许道宁

 北宋画家。生卒年不详,活跃于北宋中期(约公元970年-1052年)。长安(今陕西西安)人。多写林木、野水、秋江、雪景、寒林、渔浦等,并点缀行旅、野渡、捕鱼等人物,行笔简快,峰峦峭拔,林木劲硬。有《秋江渔艇图》、《关山密雪图》、《秋山萧寺图》传世。

  • 中文名许道宁
  • 性别
  • 国籍北宋
  • 祖籍长安(今陕西西安)
  • 出生地汴京(今河南开封)
  • 出生日期不详
  • 逝世日期不详
  • 职业画家
  • 主要成就山水画
  • 代表作品《秋江渔艇图》、《关山密雪图》、《秋山萧寺图》
生平经历

早年在汴京(今河南开封)以卖药为生,以画吸引顾客,随药送画,逐渐得名,公卿士大夫争相延请。许氏长于画林木、平远、野水三种景色,晚年笔法简快,所画峰峦树木,峭拔劲硬。宋代邓国公张士逊作诗赠许氏:"李成谢世范宽死,唯有长安许道宁。"被认为是继李成范宽之后山水画第一人。米芾黄庭坚等大家都对其画作极为赞赏。许道宁性格豪放,嗜酒如命,人号"醉许",黄庭坚更是曾在《答王道济寺丞观许道宁山水图》诗中描绘了许道宁醉中作画的神情举止:"往逢醉许在长安,蛮溪大砚磨松烟。忽呼绢素翻砚水,久不下笔或经年。异时踏门闯白首,巾冠欹斜更索酒。举杯意气欲翻盆,倒卧虚樽即八九。醉拾枯笔墨淋浪,势若山崩不停手。数尺江山万里遥。满堂风物冷萧萧。"足见其画技之高超。

 

传世作品《秋江渔艇图》卷(又名《渔舟唱晚图》或《渔父图》)为许道宁代表作之一,绢本,淡设色,画群山远峰之下开阔江面上的数只渔艇。山法为一笔焦墨和浓墨直扫而下的长皴,绘出屏风一样陡峭的壁崖,表现峰峦的峭拔之势;其山势和曲折迂回的江水增加了构图上的变化;画树用大笔、粗笔,树干不皴,枝似雀爪,只用墨点点树叶,笔法豪壮而有气势;远处树木则用浓墨作长条状,少画枝叶,长短不一,这些画法不同于李成范宽,体现出风格狂逸的许氏特色。

传世作品

 《秋江渔艇图》藏于美国纳尔逊艺术博物馆

 

《关山密雪图》藏于台北故宫博物院

 

《秋山萧寺图》藏于日本京都友邻馆

Introduction to the artist

 Painters of the Northern Song Dynasty. The year of birth and death is unknown, and it was active in the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty (about 970-1052 A.D.). Chang'an (now Xi'an, Shaanxi Province) is a native. Write more about trees, wild water, Qiujiang, snow scenery, cold forest, fishing pools, and embellish travel, wild ferry, fishing and other characters, simple writing, steep peaks, strong trees. There are "Qiujiang Fishing Boat Map", "Guanshan Mixue Snow Map" and "Qiushan Xiaosi Map" handed down.

Early in Bianjing (now Kaifeng, Henan Province) to sell medicine for a living, drawing to attract customers, along with medicine to send paintings, gradually named, Gongqing scholar-bureaucrats rushed to postpone the invitation. Xu is good at painting trees, remote and wild water. In his later years, his brushwork is simple and fast. The trees he painted are steep and hard. In the Song Dynasty, Duke Deng Zhang Shixun wrote poems to Xu: "Li Cheng Xie Shi Fan Kuan died, only Chang'an Xu Daoling. "It is considered to be the first landscape painter after Li Cheng and Fan Kuan. Mifu and Huang Tingjian and others highly appreciate his paintings. Xu Daoling is bold and unrestrained. He is known as "drunk Xu". Huang Tingjian once described Xu Daoling's paintings in his poem "Answering Wang Daoji Monastery Chancellor's View of Xu Daoling's Landscape Map": "In the past, Xu Daoling used to be drunk in Chang'an, Manxi Inkstone to grind pine smoke. Suddenly call silk to turn inkstone water, long time no pen or years. When I step on the door and break into the white head, I wear a scarf and a crown and lean to drink more wine. Lift a cup to turn over the basin, lie down empty, that is, 89. Drunk pick up withered pen and ink, like landslides keep on. It's thousands of miles away. Everything in the hall is cold and desolate. "It shows that his painting skills are superb.

The handed down work "Qiujiang Fishing Boat Picture" (also known as "Fishing Boat Singing Evening Picture" or "Fisherman Picture") is one of Xu Daoning's representative works. It is silk, light colored, and paints a number of fishing boats on the open river under the mountains and distant peaks. Shanfa is a long skull swept down by scorching ink and thick ink. It draws cliffs as steep as a screen, showing the steep elevation of peaks. Its mountain situation and tortuous rivers increase the change of composition. It draws trees with big brushes, thick brushes, unsmooth trunks, sparrow claws, and only dots leaves with ink. Its brushwork is bold and vigorous; distant trees use thick ink for long strips, few branches and leaves, not long or short. First, these paintings are different from Li Cheng and Fan Guang, reflecting Xu's characteristic of wild style.

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