萧云从

萧云从(1596~1673) ,字尺木,号于湖老人、无闷道人、默思。安徽芜湖人,明末清初芜湖著名画家,姑孰画派创始人。其父肖慎余,为明乡饮大宾,懂绘画。云从幼而好学,“笃志绘事,寒暑不废”。

  • 中文名萧云从
  • 性别
  • 祖籍安徽芜湖人
  • 出生日期1596
  • 逝世日期1673
  • 职业明末清初芜湖著名画家
  • 主要成就姑孰画派创始人
  • 代表作品《梅花堂遗稿》、《易存》、《韵通》、《杜律细》、《太平山水图》
  • 所属年代明代
  • 尺木
  • 于湖老人、无闷道人、默思
简介

萧云从(1596~1673) ,字尺木,号于湖老人、无闷道人、默思。安徽芜湖人,明末清初芜湖著名画家,姑熟画派创始人。
       幼而好学,笃志绘画、寒暑不废。明崇祯十一年(1638)与弟云倩加入复社,次年为副贡生。入清不仕,闭门读书赋诗作画,或遨游名山大川。善画山水格疏秀,兼工人物,与孙逸齐名。
早期作《秋山行旅图卷》,绘《太平山水图》43幅,另有《闭门拒额图》、《西门恸器图》、《秋山访友图》、《江山览胜图卷》、《归寓一元图卷》、《谷幽深卷》、《崔萧诗意卷》等。清康熙元年(1662)重修太白楼,画匡庐、峨嵋、泰岱、衡岳四大名山,7日而就,遂绝笔。晚年结识铁匠汤天池,指导汤以铁作画。著有《梅花堂遗稿》、后黄铖编有《萧、汤二老遗诗合编》,画为故宫博物馆、安徽省博物馆所珍藏。
        其父肖慎余,为明乡饮大宾,懂绘画。云从幼而好学,“笃志绘事,寒暑不废”。1638年云从与弟云倩,加入复社,与东林党相呼应,同魏忠贤阉党马士英、阮大铖等斗争。1644年,明廷灭亡。1645年清兵攻占扬州,三月占领芜湖;忧愤国破家亡,前既不仕明,今更不愿与清合作,或闭门读书赋诗作画,或遨游名山大川,诗画才华,成就日著。诗继承杜甫,多即事忧时之作,雄浑奔放,音韵铿锵,著有《易存》、《韵通》、《杜律细》等。其作品诗中有画,画中有诗,配上俊逸潇洒,散朗秀健的书法,达到诗书画三者统一和谐的境界,被誉为“神品”。
       明末清初,我国画坛上出现了一个奇峰独秀的画派,这就是以太平府署所在地姑孰(今当涂)为名的“姑孰画派”。这个画派的创始人萧云从,字尺木、默思,又号于湖渔人、无闷道人、东海萧生、钟山老人等。他少年科考不利,直到44岁才考中崇祯贡生。入清后,拒不做官,长期闭门读书,或漫游长江两岸,或驻足名山大川,从事诗文、书画的创作活动。他的画初学倪云林、黄公望,晚年放笔,遂成“清疏韶华、笔墨爽利”而独树一帜的姑孰画派。
       萧云从的画镂版传世的有以人物为主的《离骚图》64幅和以山水为主的《太平山水图》43幅。当时太平府所辖的当涂、芜湖一带,跟他学画的人很多。其中有他的弟弟萧云倩、儿子萧一 ,侄子萧一荐、萧一箕,犹子萧一芸,还有画友陈延、孙逸、韩涛、方兆曾、释海涛 、王履瑞、施长春等数十人。尤其是自成一派的“海阳四大家”之中的释渐江、孙逸二位著名画家,也都向他求教过画艺,当时萧云从被他们尊为画派的始祖。
      

太平山水图

顺治五年(1648年),萧云从创作的《太平山水图》43幅,是他的杰出作品,又是姑孰画派的代表作之一。这部创作是他应张万选之请而绘的。张万选在是书《序》中说:“余理姑孰四载,姑名胜日在襟带间,披榛涉 ,溯洄寻源,实愧未能。今适量移北去,山川绵渺,遥集为艰,岁月驱驰,佳游不再,于是属于湖萧子尺木,为撮太平江山之尤胜者,绘图以寄。”萧云从按照张万选的意见,在创作这幅长卷时,采取左图右文,用正、草、隶篆等各种书法题词标明仿唐迄明的36家笔墨技法构图,每幅图均题有古代名诗人的诗一首,以之三者结合形成长卷。张万选看了萧云从的画卷后深有感慨地说:“余间一展卷,如见鸟啼,如闻花落,如高山流水环绕映带,如池榭亭台渗绩满眼,即谓置我于丘壑间,讵曰不宜?”可谓“萧子绘事妙天下”。
       在这43幅《太平山水图》中,计有《太平山水全图》1幅,当涂山水15幅,芜湖册水14幅,繁昌册水13幅。其第一幅《太平山水全图》,既像是这本书的序言,又像是太平府全景鸟瞰图,用功甚力。按画卷顺序,依次为一《青山》,二《东田》,三《采石》,四《牛渚》,五《望夫山》,六《黄山》,七《天门山》,八《白 山》,九《景山》,十《尼坡》,十一《龙山》,十二《横望山》,十三《灵墟山》,十四《褐山》,十五《杨家渡》。在这些作品中,萧云从均采用古人的画法,题古人的诗句,绘当时的自然风景,在构图特征和布置点染上颇具独特风格。如《采石》图,萧云从在画幅的右边用文与可的《蜀道图》折带皱法描绘翠螺山,只见太白楼耸立山中,山间万松林立,林中置一清风亭,亭中一人远望,两人在平地行走,另一人坐在采石矶头欣赏白浪滔天、风帆片片的长江景色,这个地方就是李白饮酒赏月处。画幅的左边则是浩瀚的长江,江岸杨柳、楼阁掩映生姿,江中一小舟由翠螺山左行,似送游人回当涂县城,将远山、远帆处理在山腰,以突出采石矶耸立之势。再题苏东坡的诗:“天人几休员一沤,谪仙非谪乃其游。麾斥八极隘九州,化为两鸟鸣相酬。一鸣一止三千秋,开元有道为稍留。縻之不可矧肯求。西望太白横峨岷,眼高四海空无人。大儿汾阳中令君,小儿天台坐忘真。平生不识高将军,手污吾足乃敢嗔,作诗一笑君应闻。”使人追忆起大诗人李白的生平及其在采石的游踪。
       18世纪,《太平山水图》流传到日本,日本画家称它为《萧尺木画谱》、《太平山水画贴》,日本南宗画家池大雅不仅构图、用墨、运笔等模仿萧云从技法,就是题款的字体也与萧云从相似。萧画在日本流传很广,研习的人很多,促使日本的南画发展很快。我国现代文学家郑振铎对《太平山水图》极为赞扬,他说:“图四十三,无一不具深远之趣。或浪卷云舒,烟笼渺渺;或田园历历如毯纹,山峰耸叠似岛屿;或作危崖惊险之势,或写乡野恬静之态,大抵诸家山水画作风,无不毕于斯,可谓集大成之作矣。”
       萧云从的山水画卷多种多样,除以上代表作外,还画有《千峰万壑图》、《莲峰高士图》、《西台恸哭图》、《黄山松石图卷》、《青山高隐图卷》、《秋山行旅图卷》、《归寓一元图卷》、《青绿山水长卷》等。尤其是他在顺治十三年(1656年)元旦创作的《云台疏树图卷》和《江山胜览图卷》,内容十分丰富。云台山位于江宁县南,山脉绵亘,画卷连接到慈姥山、马鞍山、白壁山、望夫山、翠螺山诸山,萧云从描绘的这一带风景,正是他长期生活在这一地区深入观察自然景物的结果。画面自左而右,从崇山峻岭、茂林修竹开始,接着巧妙地描绘了古寺、集镇、竹篱、茅舍、舟楫、行旅,最后以浩渺的烟岚结尾,山环江绕,峰回路转,使人一看便知这是马鞍山、采石一带的画境。而在画面上的点景人物,有三两闲话的,有骑驴赶路的,有樵夫担柴的,有纤夫拉船的,无不生动自然,充满了那个时代的生活气息。萧云从在马鞍山地区除作卷轴画外,还应太平知府胡季瀛的邀请,为采石矶太白楼绘制了“峨眉烟云、华岳苍松、匡庐瀑布、秦岱旭日”四幅名山壁画,使“名山之胜”“仙魄攸存”。当萧云从的壁画完成后,立即引起轰动,文人墨客纷至沓来,赞叹不绝。

作品

云从国画,师法古人而创新,师造化而独特。山水画,融宋元诸家笔墨、丘壑于一体,“以黄公望的瘦树、山石为之纵横,润以马远泼墨之法”,而能随意成卷丈余。其间丘壑布置,千变万化,层出不穷,使人观之不厌;岩石林木的表现,深厚坚实,穿插有致;不论水墨着色,皴擦喧染,都苍劲秀润,呈现出空间深度;点景人物,自然生动,屋宇、舟车、驮马安排得体。早期作《秋山行游图卷》,显露才华,清乾隆阅后题诗“几点萧萧树,疏皴淡淡山。由来以意胜,无不寓神间。秋景宜寥廓,客人自往还。粗中具工细,识语破天悭”。后应万选之请,为《太平三书》绘制《太平山水图》,将太平州所属地区山水,绘图43幅,其中:太平山水图一幅,当涂风景15幅,芜湖风景14幅,繁昌风景13幅,每幅题古诗一首,说明仿某古人之画幅,没有雷同,各具特色。还有《闭门拒客图》、《西门恸哭图》、《秋山访友图》、《江山览胜图卷》、《归寓一元图卷》、《磵谷幽深卷》、《崔华诗意卷》等。人物画,继承发扬李公麟的白描技法,代表作为《离骚图》,人物造型准确,神态动人,点缀景物,赋有生命,云从对《离骚》感触甚深,作《天问》插图,绘制《九歌图》,清高宗得尺木《离骚图》后,命侍臣补绘重刻,并题《山水图卷》云“四库呈览《离骚图》,始识云从其人也,……览观长卷四丈余,观之不厌意不舍”。
       萧云从深恶官僚,清初,拘节守志,不肯臣事,不结权贵。顺治十七年(1660),太平知府胡季瀛,求画不与。1662年,重修大自楼,故强其绘太白楼壁画。出于对大自的热爱,“画匡庐、峨嵋、泰岱、衡岳四大名山,七日而就,遂绝笔。”志行高洁,为人敬慕。新安画派大师渐江,曾师其下,后代临摹者愈众。顺治五年戊子(1648),《太平山水图》刻本,顺治二年乙酉(1645),《离骚图》刻本,曾流传日本。《太平山水图》为大坂兼葭堂收藏,《离骚图》为日本美术史家大村西崖收入《图本丛书》刊行。《秋山游图卷》,为东京帝室博物馆所藏,对日本南画勃兴起着促进作用。云从晚年结识铁匠汤天池,指导天池以铁作画,创制铁画。
       1673年,云从“执诸同志手,曰:‘道在六经,行本五伦,无事外求之,仍衍其旨。赋诗毕,瞑去”,享年七十八岁,葬于芜湖城西严家山。其诗由后学编成《梅花堂遗稿》,继后,黄钺将云从和汤燕生之诗编成《肖、汤二老遗诗合编》。其画为故宫博物院、安徽省博物馆所珍藏。1986年,芜湖市人民政府,在镜湖之畔筑“尺木亭”,并以紫铜铸其全身坐像于亭畔,供人瞻仰。
 

English is introduced

Xiaoyun from (1596 ~ 1673), the word foot wood, the lake in the elderly, no boring Road, meditation. Anhui Wuhu, Wuhu famous late Ming and early Qing Dynasty painter, the founder of Gushu school.
       Young and studious, Atsushi painting, summer and winter do not waste. Ming Chongzhen eleven years (1638) and the younger brother of the cloud to join the Fu Society, the next year for the deputy tribute students. Into the Qing Shi Shi, behind closed doors reading poetry painting, or travel mountains and rivers. Good landscape painting Shuishu, and workers, and Sun Yi.
Early "Qiushan travel map volume", painted "Taipingshan water" 43, and "closed-door quotas", "West Gate instrument map", "Akiyama visit friends map", "Jiangshan tour map", " One yuan map "," deep valley volume "," Cui Xiao poetic volume "and so on. Qing Emperor Kangxi reign (1662) rebuilt Taibailou, painting Kuanglu, Emei, Tai Dai, Heng Yue four famous mountains, and on the 7th, then must pen. In his later years to get to know the blacksmith soup Tianchi, to guide the Tang to iron painting. Author of "Plum Hall posthumous manuscripts", after Huang Cheng compiled "Xiao, Tang Erlao poem co-edited", painting the National Palace Museum, Anhui Province Museum collection.
        His father Xiao Shen Yu, for the Ming Dynasty to drink the VIP, understand painting. Cloud from the child and studious, "Atsushi painted things, not cold and heat waste." In 1638 the cloud from the younger brother and Qian Yun, joined the complex society, echoed with the Donglin party, with Wei Zhongxian Yandang Ma Shiying, Ruan Dacheng and other struggles. In 1644, the Ming court demise. In 1645 the Qing army captured Yangzhou, March occupation of Wuhu; worried about the country broken home, neither Shiming, this more reluctant to cooperate with the Qing, or closed-door reading poetry painting, or travel mountains and rivers, poetry talent, . Poems inherited Du Fu, more than that when things are worrying, vigorous and unrestrained, phonological sonorous, author of "easy to save", "rhyme", "Du law fine" and so on. His poems in his poems are painted with poems, accompanied by handsome chic, casual and beautiful calligraphy, to achieve the unity of poetry and calligraphy three harmonious realm, known as the "god".
       At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, there was a Qifengduixuu painting school in the Chinese painting circle. This is the "Gushu Painting School" in the name of the seat of the Taiping Government Office. The founder of this school Xiao Yun from the word, wood feet, meditation, but also in the lake fisherman, no boring Road, the East China Sea Xiao Sheng, Zhongshan elderly and so on. His junior expedition negative, until the age of 44 before the test Chongzhen tribute. After entering the Qing Dynasty, refused to be an official, long-term closed-door study, or roaming the Yangtze River, or stop famous mountains and rivers, engaged in poetry, calligraphy and painting creative activities. His paintings beginner Ni Yunlin, Huang Kung-wang, put pen in his later years, then as "clear Shaohua, ink refreshing" and unique Gu school.
       Xiaoyun from the painting engraved version of the handed down to the figures of the "Lisao map" 64 and the landscape-based "Taiping Mountain" 43. Tai Ping Fu was under the jurisdiction of Dangtu, Wuhu area, with him to learn a lot of people painting. Among them are his brother Xiao Yunqian, son Xiao Yi, nephew Xiao a recommend, Xiao Yiji, still child Xiao Yiyun, as well as painting friends Chen Yan, Sun Yi, Han Tao, Fang Zhaoceng, Xie Haitao, Wang Lurui, Shi Changchun dozens of people . Especially the self-contained "Haiyang four" among the release Jiang, Sun Yi two famous painter, also asked him to ask for art, then Xiaoyun from their ancestors as a painting school.
       

Biography

Qing Shunzhi five years (1648), Xiao Yun from the creation of the "Taipingshan water" 43, is his outstanding works, but also a painting of the representative works. This creation is his painting should be drawn and Zhang Wanxuan. Zhang Wan-election in the book "order", said: "This is the right amount of reason to move to the north, the mountains Mian Miao, Yao Ji, For the hardships, years of driving, good travel is no longer, then belong to Lake Xiao Xizhi wood, for the summary of the Taiping Mountains of the winner, drawing to send. "Xiao Yun Zhang Wan-election from the views of the creation of this scroll, The right of the left, right, grass, Li and other calligraphy inscriptions marked Tang imitation of the 36 ink techniques composition, each picture are entitled ancient poet of a poem to the three combined to form a scroll . Zhang Wanxuan read Xiao Yun from the picture after the deep emotion, said: "I saw a roll, such as see the birds cry, such as the smell of flowers, such as mountains and rivers around the map, such as pool pavilion pavilion infiltration eyeful, I am in the hills and gullies, 讵 said not? "Can be described as" Xiao child painted wonderful world. "
       In this 43 "Taipingshan water", including "Taiping landscape full map" 1, when the landscape 15, Wuhu water 14, Fanchang water 13. Its first "Taiping landscape full map", both like the preface of this book, but also like a panoramic view of the Pacific Horizon, hard work. According to the order of the picture, it is followed by one "Aoyama", two "Dongtian", three "Quarry", four "Niuzhu", five "Wangfu Mountain", six "Huangshan", seven "Tianmen Mountain" "," Nine "Jingshan", ten "Nepal", eleven "Longshan", twelve "Wangwangsan", thirteen "lingxue mountain", fourteen "brown mountain", fifteen "yangjiadu". In these works, Xiaoyun from the use of the ancients of the painting, the title of the ancients poem, painting at the time of the natural landscape, in the composition of the characteristics and arrangement of the dotted with a unique style. Such as "quarrying" map, Xiaoyun from the right side of the frame with the text and can be the "Shu Road map" fold wrinkled law painted Tsui Luoshan, saw Taibai House stands in the mountains, mountain Wansong forest, Breeze Pavilion, one in the Pavilion of Yuanwang, two people walking in the ground, another person sitting in the Rocky Rocky head to enjoy the monstrous waves, windsurfing piece of the Yangtze River scenery, this place is Li Bai drinking moon. The left side of the frame is the vast Yangtze River, riverbank willow, pavilions nestled, Jiangzhong a boat from the Cuoluoshan left, it seems to send visitors back to Dangtu County, the mountains, far sails handling in the mountainside to highlight the quarry Rise of the trend. Again the title of Su's poem: "Heaven and Earth's members a few retired, immortal immortality is its tour. Rejection Chaojiu Kyuju, into two birds with phase pay." Yiming only three Qianqiu, Kaiyuan way for Slightly left. Chi's not willing to seek. West Point Taibai Heng Mindanao, eye high universal empty .Fenyang Zhong Lingjun, pediatric rooftop to sit forget .Life does not know the high general, hand dirty foot is dare Anger, a poem should be smiled Jun should be. "Reminiscent of the great poet Li Bai's life and its quarrying in the quarry.
       In the 18th century, the "Taiping Mountain Water Map" spread to Japan, the Japanese painter called it "Xiaozhu wood painting spectrum", "Taiping landscape painting paste", the Japanese Southern painter Chiaki pool not only composition, ink, pen and other imitation Xiaoyun from techniques, Is the title of the font and Xiao Yun from similar. Xiao painting widely circulated in Japan, a lot of people learning, prompting the rapid development of Japan's Southern painting. Zheng Zhenduo of modern Chinese writer of the "Taipingshan water" very praised, "he said:" Tufan forty-three, all without a profound interest. Or waves Juan Shu, Yanliao transitory man; or pastoral calendar, such as blankets, towering peaks Or as a cliff thrilling trend, or write the quiet countryside of the state, probably all kinds of landscape style, all Bi Si Si, can be described as the culmination of the carry on.
       Xiaoyun from the landscape of a variety of landscape paintings, in addition to the above representative, but also painted "Qianfeng Wanhe map", "Lotus Peak Gao Shitu", "West Taiwan Wailing", "Huangshan turquoise scroll", " Hidden map volume "," Akiyama travel map volume "," home to a yuan map volume "," green landscape scroll "and so on. Especially in his 13 years of Shunzhi (1656) New Year's creation of the "cloud sparse tree volume map" and "Jiangshan Sheng map volume", the content is very rich. Yuntaishan is located in the south of Jiangning County, the mountains stretches, the picture is connected to Cimul Hill, Ma On Shan, Baibi Mountain, Wang Fu Shan, Tsui Luoshan mountains, Xiaoyun from the depiction of this area landscape, it is his long-term living in this area in-depth Observe the results of natural scenery. From the left and right, from the mountains, Maolin Xiuzhu start, and then cleverly depicts the temple, market town, bamboo fence, cottage, boat, trip, and finally to the vast smoke Lan end, mountain ring around the river, It is known Ma On Shan, quarry area of ​​painting. The point of King on the screen characters, there are three two gossip, a hurry to drive a donkey, a woodcutter firewood, a fiber pull boat, all vivid and natural, full of the breath of life that era. Xiao Yun from the Ma On Shan area in addition to the scroll painting, but also the Taiping prefect Hu Jiying invitation for the Cai Shiji Taibai Lou draw "Emei smoke, Huayue pine, Kuanglu falls, Qin Dai Xu" four famous frescoes, so that "Mountain wins" "Immortal soul Yau deposit." When Xiaoyun from the completion of the murals, immediately caused a sensation, writers and writers come in a throng, endless praise.

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