周天球

周天球(1514-1595),字公瑕,号幻海,又号六止居士、群玉山人、侠香亭长。南直隶太仓(今属江苏)人。明书画家。随父迁居苏州吴县,从文徵明游,得承其书法,闻名吴中。尤擅大小篆、古隶行楷,一时丰碑大碣,皆出其手,亦擅画兰草。

  • 中文名周天球
  • 性别
  • 祖籍江苏苏州市太仓
  • 出生日期1514
  • 逝世日期1595
  • 职业明书画家
  • 所属年代明代
  • 公瑕
  • 幻海,又号六止居士、群玉山人、侠香亭长
人物简介

周天球,字公瑕,号幼海、六止居士等。其父辈从太仓徙居苏州,十五岁便从文征明游,研习诗文书画,据于真行《谷城山房集》载:文征明“极许可之,曰:他日得吾笔者,周生也”。据此可知乃师对周的期许与赏识。文征明书风的形成,我想这其中除了文氏真、行、隶、篆四体皆功力非外,重要的是其他门类的艺术素养拓宽了文征明的胸次,于书画诗文外,文征明的读书“养性”及人格的修炼完善至为关键。才气纵横、放浪形骸的祝允明唐寅对文明的“品性”也是心悦诚服的,而文氏更是“身教胜于言教”地传习于其弟子。无疑,周天球在艺德品格上全盘接受了文征明的教养,与文氏一样,周天球也享了高寿,文征明驾鹤后周天球执吴门艺坛之盟。
       周天球的诗名似乎为书名所掩。据《诗薮》中载:“周公瑕诗五言律沉婉有致,七言律尤工,合作处高华整丽,只上下嘉隆诸子,而率以书名掩之。如游燕诸作、毗罗阁、观象台等篇皆必传于后。”周天球以诗传世,名闻骚坛。而周氏书画更得文氏正脉,擅长画兰,其兰花的气格也都如其诗,风流飘逸,沉婉有致,高华整丽,而实质上,周氏的诗、书、画皆俱备着高蹈华贵的堂皇气象与苍润华滋的沉逸风神。
       其书法作品有《苏轼前赤壁赋卷》、《五言律诗轴》、《五律扇面》、《行书陋室铭轴》、《宿牛谷山诗扇面》和《致白间尊先生尺牍》,著作有《谷城山房集》、《冯元成集》、《明画录》、《无声诗史》、《圆绘宝鉴续纂》和《画史会要》。

书法成就

周天球的书法,冯时可《冯元成集》中亦云:“公瑕善大小篆、古隶、行、楷,皆模范文太史,晚能自得蹊径,一时丰碑大碣,无不出其手。”周氏四体皆擅,对文征明的书风并非全盘继承而无发展。以南博所藏《为园暑真止•五言诗轴》分析,从结构上可看出周氏取法文征明而抒已意,甚至取法了吴门派先期李东阳和师兄的王宠的结字,以章草代今草,删繁就简,使整篇布局沉稳而工丽、高贵而朴实。其在用笔上传承了太师吴宽的用笔浑厚与沈周的骨力生辣。“秃笔取劲,姿尽骨全”。周天球独取了文征明的书学精义即结字的坚实与节度感,这在鉴定文、周书画时其用笔结构、笔触亦是相同的关键所在。
       周天球的结字间架“坚实”的,气息是高古的,这是功夫在诗外的一种书学气格,有论者在解析此幅书作时妄评不知所云,品评者没有目鉴古人原作便下笔千言,这是鉴家陋习。在南博库房当我打开周天球原作时,那种古雅气韵与用笔的生辣交融,方、园、涩、润矛盾的交叉而浑融一体,构成了一幅稳实凝重而蕴含静气、雅气、逸气的佳构,“士气”直朴观者眉宇。李应桢曾告诫文征明:博学而成一家。文征明的矜持节度周天球用苍润破法,吴门派传承发展的柔弱在于用笔过于尖峭而乏虚和,而在画学、书学上,周天球力克了此病,正如唐寅老师周臣最后感喟:我功夫比唐寅高,唯少读了几卷书而已。是的,少了这“几卷书”,“气格”就低了。这也是周天球的书法独到高明之处,写的就是读书人的“士气”而含润着这般拙趣。看易做难,做人亦如是,这便是古代读书人所谓的“养拙”功夫吧!

English is introduced

Zhou ball, the word public flaws, the number of young sea, six only lay. His father from Taicang resettlement in Suzhou, at the age of fifteen from Wen Zhengming travel, study poetry painting, according to the real line "Valley City Hill set" contains: Wen Zhengming "very license, said: he was my author, Zhou Sheng and also". This shows that the division is the week of the expectations and appreciation. Wen Zhengming book wind formation, I think this one in addition to Wen's true, line, scribe, seal four skill are extraordinary skill, the important thing is the other categories of artistic literacy widening Wen Zhengming chest times, Wen Zhengming 's reading of the "raise" and the cultivation of personality is critical. And the text of the "body is better than preaching" to pass on his disciples learned. No doubt, Zhou Yiqiu in the arts on the character of the overall acceptance of Wen Zhengming's education, and Wen's, Zhou also enjoyed a high birthday, Wen Zhengming driving crane after the implementation of Wu Men's Art Circle Week League.
       Zhou's poem name seems to cover the title. According to the "poem Tau" contains: "Zhou Gongxu poem five-law Shen Wan-induced, seven-law special workers, cooperation at Gao Hua Li, only up and down the Jialong philosophers, and cover the title. For the Piluo Pavilion, Observatory and other articles will pass in the post. "Zhou ball to poetry handed down, famous Shaao Tan. The Zhou's paintings are more text of the clock, good at painting orchids, the orchids are also as their poetry style, romantic elegance, Shen Wan has caused, Gao Hua Li, and in essence, Zhou's poetry, books, paintings are Are equipped with high-costly grand weather and Cang Run Watson Shen Yi Fengshen.
       His calligraphy works include: "Su Shi's Pre-Chibi Fragment", "Five-character Rhyme Poem", "Wulv Fan", "Shushi Ming-ming", "Su Niu Gu Shan Shan Fan" "Gu Chengshan room set", "Feng Yuancheng set", "Ming painting recorded", "silent poetry history", "circle painting Baojian continued compilation" and "history will be."

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