扬州八怪所处时代，无论山水画还是花鸟画，整个画坛被以所谓的“正宗”、“正派”的文人画代表王时敏、王原祁、邹一桂等所把握。要求习书作画以恪守古法为原则，以振兴古法为己任。而扬州八怪则重于在自己的创造和个性的发挥，所以，就被排除在“正宗”之外。皱一桂认为“有志古法者潜心模拟，方能得其真理。今之画者，不见一古人真迹，而私心自创，妄意涂抹，悬之市中，以易斗米，画安得佳耶？”被誉为一代画圣的山水画“正宗”画家王 也 宣称：“以元人笔墨，运宋人丘壑，而泽以唐人气韵，乃为大成。”这是非常典型的正宗派创作方法。而扬州八怪则十分注重从生活（大自然）中吸取创作素材。郑板桥说：“凡吾画竹，无所师承，多得于纸窗粉壁日光月影中耳。”金农也说：“冬心先生年逾六十始画竹，前贤竹派，不知有人，宅东西种植修 约千万计，先生即以为师。”他们所说的“无所师承”和“不知有人”，并非蔑视古法，凭空捏造。而是针对以学习古人来代替自己创作的因袭模仿作风，强调艺术应从生活和大自然直接观察得到感受来进行创作。所以，扬州八怪强调“自立门户”，发挥独创精神。李方膺说：“铁干铜皮碧玉枝，庭前老树是吾师，画家门户终须立，不学元章（王冕）与补之（扬无咎）。黄慎说：“志士当自立以成名，岂肯居人后哉！”于是，他便日夜琢磨，终于从唐代书法家怀素的草书中得到启发，以草书的笔法运用到人物画创作中，创立了自己的风格。郑板桥诗云：“四十年来话竹枝，日间挥写夜间思，冗繁削尽留清瘦，画到生时是熟时。”
首先，在绘画题材上，他们都选择了生活中一些平凡的事物景物，挖掘其平凡深层隐含的美的价值，出人意表。开辟了新的题材领域，扩大了审美视野。如李鳝的《土墙蝶花图》，在一堵破败的土墙上，长着一丛可爱的紫蝴蝶花，表现出作者在农村中看到春天消息的喜悦心情。这是在那个时代以前没有被描绘过的。两个审美反差极大的物象连接在一起，产生了超出物象本身的审美内涵。郑板桥等人画的案头小景，茶壶里插上一小枝兰花，李方膺画菊，不画石，不画山，而是被稻草绳捆着根部的一团泥土以及他们画的农家长吃的园蔬果菜 ---- 大蒜、芋头、西瓜、莲藕等，所有这些，都是极平常的事物，而正是在人们的熟视无睹中，他们发现了美的因素，以不拘形似的笔墨，加以热情歌颂。其意义，不但丰富了花鸟画的内容，更重要的是，扩大了花鸟画的审美范围。
再比如《疾风劲草》，这是贾平西先生 1964 年的作品，那时的他应该才二十岁，我很难相信，那么年轻的他竟然把贾氏绘画语言诠释的那么透彻。更想到贾平西携四十余年的艺术修炼功夫，展示他的艺术精神时，我们有震撼的理由了。在这幅画中，山是用铁棍的线条编织的，代表着坚强刚毅，代表着不可动摇。数只小鸟箭一样穿过火红的天空，疾风知劲草，烈火炼英雄。在中国那个特殊的年代，任何人都将变成革命运动的一分子，在阶级斗争的革命大潮中，拥护毛主席，跟着共产党走，是每一个青年的最高志愿。所以，贾平西的这幅作品，很好的诠释了那个火红时代，诠释了他的追求。作品高扬着革命的斗志。是一幅标准的写心成境的佳作。同样，扬州八怪中的罗聘，也凭空想象了一幅山水画《剑阁图》，则和他一贯的锐意改革创新的艺术追求格格不入了。尤其缺乏游历名山大川的体验，则更缺乏那种动人的真实感，也就无从达到写心成境的境界。这和青年时代的满腔报国热情的贾平西是无法相提并论的。
Jia Pingxi was born in Penglai, Shandong Province in 1937. Painter. In 1964, he graduated from the Department of Chinese Painting, Lu Xun Academy of Aesthetics, majoring in flowers and birds, and was a first-class Chinese painter.
Brief Introduction to Characters
In 1978, "Autumn Light Picture" won the first prize in Heilongjiang Province Art Exhibition, and was selected as the "Fourth National Art Exhibition" in 1979. In 1981, "Long Mountain and Water" was selected as the "Fifth National Art Exhibition" and won the second prize of "Heilongjiang Art Exhibition". In 1984, "Autumn Thought" was selected as the "Sixth National Art Exhibition" and won the Excellent Works Award. It was collected by the Chinese Art Museum. In 1986, the fence in the small courtyard was selected as the exhibition of works of modern Chinese calligraphers and painters held in Japan, and included in the collection of works. In the same year, the trustworthy gentleman was selected as the invitation exhibition of contemporary Chinese flower and bird paintings. In 1987, works such as "Westerly Wind Last Night", "Zero", "Title", "Vanishing", "Living in Autumn", "Xiao Suo" were selected as the "Second New Works Exhibition of the Nation". In 1988, "Vanishing" was selected as the "Guandong Painting Exhibition" of the three northeastern provinces, and won the third prize of the Heilongjiang Provincial Literary and Art Creation Award.
On the Origin of Art
Jia Pingxi and Eight Eccentrics in Yangzhou.
Jia Pingxi's weirdness is famous for its weird paintings and calligraphy. It's not surprising that weirdo paints weird pictures. As long as we are familiar with the history of the development of Chinese painting, we can understand that any evolution and development of Chinese painting in history can not be separated from some weird painters. Gu Kaizhi's infatuation, Mi Fu, Yang Ning's style, Yang Mad Men, and so on. When we follow the strange circle, our eyes stay on the group of painters of the Qing Dynasty, "Yangzhou Eight Eccentrics". I am surprised to find that Jia Pingxi's painting thoughts almost coexist with Yangzhou Eight Eccentrics. They basically belong to an art system. The difference lies in Jia Pingxi's modern scientific modeling skills, as well as a super modern person's comparative factors, so he can gather all kinds of weirdness in one body, but can not find the traces of each kind of weirdness on his body.
Once a person has established his own concept of life ideologically, then all his actions will be attributed to his idea. Yangzhou Eight Strange Thoughts are inevitably manifested in their words, deeds and artistic pursuit. Here, we find out the origin of the eight strange artistic thoughts in Yangzhou and the origin of Jia Pingxi's artistic thoughts. Through the comparison of the two, we can try to crack the core elements of artistic innovation of Chinese painting. This will be the most valuable comparison and discussion, but also Jia Pingxi's contribution to the art of Chinese painting.
A Comparison of Thought and Behavior
The reason why Yangzhou Eight Stranges are called "Strangeness" is mainly the artistic characteristics they created, as well as their unique thinking and behavior. For example, Jinnong "is in a free mood, and most of the world sees things in a roundabout way". Li Fang-ying is "arrogant and unrestrained", Zheng Banqiao is "unrestrained and unrestrained, unrestrained and free," and "everyday talk, praise or reject people, no taboo, sitting is a crazy name." There are also Wang Shishen's tea addiction, Luo Peng can see ghosts in the daytime and so on.
The weirdness of Yangzhou Bawei mainly stems from the feudal era in which they lived, the uneven wealth of society, the suffering of the people and the rampant corruption of officials. As benevolent people with lofty ideals, they have justice in mind, but they can't do anything about it. Therefore, they suppress the "stubborn and unyielding spirit" in their hearts and the "high-shore spirit" in their lives through their manners and speech, and the manifestations of various weird life habits are different from those of others, so as to maintain their own noble spirit of special independence in their hearts.
The author did not have direct contact with Mr. Jia Pingxi, however, from the introduction of teachers and friends around him, and various media publicity reports, there are also understandings. Mr. Jia Pingxi is indeed a stranger. I wonder if he himself has accepted the influence of some famous and strange artists in history. Or is it his nature to resemble those weird celebrities? Jia Pingxi himself once said frankly: "There are many Chinese people, and there are many painters, one who refuses to accept one, most of them only serve themselves and others. I often refuse to accept myself, but I prefer Zheng Banqiao, Xugu, Ren Bonian, Wu Changshuo, Zhu Wei, Xu Beihong, Pan Tianshou, Li Keran, Huang Qi, Dongshan Kuiyi, Angle, Libin, Libin, etc. Rodin and so on." The forefathers of these schools seem to be all independent people of their time. In particular, Zheng Banqiao, who is more convinced, is the most bizarre figure among the eight strange people in Yangzhou. In this way, I will compare Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Baguai in ideology and art, which seems to have a foothold. It also saves the suspect of random contacts.
To think of Mr. Jia Pingxi's peculiar way of doing things is to find many sages in history as the basis, so he has no fear to implement his unprecedented artistic aspirations.
A Comparison of Artistic Thoughts
In the age of Yangzhou Baguai, whether landscape painting or flower-and-bird painting, the whole painting circle was grasped by Wang Shimin, Wang Yuanqi, Zou Yigui, the so-called "orthodox" and "orthodox" literati paintings. Calligraphy and painting are required to adhere to the principles of ancient law and revitalize ancient law. Yangzhou Baguai is more important than their own creativity and personality, so it is excluded from the "authentic". Wrinkle Yigui holds that "only those who have the ambition to imitate the ancient Dharma can get their truth. Today's painters do not see the true works of the ancients, but selfishly create, wipe, hang in the city, with easy to fight rice, painting Andejaya? Wang, known as the "authentic" landscape painter of a generation, also declared that "using Yuan people's brush and ink to transport Song people Qiu Qian, while Ze's Tang people's charm is a great achievement." This is a very typical method of orthodox creation. Yangzhou Baguai pays great attention to drawing creative materials from life (nature). Zheng Banqiao said, "Where I draw bamboo, I have no teacher, more than paper windows, powder walls, sunlight, moonlight, shadow and middle ear." Jin Nong also said: "Mr. Dongxin painted bamboo more than sixty years old, the former virtuous bamboo school, I don't know anyone, house things planted and repaired about tens of millions, Mr. is a teacher." What they call "unsuccessful learning" and "ignorance of others" are not fabrications made out of nothing in contempt of ancient laws. Instead, it focuses on the imitative style of learning from the ancients instead of their own creation, emphasizing that art should be created through direct observation of life and nature. Therefore, Yangzhou Baguai emphasizes "self-supporting portal" and exerts its original spirit. Li Fangying said, "Iron-dried bronze-covered Jasper branches, the old tree in front of the court is my teacher. The painter's portal must be established at last. He does not learn the Yuan Dynasty (Wang Mian) or make up for it. Huang Shen said, "A man of lofty ideals should stand on his own to become famous. Would he rather live behind others?" Thus, he pondered day and night, and finally got inspiration from the cursive script of Huai Su, a calligrapher in Tang Dynasty. He applied cursive script to the creation of figure painting and created his own style. Zheng Banqiao's poems said: "In the past 40 years, bamboo branches have been written in the daytime and thought at night. They are redundant and thin, and painted until they are ripe when they are born."
Looking at Jia Pingxi, he knows that Chinese flower-and-bird painting has developed to the present day, with complete legal system and extremely narrow space for style development. He knows better that not to walk his own way is a dead end, without his own style, there is no need to draw. Therefore, he said, "I would rather drink millet porridge from my own work than beg for the remnants of the chewed bread from the ancients, the present and the foreigners." "With my life savvy, literature, art and philosophy, I go to the vast world to grab images that others have not described." "Nature is a teacher, half a flower and one leaf is better than gold and silver, skinning, cramping and meat picking, and the spirit of the empty skeleton."
These simple words contain the essence of artistic innovation. Jia Pingxi also insisted on the green hills. He said, "Drilling into the dry and rainy Beijing city, I will go to Baitouweng for a lifetime of business. It's a hundred miles and ninety-nine rows. The remaining one mile is more than nine miles."
Looking at Jia Pingxi's paintings, we can deeply feel his mastery of nature and his efforts in concentrating nature. It also proves the correctness of his artistic view.
In this way, we can clearly see that Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Bawei's artistic views are the same, no difference. It also establishes a navigation mark for them to create works of art with totally different styles.
A Comparison of Artistic Composition
Because Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Baguai inherit the same artistic concept and pursuit direction, so that they are also surprisingly similar in artistic composition.
First of all, in the subject matter of painting, they have chosen some ordinary things and scenery in life, excavating the value of the beauty hidden in the ordinary depth, which is unexpected. It has opened up a new subject area and broadened the aesthetic horizon. For example, Li Yi's "Butterfly Flower Picture on the Earth Wall" has a lovely cluster of purple butterflies on a dilapidated earth wall, which shows the author's joy of seeing spring news in the countryside. This was not depicted before that time. The two objects with great aesthetic contrast are connected together, which produces the aesthetic connotation beyond the object itself. Zheng Banqiao and others painted small scenery of the desk, inserting a small branch of orchid in the teapot, Li Fang painted chrysanthemum, no stone, no mountain, but a mass of soil tied to the root by straw rope and the garlic, taro, watermelon, lotus root and so on, all of which are very common things, and it is precisely. In people's ignorance, they found the factors of beauty, and praised them warmly with unconstrained style. Its significance not only enriches the content of flower-and-bird painting, but also, more importantly, expands the aesthetic scope of flower-and-bird painting.
In this respect, what Jia Pingxi has done is even more comprehensive and prominent than the Eight Stranges in Yangzhou. For example, the "New Zealand Ambassador" painter depicts the ugly, meaningless dung beetle. When the painter gives these little creatures the status of New Zealand ambassadors, we immediately associate these little creatures with the sacred feat of clearing cow dung for the New Zealand prairie and saving pasture. This unique conception of transforming decay into magic and the pioneering topic selection make the flower and bird painting have a completely new realm. There are sorghum stubble after harvest, dandelion after autumn frost, dog urine moss drilled out of cow dung, and so on. Many objects abandoned by ancient and modern painters, in Jia Pingxi's writings, have acquired a beautiful identity and real value. Thus, the subject matter of flower-and-bird painting has obtained the realm of arbitrary choice beyond the natural beauty.
Secondly, in terms of artistic expression techniques, Jia Pingxi and Yangzhou Baguai both hold the artistic conception of extending painting by depicting a flower, a leaf, a bird and a worm. This technique of expression is often interposed by their personalized emotions, which enriches the content of simple painting with rich ideological connotations. Zheng Banqiao once wrote a poem to Huang Shen: "Love to see the moss scars of ancient temples, write about the chaotic roots of barren cliffs, paint to the spiritual drift, and there is no truth and a true soul." This poem can be used as a common portrayal of their artistic expression.
In fact, this artistic expression is also a way of catharsis of Jia Pingxi's and Yangzhou's eight eccentric characteristics, independent artistic ideas and spiritual sentiments. It has gone far beyond the transfer of images and the normal portrayal of objects. The spirit of flowers has blended into the spirit of human beings, and the form of birds has become the form of human beings. The power of personification is great. Because of the penetration of the power of personification, the art of flower-and-bird painting has a very touching power. Thus it achieves the perfect unity of the content and form of art. Look at Zheng Banqiao's poem inscribed on Mozhu to Shandong governor: "Yazhai lies listening to Xiao Xiaozhu, suspicious of folk misery, some Xiaowu Caozhou County officials, one branch and one leaf of the general customs." Because of the penetration of Zheng Banqiao's personification power, bamboo has become Xiaoxiao's bamboo appealing for folk misery.
In a word, in Jia Pingxi's and Yangzhou Baguai's works, each painting is the endorsement of their hearts and feelings, and there is no pure description of the wind, flowers, snow and moon. They coincided to reach the highest realm of Art - personalized art, artistic beauty is the appearance of personality beauty.
Through the study of a large number of Jia Pingxi's works, I also found that in fact, Jia Pingxi has gone further than Yangzhou Bawei. Not to mention his unparalleled modeling methods and the rhythm of writing in different days, nor did he synthesize flowers and birds as the foil of the vast six. It is unheard of that the flower and bird become the metaphor of life. It is only his topic treatment that Jia Pingxi used when describing the flowers, trees, birds, animals, fish and insects. Through the unique expression of the image form and the embedding of a wonderful topic, the simple pictures and images are full of meaning and philosophical thinking, which greatly surpasses the simple personalized connection in Yangzhou Eight Strange Flowers and Birds Painting, and makes the aesthetic appreciation of Flowers and Birds Painting reach a new level. This is a contribution of Jia Pingxi to Chinese painting that no predecessor had.
Then, how does Jia Ping's unique artistic expression of western flower and bird painting come true? What transcendence does he have over Baguai in Yangzhou?
In Jia Pingxi's artistic construction, whether realistic painting or freehand painting, his first intervention is thought, then emotion, and then object and technique. He knows that the essence of art lies in the expression and publicity of spirit. Spiritual experience and expression are the soul of art. Therefore, Jia Pingxi's paintings have a very clear tendency of spiritual and cultural interpretation. It may also be inconsistent with the requirement of "neutral beauty" in Chinese painting. But it can reach the hearts and minds of the people. In order to achieve the artistic effect set before painting, he controls the magnificence of freehand brushwork and the subtlety of realism, and carries out a reasonable artistic superposition between abstract and concrete image forms. His concern is not the distinction between abstraction and representativeness, but how to rescue various elements of plastic arts from the unified norms, decompose, combine and rebuild, thus creating eternal harmony and making it close to the core of creation. Jia Pingxi's simplified treatment of natural objects and the elementary, symbolic, abstract and analytical nature of his artistic language all result from this. Therefore, the theme of his works has become strange and novel.
For example, a big cock with Jia Pingxi's brand in "The Cold Years" has a clear and recognizable image of the cock's figurative outline, and abstract ink splashing without any details. The background of dark storms shows a kind of natural force. We have no idea whether the painter is going to eulogize the firm steps of the cock in the bleak years or sympathize with the cock in the bleak years. It is easy to arouse the isomorphism of the viewer's memory and visual purpose. In the narrow and bleak picture, that bright red is so dazzling, like a flag in the wind. Clear footrings clearly show a firm direction in the bleak years. At the same time, let's look at the picture of chicken painted by Li Yi. Under the fence of withered willows, a cock is looking for food. The poem inscribed on it reads: "The cold night is bleak in Virginia, the frost is not afraid of the early cold invasion, the painted chicken wants to draw chicken crowing, arousing the human benevolence." This chicken sound is exactly the artist's voice when he sees the unfair social phenomenon. This kind of works shows Yangzhou Bawei's concern for real life, and its ideological realm is limited to "doing good for people". Comparing the "chicken" of the two painters, Jia Pingxi's personality power is very prominent. Although both of them use inscriptions to extend the deep connotation of the works, Jia Pingxi's use is more subtle and thought-provoking.
For example, "Long Mountain and Water", in this painting, the artist uses a variety of shapes containing narrow, slender and vertical elements to repeatedly overlap, and achieves the artistic effect of higher mountains and longer water. We were forced to recite the famous phrase of Li Bai, a well-known poet, "The Galaxy falls nine days while the current flows down three thousand feet". But the extreme exaggeration of these long and narrow elements is not to tell us how high the mountains are and how long the water is. The real performance is the more upright pine and cypress, as well as those flying cranes. This situation completely surpasses the concept of landscape and arouses the magnificent spirit in our hearts. This is Jia Pingxi's unique visual language to give us a huge impact on the eyes, and spiritual power to grab. Similarly, I found a painting of Zheng Banqiao, the "Four Screen Axis of Pine Julan Stone - Chrysanthemum", which also shows high mountains and running water, but the tangible mountain body of Zheng Banqiao weakens the momentum of the impetuous waterfall and appears to be somewhat weak. It is impossible to arouse our great impression and admiration like Jia Pingxi's "Long Mountain and Water".
Another example is "The Strong Wind and the Strong Grass", which was written by Mr. Jia Pingxi in 1964. At that time, he was only 20 years old. I can hardly believe that so young he had interpreted Jia's painting language so thoroughly. More importantly, when Jia Pingxi demonstrated his artistic spirit with more than 40 years of artistic practice, we have reasons to be shocked. In this painting, the mountains are woven with the lines of iron sticks, representing the strong and resolute, representing the unshakable. Several birds and arrows pass through the red sky, the wind knows the strength of the grass, and the fire makes the hero. In that special era of China, anyone will become a member of the revolutionary movement. In the revolutionary tide of class struggle, it is the highest wish of every youth to support Chairman Mao and follow the Communist Party. Therefore, Jia Pingxi's work, a good interpretation of the hot era, interpreted his pursuit. The work is full of revolutionary spirit. It's a standard masterpiece with a good mood. Likewise, Luo Bin, one of the Eight Eccentrics in Yangzhou, imagined a landscape painting, Jiange Tu, which was incompatible with his persistent artistic pursuit of reform and innovation. Especially the lack of experience of visiting famous mountains and rivers, the lack of that touching sense of reality, it is impossible to achieve the realm of mind-writing. This can not be compared with Jia Pingxi, who was full of enthusiasm for serving the country in his youth.
Comparison of Painting and Calligraphy
Poetry, calligraphy, painting and printing are the perfect combination of Chinese painting art. Every truly accomplished painter and calligrapher can always be a master of all kinds. Especially the ancient Chinese painters paid great attention to all-round learning. Yangzhou Eight Strange Poems, Calligraphy and Painting are also exquisite. But they have their own unique steps in calligraphy creation, just like their painting innovation. Wang Shishen's seal carving and eighth-minute book, engraved in the same name as Gaoxiang and Ding Jing, showed a noble and arrogant quality of calligraphy; Huang Shen's calligraphy showed his intention to be different with his dull pen, intertwined up and down, and liked to make mischief; Jinnong created a style of calligraphy called "lacquer book" with unique features. Zheng Banqiao's calligraphy is the most commendable, with the brushwork of painting, compromising the line of calligraphy and Li Shu, creating a style he calls "six-and-a-half book", which is scattered vertically and horizontally, elegant and vivid.
Looking at Jia Pingxi's calligraphy, it is similar to Mongolian writing, and it is also close to the astronomical symbols of Shilu, a great painter of Xi'an Painting School. Its inscriptions seem to be inspired by Zheng Banqiao. Often inserted in the picture, but also directly act as an organic part of the picture.
From Yangzhou Bawei and Jia Pingxi's pursuit of calligraphy, we can deeply feel these artists with profound sense of mission and responsibility. Their pursuit of art has gone far beyond the pursuit of art itself. They are pursuing the constant transformation and Transcendence of their own spirit.
When everybody is looking for a new or strange face that combines Chinese and Western painting, when everybody thinks that traditional Chinese painting and literati painting have come to an end, we are surprised to find that another master of traditional Chinese literati painting is coming to us. That's Mr. Jia Pingxi. He followed the footprints of many former sages, such as Yangzhou Bawei, along the way. The art of Yangzhou Bawei has become a part of Chinese painting tradition, and Jia Pingxi's painting art will also become a part of Chinese painting tradition. However, Jia Pingxi's unique innovative ideas and spirit will always inspire countless later generations.