail, "said the Liaodong General Soldiers Wu Sangui gallop to the mountain and sea knot Krupp entry, killing tens of thousands of thieves, won the baggage countless; edge of the town of Zhu Su, all Fenmei Fenjian to report the enemy. ZTE great cause, Qi Lingwu grass, Jingkang side of the foot than zai. ", Proved that Wu Sangui to build a borrower into the Qin Wang scam successfully deceived the South are the facts of the court.

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