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贾平西

 贾平西 1937年出生于山东蓬莱人。画家。1964年毕业于鲁迅美学院中国画系花鸟专业,中国一级画家。

 
  • 中文名贾平西
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 出生地山东蓬莱
  • 出生日期1937.12
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校鲁迅美术学院
  • 主要成就在北京人民大会堂举行艺术研讨会
  • 代表作品《留秋不住》、《萧索》
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专访著名花鸟画家贾平西

中国美术网 09-18 浏览

素描 一头桀骜不驯的长发,一张蓬勃着生机的脸,一双隐在大墨镜后面的眼睛,一张随时准备反唇相讥的嘴;走起路来昂首阔步,聊起天来天马行空,不时窜出几句类似“脸盆里扎猛子———不知深浅”...
人物简介
贾平西-畅谈如惊雷 挥毫似狂风

 1978年<秋光图>获黑龙江省美术作品展览一等奖,并于1979年入选“第四届全国美术作品展览”。1981年《山高水长》入选“第五届全国美术作品展览”,获“黑龙江省美术作品展览”二等奖。1984年《秋思》入选“第六届全国美术作品展览”获优秀作品奖,被中国美术馆收藏。1986年《小院篱影扫不尽》入选在日本举办的“中国现代书画家作品展”,并收入作品集,同年,《守信君子》入选“当代中国花鸟画邀请展”。 1987年《昨夜西风》、《0》“有题》、《消逝》、《留秋不住》、《萧索》等作品入选“全国第二届新人新作展”,1988年《消逝》入选东北三省“关东画展”,获优秀作品奖,并获黑龙江省文艺创作大奖赛三等奖。

人物经历

 艺术探源

贾平西与扬州八怪

贾平西的怪是出了名的,人怪画怪书法怪。怪人怪才画怪画,其实一点也不奇怪。只要熟知中国画发展的历史,便可以了解,历史上中国画的任何一次演变和发展,都和一些怪才画家分不开的,顾恺之的痴绝,人称米癫的米芾,还有杨凝式,人称杨疯子,等等。当我们顺着怪圈找下去的时候,目光停留在清朝画家群体“扬州八怪”身上,我惊讶的发现,贾平西的绘画思想几乎与扬州八怪互颉 。他们基本属于一个艺术体系,区别在于贾平西有超越他们的现代的科学的造型功夫,以及一个超等现代人比具的因子,所以能集各怪于一身,又找不到各怪在他身上的痕迹。

一个人一旦在思想上确立了自己的人生观念,那么,这就将是他所有的行为归依在他的思想理念下。扬州八怪出奇出怪的思想,不可避免的要表现在他们的言行和艺术追求上。在此,我们发觉以扬州八怪艺术思想产生的根源,对照贾平西艺术思想产生的根源。通过两者的比较,以求破解中国画艺术创新的核心元素。这将是最有价值的比较和探讨,更是贾平西对中国画艺术贡献的指出。

 

思想行为比较

扬州八怪之所以被称为“怪”,主要是他们所创造的艺术特点,还有他们的思想行为与众不同。比如说金农“心情逍遥,世多以迂怪目之”。李方膺为人“傲岸不羁”,郑板桥“不矜小节,洒洒然狂达自放,”“日放言高谈,臧否人物,无所忌讳,坐是得狂名。”还有汪世慎嗜茶成癖,罗聘能白昼见鬼等等。

扬州八怪的怪异主要源于他们所处的哪个封建时代,社会贫富不均,人民疾苦,贪官污吏横行。他们作为仁人志士,心存正义,但又无能为力,所以,压抑在心中的“倔强不驯之气”,“平生高岸之气,”都通过举止言谈,各种各样怪异的生活习惯的表现,与人不同,以在心中保持自己的特行独立的高风亮节。

笔者并没有直接接触贾平西先生,不过,从身边老师和朋友的介绍上,及各种媒体宣传报道上,也有了解。贾平西先生确束怪人,不知他本人是否接受了历史上那些怪异名世的艺术家的影响。抑或是他的本性就是和那些怪异名家相象。贾平西自己曾坦言:“中国人多,画画的也多,一个不服一个,多数只服自己,不服别人,我常不服自己,不过我倒是更服郑板桥虚谷任伯年吴昌硕朱耷徐悲鸿潘天寿李可染黄胄、东山魁夷、安格尔、列宾、罗丹等。”上述诸家先贤,好象各个都是所处时代的特性独立的人。尤其更折服的郑板桥,正是扬州八怪中最为怪异的人物。这样看来,我将贾平西与扬州八怪进行思想艺术的比较就显得有落脚之地了。也就免掉了胡乱联系的嫌疑。

想来贾平西先生我行我素而出的怪,是找到了历史上诸多先贤作为依据,所以,才有恃无恐地实施他前无古人的艺术抱负。

 

艺术思想的比较

扬州八怪所处时代,无论山水画还是花鸟画,整个画坛被以所谓的“正宗”、“正派”的文人画代表王时敏王原祁邹一桂等所把握。要求习书作画以恪守古法为原则,以振兴古法为己任。而扬州八怪则重于在自己的创造和个性的发挥,所以,就被排除在“正宗”之外。皱一桂认为“有志古法者潜心模拟,方能得其真理。今之画者,不见一古人真迹,而私心自创,妄意涂抹,悬之市中,以易斗米,画安得佳耶?”被誉为一代画圣的山水画“正宗”画家王 也 宣称:“以元人笔墨,运宋人丘壑,而泽以唐人气韵,乃为大成。”这是非常典型的正宗派创作方法。而扬州八怪则十分注重从生活(大自然)中吸取创作素材。郑板桥说:“凡吾画竹,无所师承,多得于纸窗粉壁日光月影中耳。”金农也说:“冬心先生年逾六十始画竹,前贤竹派,不知有人,宅东西种植修 约千万计,先生即以为师。”他们所说的“无所师承”和“不知有人”,并非蔑视古法,凭空捏造。而是针对以学习古人来代替自己创作的因袭模仿作风,强调艺术应从生活和大自然直接观察得到感受来进行创作。所以,扬州八怪强调“自立门户”,发挥独创精神。李方膺说:“铁干铜皮碧玉枝,庭前老树是吾师,画家门户终须立,不学元章(王冕)与补之(扬无咎)。黄慎说:“志士当自立以成名,岂肯居人后哉!”于是,他便日夜琢磨,终于从唐代书法家怀素的草书中得到启发,以草书的笔法运用到人物画创作中,创立了自己的风格。郑板桥诗云:“四十年来话竹枝,日间挥写夜间思,冗繁削尽留清瘦,画到生时是熟时。”

再看贾平西,他深知中国花鸟画发展到今天,已经是法度齐备,风格发展空间极度狭小。他更深知,不走自己的路是死路一条,没有自己的风格,也就没有画画的必要。所以,他说:“宁肯喝自己劳动的小米粥,也不乞求古人、今人、洋人嚼剩的馍。”“以我的生活悟性、文学、艺术、哲理,到大千世界中去攫取别人没有描绘过的物象。”“自然为师不可违,半花一叶胜金银,剥皮抽筋连剔肉,空剩骨架也精神。”

这些朴实的话,蕴涵了艺术创新的精髓。贾平西也是咬定青山不放口,他说:“枯风闷雨北京城,钻进旮旯点丹青,一生事业以日计,百里路程九九行,剩下一里比九远,我要走到白头翁。”

看贾平西的画,我们能深刻感受到他师法自然,浓缩自然之功。也印证了他的艺术观的正确性。

这样看来,我们可以清晰的看到贾平西与扬州八怪的艺术观如出一辙,不差分毫。这也为他们创造出完全属于自己的风格迥异的艺术作品确立了航标。


艺术构成比较

因为贾平西与扬州八怪一脉相承的艺术观和追求方向,使他们在艺术构成上也惊人的相似。

首先,在绘画题材上,他们都选择了生活中一些平凡的事物景物,挖掘其平凡深层隐含的美的价值,出人意表。开辟了新的题材领域,扩大了审美视野。如李鳝的《土墙蝶花图》,在一堵破败的土墙上,长着一丛可爱的紫蝴蝶花,表现出作者在农村中看到春天消息的喜悦心情。这是在那个时代以前没有被描绘过的。两个审美反差极大的物象连接在一起,产生了超出物象本身的审美内涵。郑板桥等人画的案头小景,茶壶里插上一小枝兰花,李方膺画菊,不画石,不画山,而是被稻草绳捆着根部的一团泥土以及他们画的农家长吃的园蔬果菜 ---- 大蒜、芋头、西瓜、莲藕等,所有这些,都是极平常的事物,而正是在人们的熟视无睹中,他们发现了美的因素,以不拘形似的笔墨,加以热情歌颂。其意义,不但丰富了花鸟画的内容,更重要的是,扩大了花鸟画的审美范围。

在这方面,贾平西做的甚至比扬州八怪更为全面和突出。比如《新西兰使者》,画家描绘的是其貌不扬,寓意难详的屎壳郎,当画家赋予这些小生灵以新西兰使者的身份后,我们马上就会联想到这些小生灵为新西兰大草原清除牛粪,拯救牧草的神圣壮举。这种化腐朽为神奇的独特构思和开拓性选题使花鸟画具有了全新的境界。还有收割后的高粱茬子,秋霜后的蒲公英,牛粪里钻出的狗尿苔,等等,很多被古今画家弃之不理的物象,在贾平西的笔下,获得了美的身份,获得了真实存在的价值。从而,使花鸟画的题材获得了超越自然美的任意选择境界。

其次,在艺术表现手法上,贾平西与扬州八怪都把住了通过描绘一花一叶,一鸟一虫而延伸绘画的意境。这种表现手法往往被他们以人格化的情感介入,使简单的绘画内容得到了丰富的思想内涵。郑板桥曾有一首诗赠黄慎道:“爱看古庙破苔痕,惯写荒崖乱根,画到精神飘没处,更无真相有真魂。”这首诗可以作为他们艺术表现手法的共同写照。

这种艺术表现手法,其实也是贾平西和扬州八怪特性独立艺术思想和精神情操的宣泄方式。已经远远超越了对物象的转移摹写和为物象的常态写照,花的精神融入了人的精神,鸟的形态变成了人的形态。人格化的力量是伟大的,花鸟画因为人格化的力量渗透,使花鸟画艺术具有了非常感人的力量。从而达到了艺术的内容和形式的完美统一。看看郑板桥送给山东巡抚一幅墨竹题诗:“衙斋卧听萧萧竹,疑是民间疾苦声,些小吾曹州县吏,一枝一叶总关情。”竹子因为郑板桥人格化力量的渗透,变成了申诉民间疾苦的萧萧之竹。

总之,在贾平西和扬州八怪笔下,每一幅画都是他们心灵和感情的代言,没有纯粹的风花雪月的描述。他们不谋而合的达到了艺术的最高境界——人格化艺术,艺术美即人格美的显现。

通过对贾平西大量作品的研究,我还发现,其实在这方面,贾平西走的比扬州八怪还要深还要远。且不说他那扬州八怪望尘莫及的造型手段,和不可同日而语的运笔节奏,也不说他将茫茫六合成了花鸟的陪衬,让花鸟成了人生的比拟隐喻是扬州八怪闻所未闻的,只说他的题目处理——贾平西在描绘那些花木鸟兽鱼虫时,通过对物象形态的独特表现,再镶嵌一个绝妙的题目,顿时,就使简单的画面和物象充满了意味,充满了哲思,这更大大超越了扬州八怪花鸟画中简单的人格化连接,使花鸟画的审美达到了更高的全新境界。这是前人所没有的,属于贾平西对中国画的贡献。

那么,贾平西花鸟画独特艺术表现是怎么实现的呢?他比扬州八怪有那些超越呢?

在贾平西的艺术构建中,无论写实画,还是写意画,他首先介入的是思想,而后情感,再后才是物象和技法。他深知,艺术的本质在于对精神的表现和张扬。精神体验和表现是艺术的灵魂。所以,贾平西的画有着非常清晰的精神文化解读倾向。这也可能与中国画的“中和之美”的境界要求不相吻合。但却能直至人心。为了达到画前设定的艺术效果,他驾驭着写意的宏大、写实的精微,将抽象与具象物象形态进行了合理的艺术叠加。他关注的不是抽象与具象的分野,而是如何把造型艺术的各种元素从统一的规范中解救出来,分解、组合、重建,从而造成永恒的和谐,使之接近创造的核心。贾平西对自然物象的简化处理及其艺术语言的元素性、符号性、抽象性和分析性都由此而来。所以,他的作品题材表现方面,变得陌生和新颖。

比如在《凄寒岁月》中一只带有贾平西烙印的大公鸡,物象清晰可辨的是公鸡具象的轮廓,抽象的是没有任何细节刻画的泼墨。阴暗的风雨交加的背景,显示了一种自然力量。我们无从知晓画家是要讴歌凄寒岁月中公鸡坚定的步伐,还是在怜悯同情公鸡凄寒的岁月。在这里很容易引起了观者的回忆和视觉目的的同构。在狭长凄晦的画面上,那一抹鲜红是那样的刺眼,好象迎风的旌旗。清晰的脚环分明显现的是在凄寒岁月中依然坚定的方向。同时,我们再看李鳝画的《鸡》图,衰柳梳篱下,一只雄鸡在觅食,其上题诗到:“凉夜飘萧处士林,霜华不畏早寒侵,画鸡欲画鸡儿叫,唤起人间为善心。”这鸡声,正是画家看到不平社会现象所发出的呼声。这类作品,表现出扬州八怪对现实生活的关心,其思想境界限定在“为人行善”上。将两位画家的“鸡”作一比较,贾平西作品的人格力量则非常突出的显现出来,二者虽然都运用题诗延伸作品深层内涵,但贾平西运用的更加精妙,更加引人思考。

比如《山高水长》,在这幅画作中,画家运用多种蕴含狭长细竖元素的形体,进行反复叠加,达到了山更高,水更长的艺术效果。逼迫着我们吟诵那耳熟能详的大诗人李白的名句“飞流直下三千尺,疑是银河落九天”。可这些狭长元素的极度夸张运用,并不是要告诉我们山有多高,水有多长。真正表现的却是那更加挺拔伟岸的松柏,还有那些一飞冲天的仙鹤。此情此景,完全超越了山水的概念,荡起了我们心中的浩然之气。这是贾平西独特视觉语言所给予我们眼球的巨大冲击,和精神强力攫取。同样,我找到了郑板桥的一幅画作《松菊兰石四屏图轴——菊》,作品也出现了高山流水,但郑板桥有形的山体削弱了冲激而下的飞瀑气势,显得有些柔弱。根本无法像贾平西的《山高水长》那样引发我们的伟岸高绝的感动和敬仰。

再比如《疾风劲草》,这是贾平西先生 1964 年的作品,那时的他应该才二十岁,我很难相信,那么年轻的他竟然把贾氏绘画语言诠释的那么透彻。更想到贾平西携四十余年的艺术修炼功夫,展示他的艺术精神时,我们有震撼的理由了。在这幅画中,山是用铁棍的线条编织的,代表着坚强刚毅,代表着不可动摇。数只小鸟箭一样穿过火红的天空,疾风知劲草,烈火炼英雄。在中国那个特殊的年代,任何人都将变成革命运动的一分子,在阶级斗争的革命大潮中,拥护毛主席,跟着共产党走,是每一个青年的最高志愿。所以,贾平西的这幅作品,很好的诠释了那个火红时代,诠释了他的追求。作品高扬着革命的斗志。是一幅标准的写心成境的佳作。同样,扬州八怪中的罗聘,也凭空想象了一幅山水画《剑阁图》,则和他一贯的锐意改革创新的艺术追求格格不入了。尤其缺乏游历名山大川的体验,则更缺乏那种动人的真实感,也就无从达到写心成境的境界。这和青年时代的满腔报国热情的贾平西是无法相提并论的。

画书法比较

诗、书、画、印是中国画艺术的完美组合。大凡真正有造诣的书画家,往往能数样皆精。尤其古代中国画画家,更是非常注重全方位的学习。扬州八怪同样诗书画各个精妙。但他们在书法创作上一如他们的绘画创新,也是各有独步。汪士慎工篆刻和八分书,刻印与高翔、丁敬齐名,书法呈现出一种清高孤傲的品质;黄慎书法用笔枯劲,上下勾连,喜欢作怪,显示他的故意与众不同之心;金农创造出一种自称“漆书”的书体,面目独特。自成一体;郑板桥的书法最值得称道,以画法入笔,折中行书和隶书,创造出一种他自称为“六分半书”的书体,纵横错落,飘洒有致,形象鲜明。

再看贾平西的书法,类似蒙古的文字,也接近西安画派大画家石鲁的配画天文符号。其题写的方式似得启迪于郑板桥。往往穿插于画幅中,还直接充当画面的有机组成部分。

从扬州八怪和贾平西对书法同样也锐意创新,自成门户的追求中,我们能深深感受这些有着深刻使命感和责任感的艺术家,他们对艺术的追求,已经远远超越了对艺术本身的追求。他们是在追求自身精神的不断蜕变和超越。

当大家都在寻求中西合璧的求新面目或怪面孔时,当大家都以为中国传统画、文人画以走到穷途末路时,我们惊喜的发现,又一个中国传统的文人的绘画大师正向我们走来。那就是贾平西先生。他顺着扬州八怪等众多前贤的足迹,一路走来。扬州八怪的艺术已经成为了中国画传统的一部分,贾平西的绘画艺术也必将成为中国画的传统的一部分。但是,贾平西独特的创新理念和精神将永远启迪着无数后来者。

成就与荣誉

 1978年《秋光图》获黑龙江省美术作品展览一等奖,并于1979年入选

“第四届全国美术作品展览”。1981年《山高水长》入选“第五届全国美术作品展览”,获“黑龙江省美术作品展览”二等奖。1984年《秋思》入选“第六届全国美术作品展览”获优秀作品奖,被中国美术馆收藏。1986年《小院篱影扫不尽》入选在日本举办的“中国现代书画家作品展”,并收入作品集,同年,《守信君子》入选“当代中国花鸟画邀请展”。 1987年《昨夜西风》、《0》“有题》、《消逝》、《留秋不住》、《萧索》等作品入选“全国第二届新人新作展”,1988年《消逝》入选东北三省“关东画展”,获优秀作品奖,并获黑龙江省文艺创作大奖赛三等奖。

作品《秋思》,《看清世路觉山平》等连续参加全国4、5、6、7、8届大展,《狗尿苔》等参加中国工笔1、2、3届大展,其中《秋思》、《情归故里》各获全国优秀作品奖,《狗尿苔》获全国金奖。《逍逝》等6件作品参加全国第二届新人新作展,另有多件作品参加中外重要单项展,参加全国4、5、6、7、8、9、10、11届花鸟画邀请展。参加中国花鸟画1、2届研讨会。《秋思》、《又听隔院晓鸡鸣》等多件作品为中外馆、院、堂、所收藏。中外画集、辞书、刊物、入典专题报道、报纸发表以千计,出版有个人画集多部,个人著作《我家思想我家画》、《秋思》入中国美术全集。黑龙江省电视台、中央电视台、法国电视台播出《有这样一位画家》。作品选入《百年100名家名画》。

 

Introduction in English

 Jia Pingxi was born in Penglai, Shandong Province in 1937. Painter. In 1964, he graduated from the Department of Chinese Painting, Lu Xun Academy of Aesthetics, majoring in flowers and birds, and was a first-class Chinese painter.

 

Brief Introduction to Characters

 

In 1978, "Autumn Light Picture" won the first prize in Heilongjiang Province Art Exhibition, and was selected as the "Fourth National Art Exhibition" in 1979. In 1981, "Long Mountain and Water" was selected as the "Fifth National Art Exhibition" and won the second prize of "Heilongjiang Art Exhibition". In 1984, "Autumn Thought" was selected as the "Sixth National Art Exhibition" and won the Excellent Works Award. It was collected by the Chinese Art Museum. In 1986, the fence in the small courtyard was selected as the exhibition of works of modern Chinese calligraphers and painters held in Japan, and included in the collection of works. In the same year, the trustworthy gentleman was selected as the invitation exhibition of contemporary Chinese flower and bird paintings. In 1987, works such as "Westerly Wind Last Night", "Zero", "Title", "Vanishing", "Living in Autumn", "Xiao Suo" were selected as the "Second New Works Exhibition of the Nation". In 1988, "Vanishing" was selected as the "Guandong Painting Exhibition" of the three northeastern provinces, and won the third prize of the Heilongjiang Provincial Literary and Art Creation Award.

 

Personal Experience

 

On the Origin of Art

 

Jia Pingxi and Eight Eccentrics in Yangzhou.

 

Jia Pingxi's weirdness is famous for its weird paintings and calligraphy. It's not surprising that weirdo paints weird pictures. As long as we are familiar with the history of the development of Chinese painting, we can understand that any evolution and development of Chinese painting in history can not be separated from some weird painters. Gu Kaizhi's infatuation, Mi Fu, Yang Ning's style, Yang Mad Men, and so on. When we follow the strange circle, our eyes stay on the group of painters of the Qing Dynasty, "Yangzhou Eight Eccentrics". I am surprised to find that Jia Pingxi's painting thoughts almost coexist with Yangzhou Eight Eccentrics. They basically belong to an art system. The difference lies in Jia Pingxi's modern scientific modeling skills, as well as a super modern person's comparative factors, so he can gather all kinds of weirdness in one body, but can not find the traces of each kind of weirdness on his body.

 

Once a person has established his own concept of life ideologically, then all his actions will be attributed to his idea. Yangzhou Eight Strange Thoughts are inevitably manifested in their words, deeds and artistic pursuit. Here, we find out the origin of the eight strange artistic thoughts in Yangzhou and the origin of Jia Pingxi's artistic thoughts. Through the comparison of the two, we can try to crack the core elements of artistic innovation of Chinese painting. This will be the most valuable comparison and discussion, but also Jia Pingxi's contribution to the art of Chinese painting.

A Comparison of Thought and Behavior

 

The reason why Yangzhou Eight Stranges are called "Strangeness" is mainly the artistic characteristics they created, as well as their unique thinking and behavior. For example, Jinnong "is in a free mood, and most of the world sees things in a roundabout way". Li Fang-ying is "arrogant and unrestrained", Zheng Banqiao is "unrestrained and unrestrained, unrestrained and free," and "everyday talk, praise or reject people, no taboo, sitting is a crazy name." There are also Wang Shishen's tea addiction, Luo Peng can see ghosts in the daytime and so on.

 

The weirdness of Yangzhou Bawei mainly stems from the feudal era in which they lived, the uneven wealth of society, the suffering of the people and the rampant corruption of officials. As benevolent people with lofty ideals, they have justice in mind, but they can't do anything about it. Therefore, they suppress the "stubborn and unyielding spirit" in their hearts and the "high-shore spirit" in their lives through their manners and speech, and the manifestations of various weird life habits are different from those of others, so as to maintain their own noble spirit of special independence in their hearts.

 

The author did not have direct contact with Mr. Jia Pingxi, however, from the introduction of teachers and friends around him, and various media publicity reports, there are also understandings. Mr. Jia Pingxi is indeed a stranger. I wonder if he himself has accepted the influence of some famous and strange artists in history. Or is it his nature to resemble those weird celebrities? Jia Pingxi himself once said frankly: "There are many Chinese people, and there are many painters, one who refuses to accept one, most of them only serve themselves and others. I often refuse to accept myself, but I prefer Zheng Banqiao, Xugu, Ren Bonian, Wu Changshuo, Zhu Wei, Xu Beihong, Pan Tianshou, Li Keran, Huang Qi, Dongshan Kuiyi, Angle, Libin, Libin, etc. Rodin and so on." The forefathers of these schools seem to be all independent people of their time. In particular, Zheng Banqiao, who is more convinced, is the most bizarre figure among the eight strange people in Yangzhou. In this way, I will compare Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Baguai in ideology and art, which seems to have a foothold. It also saves the suspect of random contacts.

 

To think of Mr. Jia Pingxi's peculiar way of doing things is to find many sages in history as the basis, so he has no fear to implement his unprecedented artistic aspirations.

 

A Comparison of Artistic Thoughts

 

In the age of Yangzhou Baguai, whether landscape painting or flower-and-bird painting, the whole painting circle was grasped by Wang Shimin, Wang Yuanqi, Zou Yigui, the so-called "orthodox" and "orthodox" literati paintings. Calligraphy and painting are required to adhere to the principles of ancient law and revitalize ancient law. Yangzhou Baguai is more important than their own creativity and personality, so it is excluded from the "authentic". Wrinkle Yigui holds that "only those who have the ambition to imitate the ancient Dharma can get their truth. Today's painters do not see the true works of the ancients, but selfishly create, wipe, hang in the city, with easy to fight rice, painting Andejaya? Wang, known as the "authentic" landscape painter of a generation, also declared that "using Yuan people's brush and ink to transport Song people Qiu Qian, while Ze's Tang people's charm is a great achievement." This is a very typical method of orthodox creation. Yangzhou Baguai pays great attention to drawing creative materials from life (nature). Zheng Banqiao said, "Where I draw bamboo, I have no teacher, more than paper windows, powder walls, sunlight, moonlight, shadow and middle ear." Jin Nong also said: "Mr. Dongxin painted bamboo more than sixty years old, the former virtuous bamboo school, I don't know anyone, house things planted and repaired about tens of millions, Mr. is a teacher." What they call "unsuccessful learning" and "ignorance of others" are not fabrications made out of nothing in contempt of ancient laws. Instead, it focuses on the imitative style of learning from the ancients instead of their own creation, emphasizing that art should be created through direct observation of life and nature. Therefore, Yangzhou Baguai emphasizes "self-supporting portal" and exerts its original spirit. Li Fangying said, "Iron-dried bronze-covered Jasper branches, the old tree in front of the court is my teacher. The painter's portal must be established at last. He does not learn the Yuan Dynasty (Wang Mian) or make up for it. Huang Shen said, "A man of lofty ideals should stand on his own to become famous. Would he rather live behind others?" Thus, he pondered day and night, and finally got inspiration from the cursive script of Huai Su, a calligrapher in Tang Dynasty. He applied cursive script to the creation of figure painting and created his own style. Zheng Banqiao's poems said: "In the past 40 years, bamboo branches have been written in the daytime and thought at night. They are redundant and thin, and painted until they are ripe when they are born."

 

Looking at Jia Pingxi, he knows that Chinese flower-and-bird painting has developed to the present day, with complete legal system and extremely narrow space for style development. He knows better that not to walk his own way is a dead end, without his own style, there is no need to draw. Therefore, he said, "I would rather drink millet porridge from my own work than beg for the remnants of the chewed bread from the ancients, the present and the foreigners." "With my life savvy, literature, art and philosophy, I go to the vast world to grab images that others have not described." "Nature is a teacher, half a flower and one leaf is better than gold and silver, skinning, cramping and meat picking, and the spirit of the empty skeleton."

 

These simple words contain the essence of artistic innovation. Jia Pingxi also insisted on the green hills. He said, "Drilling into the dry and rainy Beijing city, I will go to Baitouweng for a lifetime of business. It's a hundred miles and ninety-nine rows. The remaining one mile is more than nine miles."

 

Looking at Jia Pingxi's paintings, we can deeply feel his mastery of nature and his efforts in concentrating nature. It also proves the correctness of his artistic view.

 

In this way, we can clearly see that Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Bawei's artistic views are the same, no difference. It also establishes a navigation mark for them to create works of art with totally different styles.

A Comparison of Artistic Composition

 

Because Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Baguai inherit the same artistic concept and pursuit direction, so that they are also surprisingly similar in artistic composition.

 

First of all, in the subject matter of painting, they have chosen some ordinary things and scenery in life, excavating the value of the beauty hidden in the ordinary depth, which is unexpected. It has opened up a new subject area and broadened the aesthetic horizon. For example, Li Yi's "Butterfly Flower Picture on the Earth Wall" has a lovely cluster of purple butterflies on a dilapidated earth wall, which shows the author's joy of seeing spring news in the countryside. This was not depicted before that time. The two objects with great aesthetic contrast are connected together, which produces the aesthetic connotation beyond the object itself. Zheng Banqiao and others painted small scenery of the desk, inserting a small branch of orchid in the teapot, Li Fang painted chrysanthemum, no stone, no mountain, but a mass of soil tied to the root by straw rope and the garlic, taro, watermelon, lotus root and so on, all of which are very common things, and it is precisely. In people's ignorance, they found the factors of beauty, and praised them warmly with unconstrained style. Its significance not only enriches the content of flower-and-bird painting, but also, more importantly, expands the aesthetic scope of flower-and-bird painting.

 

In this respect, what Jia Pingxi has done is even more comprehensive and prominent than the Eight Stranges in Yangzhou. For example, the "New Zealand Ambassador" painter depicts the ugly, meaningless dung beetle. When the painter gives these little creatures the status of New Zealand ambassadors, we immediately associate these little creatures with the sacred feat of clearing cow dung for the New Zealand prairie and saving pasture. This unique conception of transforming decay into magic and the pioneering topic selection make the flower and bird painting have a completely new realm. There are sorghum stubble after harvest, dandelion after autumn frost, dog urine moss drilled out of cow dung, and so on. Many objects abandoned by ancient and modern painters, in Jia Pingxi's writings, have acquired a beautiful identity and real value. Thus, the subject matter of flower-and-bird painting has obtained the realm of arbitrary choice beyond the natural beauty.

 

Secondly, in terms of artistic expression techniques, Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Baguai both hold the artistic conception of extending painting by depicting a flower, a leaf, a bird and a worm. This technique of expression is often interposed by their personalized emotions, which enriches the content of simple painting with rich ideological connotations. Zheng Banqiao once wrote a poem to Huang Shen: "Love to see the moss scars of ancient temples, write about the chaotic roots of barren cliffs, paint to the spiritual drift, and there is no truth and a true soul." This poem can be used as a common portrayal of their artistic expression.

 

In fact, this artistic expression is also a way of catharsis of Jia Pingxi's and Yangzhou's eight eccentric characteristics, independent artistic ideas and spiritual sentiments. It has gone far beyond the transfer of images and the normal portrayal of objects. The spirit of flowers has blended into the spirit of human beings, and the form of birds has become the form of human beings. The power of personification is great. Because of the penetration of the power of personification, the art of flower-and-bird painting has a very touching power. Thus it achieves the perfect unity of the content and form of art. Look at Zheng Banqiao's poem inscribed on Mozhu to Shandong governor: "Yazhai lies listening to Xiao Xiaozhu, suspicious of folk misery, some Xiaowu Caozhou County officials, one branch and one leaf of the general customs." Because of the penetration of Zheng Banqiao's personification power, bamboo has become Xiaoxiao's bamboo appealing for folk misery.

In a word, in Jia Pingxi's and Yangzhou Baguai's works, each painting is the endorsement of their hearts and feelings, and there is no pure description of the wind, flowers, snow and moon. They coincided to reach the highest realm of Art - personalized art, artistic beauty is the appearance of personality beauty.

 

Through the study of a large number of Jia Pingxi's works, I also found that in fact, Jia Pingxi has gone further than Yangzhou Bawei. Not to mention his unparalleled modeling methods and the rhythm of writing in different days, nor did he synthesize flowers and birds as the foil of the vast six. It is unheard of that the flower and bird become the metaphor of life. It is only his topic treatment that Jia Pingxi used when describing the flowers, trees, birds, animals, fish and insects. Through the unique expression of the image form and the embedding of a wonderful topic, the simple pictures and images are full of meaning and philosophical thinking, which greatly surpasses the simple personalized connection in Yangzhou Eight Strange Flowers and Birds Painting, and makes the aesthetic appreciation of Flowers and Birds Painting reach a new level. This is a contribution of Jia Pingxi to Chinese painting that no predecessor had.

 

Then, how does Jia Ping's unique artistic expression of western flower and bird painting come true? What transcendence does he have over Baguai in Yangzhou?

 

In Jia Pingxi's artistic construction, whether realistic painting or freehand painting, his first intervention is thought, then emotion, and then object and technique. He knows that the essence of art lies in the expression and publicity of spirit. Spiritual experience and expression are the soul of art. Therefore, Jia Pingxi's paintings have a very clear tendency of spiritual and cultural interpretation. It may also be inconsistent with the requirement of "neutral beauty" in Chinese painting. But it can reach the hearts and minds of the people. In order to achieve the artistic effect set before painting, he controls the magnificence of freehand brushwork and the subtlety of realism, and carries out a reasonable artistic superposition between abstract and concrete image forms. His concern is not the distinction between abstraction and representativeness, but how to rescue various elements of plastic arts from the unified norms, decompose, combine and rebuild, thus creating eternal harmony and making it close to the core of creation. Jia Pingxi's simplified treatment of natural objects and the elementary, symbolic, abstract and analytical nature of his artistic language all result from this. Therefore, the theme of his works has become strange and novel.

 

For example, a big cock with Jia Pingxi's brand in "The Cold Years" has a clear and recognizable image of the cock's figurative outline, and abstract ink splashing without any details. The background of dark storms shows a kind of natural force. We have no idea whether the painter is going to eulogize the firm steps of the cock in the bleak years or sympathize with the cock in the bleak years. It is easy to arouse the isomorphism of the viewer's memory and visual purpose. In the narrow and bleak picture, that bright red is so dazzling, like a flag in the wind. Clear footrings clearly show a firm direction in the bleak years. At the same time, let's look at the picture of chicken painted by Li Yi. Under the fence of withered willows, a cock is looking for food. The poem inscribed on it reads: "The cold night is bleak in Virginia, the frost is not afraid of the early cold invasion, the painted chicken wants to draw chicken crowing, arousing the human benevolence." This chicken sound is exactly the artist's voice when he sees the unfair social phenomenon. This kind of works shows Yangzhou Bawei's concern for real life, and its ideological realm is limited to "doing good for people". Comparing the "chicken" of the two painters, Jia Pingxi's personality power is very prominent. Although both of them use inscriptions to extend the deep connotation of the works, Jia Pingxi's use is more subtle and thought-provoking.

 

For example, "Long Mountain and Water", in this painting, the artist uses a variety of shapes containing narrow, slender and vertical elements to repeatedly overlap, and achieves the artistic effect of higher mountains and longer water. We were forced to recite the famous phrase of Li Bai, a well-known poet, "The Galaxy falls nine days while the current flows down three thousand feet". But the extreme exaggeration of these long and narrow elements is not to tell us how high the mountains are and how long the water is. The real performance is the more upright pine and cypress, as well as those flying cranes. This situation completely surpasses the concept of landscape and arouses the magnificent spirit in our hearts. This is Jia Pingxi's unique visual language to give us a huge impact on the eyes, and spiritual power to grab. Similarly, I found a painting of Zheng Banqiao, the "Four Screen Axis of Pine Julan Stone - Chrysanthemum", which also shows high mountains and running water, but the tangible mountain body of Zheng Banqiao weakens the momentum of the impetuous waterfall and appears to be somewhat weak. It is impossible to arouse our great impression and admiration like Jia Pingxi's "Long Mountain and Water".

Another example is "The Strong Wind and the Strong Grass", which was written by Mr. Jia Pingxi in 1964. At that time, he was only 20 years old. I can hardly believe that so young he had interpreted Jia's painting language so thoroughly. More importantly, when Jia Pingxi demonstrated his artistic spirit with more than 40 years of artistic practice, we have reasons to be shocked. In this painting, the mountains are woven with the lines of iron sticks, representing the strong and resolute, representing the unshakable. Several birds and arrows pass through the red sky, the wind knows the strength of the grass, and the fire makes the hero. In that special era of China, anyone will become a member of the revolutionary movement. In the revolutionary tide of class struggle, it is the highest wish of every youth to support Chairman Mao and follow the Communist Party. Therefore, Jia Pingxi's work, a good interpretation of the hot era, interpreted his pursuit. The work is full of revolutionary spirit. It's a standard masterpiece with a good mood. Likewise, Luo Bin, one of the Eight Eccentrics in Yangzhou, imagined a landscape painting, Jiange Tu, which was incompatible with his persistent artistic pursuit of reform and innovation. Especially the lack of experience of visiting famous mountains and rivers, the lack of that touching sense of reality, it is impossible to achieve the realm of mind-writing. This can not be compared with Jia Pingxi, who was full of enthusiasm for serving the country in his youth.

 

Comparison of Painting and Calligraphy

 

Poetry, calligraphy, painting and printing are the perfect combination of Chinese painting art. Every truly accomplished painter and calligrapher can always be a master of all kinds. Especially the ancient Chinese painters paid great attention to all-round learning. Yangzhou Eight Strange Poems, Calligraphy and Painting are also exquisite. But they have their own unique steps in calligraphy creation, just like their painting innovation. Wang Shishen's seal carving and eighth-minute book, engraved in the same name as Gaoxiang and Ding Jing, showed a noble and arrogant quality of calligraphy; Huang Shen's calligraphy showed his intention to be different with his dull pen, intertwined up and down, and liked to make mischief; Jinnong created a style of calligraphy called "lacquer book" with unique features. Zheng Banqiao's calligraphy is the most commendable, with the brushwork of painting, compromising the line of calligraphy and Li Shu, creating a style he calls "six-and-a-half book", which is scattered vertically and horizontally, elegant and vivid.

 

Looking at Jia Pingxi's calligraphy, it is similar to Mongolian writing, and it is also close to the astronomical symbols of Shilu, a great painter of Xi'an Painting School. Its inscriptions seem to be inspired by Zheng Banqiao. Often inserted in the picture, but also directly act as an organic part of the picture.

 

From Yangzhou Bawei and Jia Pingxi's pursuit of calligraphy, we can deeply feel these artists with profound sense of mission and responsibility. Their pursuit of art has gone far beyond the pursuit of art itself. They are pursuing the constant transformation and Transcendence of their own spirit.

 

When everybody is looking for a new or strange face that combines Chinese and Western painting, when everybody thinks that traditional Chinese painting and literati painting have come to an end, we are surprised to find that another master of traditional Chinese literati painting is coming to us. That's Mr. Jia Pingxi. He followed the footprints of many former sages, such as Yangzhou Bawei, along the way. The art of Yangzhou Bawei has become a part of Chinese painting tradition, and Jia Pingxi's painting art will also become a part of Chinese painting tradition. However, Jia Pingxi's unique innovative ideas and spirit will always inspire countless later generations.

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