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张仃

( 中国美术家协会常务理事 )

 张仃(1917年05月19日—2010年02月21日),男,号它山,辽宁黑山人;中国当代著名国画家、漫画家、壁画家、书法家、工艺美术家、美术教育家、美术理论家;曾担任中国文联委员、中国美术家协会常务理事、中国美术家协会全国壁画工作委员会主任委员、中国工艺美术家协会副理事长、中国画研究院院务委员、黄宾虹研究会会长、中央工艺美术学院教授、院长、《1949—1989中国美术年鉴》顾问等职务。

  • 中文名张仃
  • 别名它山
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍辽宁省黑山县
  • 出生地辽宁省北镇县
  • 出生日期1917年7月7日
  • 逝世日期2010年2月21日
  • 职业艺术家,教育家
  • 毕业院校北平艺术专科学校
  • 主要成就中华人民共和国国徽设计提议者之一
  • 代表作品《张仃水墨写生》《张仃画室》
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陈丹青:从心所欲不逾规——读张仃先生风景素描

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

古人惊异于佳句,有“迥出意表”之说,感佩某人才情多端,逐叹“知之不尽”——这两句话,挪来言说张仃先生的画到,再恰当不过。先生功业...
人物简介

 张仃,号它山,辽宁黑山人,1917年出生。1932年入北平美术专科学校国画系,抗日战争爆发后曾投身“抗日宣传队”,以漫画为武器宣传抗日。

 

1938年赴延安,任教于鲁迅艺术学院,后到文艺界抗敌协会,任陕甘宁边区美术家协会主席。1945年后任华北大学三部美术系平津学生班班主任和东北画报社总编辑。他和朱丹等发起东北解放区的年画运动。

 

1949年设计全国政协会徽与第一届全国政协会议纪念邮票,负责和参与开国大典、全国人民代表大会美术设计工作,设计改造怀仁堂、勤政殿,设计天安门广场大会会场和新中国第一批纪念邮票。

 

1950年任中央美术学院实用美术系主任、教授,领导中央美院国徽设计小组参与国徽设计。从1951年至1957年,多次担纲莱比锡、布拉格、莫斯科、巴黎等城市的世界博览会中国馆总设计师。1955年参与中央工艺美术学院筹建工作,1957年调任中央工艺美院第一副院长,1981年任中央工艺美院院长,后离休。

 

1999年中央工艺美术学院并入清华大学,更名为清华大学美术学院,张仃欣然复出,担任美术系第一工作室博士生导师。

 

2010年2月21日上午10:00,张仃先生因病医治无效,在北京逝世,享年94岁。

 

历任中国美术家协会常务书记、中国美协常务理事、中国美协壁画艺委会主任、中国文联委员、国务院学位委员会第二届学科评议组成员、中国工艺美术学会副理事长、中国国家画院院务委员、中国黄宾虹研究会会长等。曾负责设计动画片《哪咤闹海》,为首都机场创作巨幅壁画《哪咤闹海》。焦墨国画代表作品有《巨木赞》、《蜀江碧》等。在北京、香港等地举办过个人作品展。出版有《张仃水墨山水写生》、《张仃焦墨山水》、《张仃漫画》等。

 

张仃70余年的艺术生涯,跨越漫画、实用美术、艺术设计、展示设计、舞台美术、动画电影、装饰绘画、壁画、中国画、书法、艺术批评、美术教育等诸多门类,以其丰沛的艺术激情与超常的艺术能量纵横捭阖于古典与现代、东方与西方、学院与民间的张力语境之中,成为解读20世纪中国美术史的一个经典文本,被称为20世纪中国的“大美术家”和20世纪中国美术的“立交桥”。

艺术履历

 张仃先生1917年出生于辽宁北镇,1932年入北平美术专科学校国画系,抗日战争爆发后 曾投身“抗日宣传队”,以漫画为武器宣传抗日。1938年赴延安,任教于鲁迅艺术学院,后到文艺界抗敌协会,任陕甘宁边区美术家协会主席。

 

1949年设计全国政协会徽与第一届全国政协会议纪念邮票,负责和参与开国大典、全国人民代表大会美术设计工作,设计改造怀仁堂、勤政殿,设计天安门广场大会会场和新中国第一批纪念邮票。

 

1950年任中央美术学院实用美术系主任、教授,领导中央美院国徽设计小组参与国徽设计。1955年参与中央工艺美术学院筹建工作,1957年调任中央工艺美院第一副院长,1981年任中央工艺美院院长,后离休。1999年中央工艺美术学院并入清华大学,更名为清华大学美术学院,张仃欣然复出,担任美术系第一工作室博士生导师。

 

张仃先生创作涉及广泛,善于驾驭多种绘画形式,亦擅漫画、壁画、邮票设计、年画、宣传画等。后其创作多以焦墨作山水,倚重传统笔法,吸取民间艺术养分,笔力遒强,构图豪放,画面空灵而有笔触,苍健却显腴润,内涵沉雄,风格朴拙而雄强,别树一帜;焦墨在中国画领域曲高和寡,但张仃仍坚持用这局限性极大的墨法创作山水,并将其发展成一套完备的艺术语言,他的《房山十渡焦墨写生》等一系列作品,开创了中国山水画的崭新风格。

 

他曾负责设计动画片《哪吒闹海》,为首都机场创作巨幅壁画《哪吒闹海》;焦墨国画代表作品有《巨木赞》、《蜀江碧》等,出版有《张仃水墨山水写生》《张仃焦墨山水》《张仃漫画》等;张仃先生被称为20世纪中国的“大美术家”和20世纪中国美术的“立交桥”。

艺术成就

 坚守底线

过去有人提出“革毛笔的命”,有人提出“笔墨等于零”。老实说,我无法同意这样的观点,也不太理解这样的观点。一个画家要证明“笔墨等于零”的办法可能只有一个,那就是完全不碰笔墨,这样,笔墨于他就等于零。

一万个人有一万种笔性,难以强求一律,也不应强求一律。但是,作为中国书画艺术要素甚至是本体的笔墨,肯定有一些经由民族文化心理反复比较、鉴别、筛选并由若干代品德高尚、修养丰厚、悟性极好、天分极高而又练习勤奋的大师反复实践、锤炼,最后沉淀下来的特性。这些特性成为人们对笔墨的艺术要求。画家可以有充分的理由不拿毛笔作画,但他如果拿了毛笔作画,而且是在画中国画,那他就要受到文化的制约。没有一个画家能摆脱文化的制约。

在中西绘画100年的交融中,我们看得出中国画对西洋画的影响是微乎其微,不足挂齿,而西洋画对中国画的影响可以说是长驱直入,如入无人之境。但是,一幅新的中国画和一幅好的中国画,在我们心底里是有一杆秤的。一幅好的中国画要素很多,但是基本的一条就是笔墨。由于笔墨这最后一道底线的存在,使我们在西学东渐的狂潮中仍然对中国画没有失去识别能力和评价标准,我们仍然能够在一堆用宣纸画出的作品里挑选出好的中国画,仍然能够在100年的风云人物中认准谁是大师,而谁只是昙花一现。我们积极评价这个100年中西绘画的交融和冲突,因为它把中国画的底线逼出来了,它使我们非常清楚不该在哪些方面无谓的争执,应该在哪些方面固守阵地。笔精墨妙,这是中国画文化慧根之所系,如果中国画不想消亡,这条底线就必须守住,守住这条底线,一切都好说。在这条底线上作业,需要悟性,更需要耐性,急不得、躁不得,更恼不得,最后就是看境界,看格,看品。

焦墨山水

张仃生长在北方,由衷地喜爱北方的山川风物,特别是太行、秦岭和西北高原,尽管它们荒寒贫瘠,但他却觉得亲,犹如一个儿子看到自己年老的母亲,因此他的焦墨世界展现的也都是它们的影像。古刹庙宇、荒郊野渡、莽莽昆仑、巍巍太行,张仃的焦墨山水一如他的性格,厚重、朴实、苍茫、大气。焦墨山水最能还原苍劲、宏阔、有力、具有金属感的画面。在这个曾给他心灵慰藉的笔墨世界中,貌似单纯的黑与白,所产生的力度与内涵,却是其他色彩所不能替代的。焦墨画更是强调黑白的本色美、质朴美,素以为绚,不加粉墨,张仃称它为“全素斋”,是一种有益身心的精神素食。晚年的张仃,铺开了一个无限丰富、壮美宏阔的焦墨世界。这个秉持完美主义理想的世纪老人,生活在北京西郊的一处自己选材、自己设计的山屋里,每日课读鲁迅。有时对着外面的世界,他会重复他的名句:“美盲比文盲多”。

1998年,张仃提出笔墨为底线的主张,策划发起了一场有学术轰动效应的“笔墨保卫战”。亲自上场,与他的异见朋友坦诚相见,针对每一个“笔墨等于零”的注解、论据、逻辑,展开进攻性防守,扭转了中国画理论面临崩塌的颓势。在此意义上,可以说张仃晚年倾力于焦墨山水创作的行为,是他自己保卫笔墨的一种身体力行的策划实践。他仅取笔墨之一粟,种出了焦墨的沧海桑田,展现了笔墨资源的无限丰富。这是对笔墨虚无论的另一种回答,也构筑了他的一方阵地。

如今,张仃大部分时间住在位于门头沟山中的居所里,

终日与他的挚爱———大山为伴。因为耳背,他话说得很少。家里来了访客,他会静静地坐在窗旁的藤椅上,抽烟斗或是看报纸,一只养在笼子里的蝈蝈陪在他耳边热闹地鼓噪,他也浑然不觉。

沪上美术评论家、画家谢春彦与张仃先生在二十余年前曾经有过交往,他们相识于黄宾虹学术研讨会上。谢春彦称:“焦墨山水是传统山水的一个类别,最能还原苍劲、宏阔、有力、具有金属感的画面。单纯以干墨作画,类似传统山水的素描,传统山水的创作多以临摹古人为主,而张老则在写生中创造张派山水,解放后他的焦墨山水成就最大,年逾花甲写生都是竭尽全力。去黄山写生都是随身带一瓶开水,两个干馒头,从天亮写生画到看不见为止,重要的名山大川都有足迹,北京的十渡山水很少有人涉猎,他却花费了很长时间很多精力为十渡画了很多焦墨山水。”

一些艺术评论者认为,回顾一下张仃的一生,无论是漫画、壁画或者工艺美术设计,在张仃的艺术生涯中,都只是阶段性地从事过。惟有山水画,才真正贯穿他的一生,或有间断,但从未放弃过。

张仃与20世纪众多上水画家一样,反对一味摹古,主张对真山真水写生,主张反映现实生活,他上溯五代两宋的传统,重返自然,变临摹为写生,变写意为写实,注重现实生活中新题材新内容的表现和新境界的创造。《画人行脚》描写的是川北农村的景象,画家以人世之精神借景写情,已不是符号化的苔点,以重墨写出,参差错落,疏密有致;中间是水田,线条流畅洗练,给人开阔的空间感,得平远法之妙;画面的下部最为精彩,农人的屋舍在树林中若隐若现,树木和田埂的线条松活老辣,灵动而富韵律感,流露出画家质朴欢愉的情感意蕴。全画虽以焦墨完成,但笔墨能干中求湿,燥中取润,以简寓繁,变化丰富。艺术语言单纯,表现出画家过人的功力。

为国梳妆

20世纪30年代,张仃的职业美术生涯开始于张恨水任校长的北华美术专科学校。日本人侵入他的老家东三省后,张仃拿起笔,成为一名反抗侵略、反抗专制的漫画斗士。1938年,张仃到延安,和搭档作家萧军,把这处简陋的“新房”装饰成了别致的场所,取名为“作家俱乐部”。连毛泽东和中共中央的很多领导人也常去那里参观和跳舞,同文艺工作者交流。

在张仃看来,抽象的“国家”必须有色、形、物的形象化传达,才能被了解和认同。

在共和国缔造者身边工作的经历,使张仃获得担纲新中国形象设计的“资质”。他与梁思成受命领导中央美术学院和清华大学营造系两个创作组,进行国徽设计。天安门的庄严雄伟极大地震撼了张仃,于是,天安门成为他笔下国徽方案的主体元素——弧形的地平线上,天安门巍然屹立,象征新民主主义革命的成功。言简意赅,立意精准,这一方案得到周恩来总理的首肯。1950年,张仃亲率美术供应社的工人,将一枚直径超过3米的巨型国徽,庄严地悬挂在天安门上。是年,张仃32岁,同时还参加了“建国瓷”和人民英雄纪念碑的设计团队。1949年,张仃负责开国大典美术设计工作,在天安门城楼的柱与柱之间,他创造性地挂上去8个大灯笼。运用巨型宫灯这一传统文化语汇,在天安门上增添了出彩的中国符号。同期,张仃主持设计了中南海怀仁堂、勤政殿室内环境。微观方面,张仃继成功设计全国政协会徽之后,又完成了全国政协会议邮票设计、中华人民共和国开国纪念票和成立10周年纪念票的设计。从宏观到微观,张仃为新中国的形象传播发挥了极其重要的作用。

国徽设计1949年,新中国即将宣告成立,由于中国历史上历朝历代都没有国旗、国徽或国歌,新中国形象的艺术设计成为燃眉之急。1949年7月,政治协商会议筹备会常务委员会决定公开发布《征求国旗、国徽图案及国歌词谱启事》,对国徽的设计提出三点要求:一、中国特征;二、政权特征;三、形式庄严富丽。国徽设计前期甄选后,七零八碎的都淘汰了。据1949年8月5日下午三时半在北京饭店六楼大厅召开的政协第六小组(拟定国旗、国徽、国歌方案)第二次全体会议记录,当时已经收到设计稿28份,但皆因不符合上述三条原则而被否定。最终,在周恩来的指示下成立了两个小组,一个是中央美术学院的小组:张仃、张光宇、周令钊、钟灵等。另一个是清华大学的小组:梁思成、林徽因、莫宗江、李宗津、朱畅中、高庄等。

梁思成,建筑学家和建筑教育家。梁思成是国旗、国徽评选委员会的顾问,另外,他和夫人林徽因都是清华大学国徽设计组的负责人。

当两组方案放在一起比较时,风格大相径庭。中央美术学院组设计出来的国徽方案,以天安门为中心,有五星、齿轮、麦穗和绶带等。张仃在《国徽应征图案设计含义》中阐述道:一、红色齿轮,金色嘉禾,象征工农联盟。齿轮上方,置五角红星,象征工人阶级政党——中国共产党的领导。二、齿轮嘉禾下方结以红带,象征全国人民大团结,国家富强康乐。三、天安门——富有革命历史意义的代表性建筑物,是我国五千年文化,伟大,坚强,英雄祖国的象征。

梁思成小组的国徽,调子是灰色的。核心内容是一块玉璧,设计理念为:玉璧有国器的象征,也含指祖国统一,完璧归赵。文人气息浓郁。与此同时,林徽因诚恳地列举了她参考的其他国家的国徽为例,认为一个国家的国徽不应该放进去建筑物,尤其是帝王象征的天安门。

在激烈的争论后,毛泽东出来定夺:天安门不应视为封建的象征,应该视为民主的象征、革命的象征放进国徽去。肯定了中央美术学院组的创意之后,也就是要确定新的国徽中哪些标志物属于必须出现的。周恩来作了这样的总结:新的国徽要有天安门,要有五星,要有齿轮,要有麦穗,还要加上稻穗。

张仃2001年北京西山家中露台上设计的构想采用了美院组后,周恩来让清华组来完善国徽的设计。因为清华组个个都是建筑绘图高手,对正式图样的操作,绝对专业。所以最后他们的定型图被选中,不应意外。

应当说,张仃是国徽的创意者,而林徽因等则为其最终完善者。周恩来亲自找梁思成谈话,说服他接受张仃以天安门为国徽主体的设计方案,并委托清华大学营建系最终完成国徽图案的制作。而天安门城楼上悬挂的第一枚国徽,则是张仃亲自跑到前门外,找到一位雕刻师傅,制作的一枚木制国徽。

国徽挂到天安门上,有功人员八名,梁思成、张仃、林徽因、张光宇、高庄、钟灵、周令钊等每个人奖励八百斤小米。梁思成还建议多给高庄一些,因为他修改有功。张奚若也建议要给清华重奖。

若干年后,在究竟是谁设计了国徽的问题上,出现了不少争论,总有人来向张仃询问,以至于他不愿意再作回答。他向来不愿意争什么名分,一直强调国徽的完成是集体的智慧,而他的贡献在于提出以天安门为国徽主体的创意。

新中国成立初期,全国政治协商会议的艺术设计、全国政协会徽设计、全国人民代表大会的美术设计、开国大典的美术设计、天安门城楼和广场大会会场设计、第一批开国大典纪念邮票的设计等等一系列关乎国家形象的重大设计任务,均出自张仃之手,这使得他当之无愧地成为新中国开国首席艺术设计家。

邮票设计

在设计完国徽和政协会徽以后,张仃在其后的日子里,又马不停蹄地主持设计了《中华人民共和国成立十周年》的系列邮票(1959年)、《伟大的十月社会主义革命四十周年》的系列邮票(1957年),主持了德国莱比锡国际博览会中国馆的总设计(1952年),主持了巴黎国际艺术博览会中国馆的总设计(1956 年)。

20世纪50年代末,张仃被组织调离中央美术学院,任命为中央工艺美术学院的第一副院长。中央工艺美术学院的一批艺术家和学者在“反右运动”中纷纷落难,使得刚刚成立的学院还未来得及完善自身的教育体系和教学思想,张仃承担起了这项重任。

他将泥人张、面人汤、皮影路等民间艺人请到学院,为他们成立工作室,传授技艺,研究总结他们的传统经验,又吸取西方现代艺术设计的教育精华,为新中国的艺术设计奠定了教育体系和思想的基础,而当时他所迈的每一步都要冒着风险。在张仃的努力下,美术领域一批有成就的艺术家调入学院,学院的专业也从最初的几个扩充到20多个,“文革”前的十年正是中央工艺美术学院蓬勃发展的十年。

2006年夏与夫人灰娃在西山家中民族传统与西方现代艺术相结合的艺术主张,让学院的师生在新中国成立十周年北京十大建筑与国庆重大活动等艺术设计中展露了锋芒,也引领着张仃在云南采风后创作了《女民兵》、《洱海渔家》等近300幅水墨重彩装饰绘画,大胆的变形、绚丽的色彩、独特的造型语言顿时引起了美术界的关注,华君武称之为“ 城隍庙加毕加索”。

动画设计

张仃最让人熟悉的作品莫过于我国第一部彩色宽银幕动画片《哪吒闹海》。1978年,张仃出任该片的美术总设计,该动画片的绘图特色鲜明,人物色彩鲜艳生动,山水风景又极具中国特色。《哪吒闹海》对中国风格的动漫及儿童绘画读物影响深广,该影片获1980年文化部优秀影片奖、1980年第三十三届戛纳国际电影节特别放映奖。首都机场巨幅壁画《哪吒闹海》;焦墨国画作品《巨木赞》《蜀江碧》等;出版有《张仃水墨山水写生》《张仃焦墨山水》《张仃漫画》等。

壁画设计

当北京首都机场即将落成,室内大型壁画的创作降任于中央工艺美术学院时,复任第一副院长的张仃又调兵遣将,组成了创作小组,亲自挂帅出征。在张仃的坚持下,才有了机场壁画审美趣味的宽容与多样化。其中,张仃为机场贵宾厅创作的大型工笔重彩壁画《哪吒闹海》,高4米,长15米,借鉴、吸取了民间年画的色彩和敦煌壁画表现时空的特征,之后又被制作成动画电影,成为家喻户晓的经典。

1983年,张仃为长城饭店绘制了壁毯巨作《长城万里图》,1984年,他主持了北京地铁壁画工程,设计并参加制作了西直门地铁壁画《燕山长城图》和《大江东去图》。

2002年,文化部授予张仃造型艺术终身杰出成就奖。

艺术活动

国际交流

新中国成立后,张仃担任了一系列国家大型国际博览会和专题展览会的总体设计师,在国际交流中,为中国人挣足了面子。1952年,德国莱比锡举办国际博览会,张仃出任中国馆的总设计师。熟悉他的人知道他偏爱黑色,就向设计组交代:绝对不许张仃用黑色,我们是共产党,是新中国。然而张仃丝毫不理会这一套,除了别具匠心地将天安门、中国园林长廊形式融入展览之外,他还将张萱的《捣练图》放大,以金线刻在黑色大理石上,作为丝绸展厅的大背景。有人不同意,但张仃坚持己见,表示如果不同意他的方案,他这个总设计师就不做了。僵持之下,最终得到周总理的首肯。当这面蕴涵着东方意境的黑色大理石墙展露出来的时候,欧洲人为之惊叹。

在巴黎筹备展馆时,张仃得知中央要派一个文化代表团访问法国,他立即建议代表团在法期间一定要拜访毕加索,并且邀请他来一次新中国,他深知毕加索在西方的巨大影响,而且此时的毕加索是法国共产党的党员,这正是展现国家形象的一次良机。

在张仃的促成下,代表团来到法国的南部会见了毕加索,张仃为毕加索准备了一幅杨柳青的木刻门神年画和一本木版水印的《齐白石画集》。张仃一直喜爱民间艺术,门神年画有门板那么大,是他特意买来的。年画作为张仃的私人礼物送给了毕加索。

殊不知,这两件礼品深深打动了毕加索,不久,当张大千来到法国,毕加索见到他说:我很奇怪你们这些中国人,到巴黎来学什么艺术,欧洲没有艺术,艺术在你们中国。

会毕加索

1956年,张仃奉命赴法主持巴黎国际艺术博览会中国馆的设计工作。时值中国文化艺术代表团来法国访问,在接到文化部“随团访问法国各地”的电报后,张仃便向代表团建议去法国南部拜会毕加索。

张仃回忆说:“毕加索的家是海边的一所别墅,我们到达的时候,毕加索刚睡起午觉,穿着短裤、背心从楼上走下来热情地欢迎我们。原以为他的工作室一定很豪华,因为当时他已经是世界上最富有的画家,一张作品值几十万美元,但没想到他的工作室里除了画作是新的,几乎一切陈设全是破旧的,墙上灰迹斑驳,沙发已经露出了弹簧。可是毕加索好像熟视无睹,墙上、地上到处都是他的画作。遗憾的是,由于当时翻译水平所限,双方无法进行充分交流。”张仃指着一张和毕加索的合影,笑着对记者说:“我在中国人里算比较矮的,我俩站在一起个头相当,他在身高普遍比较高的欧洲人里,实在是太矮了。”据悉,张仃曾建议毕加索做中国的荣誉公民,邀请他到中国看看。对此,毕加索思索了一会儿回答说:“中国太好了,但是年纪太大了,怕到了中国后,(艺术)又有一个大变化,自己会受不了。”最终,毕加索没有到过中国。

张仃在拜会之前就知道毕加索非常钟情于非洲等地的民间艺术,所以就准备了两张有门板那么大的门神木版年画。可出人意料的是,同行的一位政工干部却阻止说门神是封建迷信,不宜送给外国人。但令张仃稍感欣慰的是,他的另一件礼物——木版水印的《齐白石画集》后来给了毕加索很大的影响。就在代表团拜访毕加索不久后,张大千也前来拜访。毕加索一边向张大千展示自己临摹的齐白石的兰花,一边说:“我最不懂的,就是中国人为什么要跑到巴黎来学艺术,实际上真正的艺术在东方。”这段话后来成为广为世人引用的名言。作为回敬,毕加索送给了张仃一个小册子,也是他多年来非常珍爱的一间物品:“也巧,我们去的时候,桌上正好放着毕加索一本刚出版的小画册,他就拿起一枝红蓝铅笔照着我的名片在扉页上写上‘张仃’两个中文字,其中‘张’是蓝色,‘仃’是红色,又画了只衔着橄榄枝的和平鸽,下面签了自己的名字。”这两个略显稚嫩的中国字,代表的确是两个国家、两种文化中两个大师的交情。

此次会面是张仃一生仅有的一次也是惟一一次见到毕加索,由于当时特殊的社会环境,之后彼此再没有书信来往,一直到1973年毕加索去世。其间有很多人对毕加索的艺术有所异议甚至贬斥。1983年,当毕加索的原作终于可以在中国展出时,当时一本名为《新观察》的知名杂志邀请张仃谈谈毕加索。张仃说:“我一直不愿意谈论毕加索,并不是因为压力。毕加索的艺术有无限意味,而语言是有限的,难以表达我对毕加索的热爱。但现在有很多人在反对毕加索,我不由得说,不懂毕加索的艺术,正如一些只精于加减乘除的人,无法进入更高的数学境界,就说爱因斯坦和数学无关。”

 

著作出版

 张仃先生作品多次入选国内外大型美术作品展览及在多种专业报刊发表。曾多次应邀出国访问。

1945年,《陕甘宁边区民间剪纸》。

1952年,《民间剪纸》,由荣宝斋出版社出版 1959年,人民美术出版社出版《张仃水墨写生画》,收录作品30件。

1982年10月,人民美术出版社出版《张仃画集》,收录作品85件。

1984年8月,四川人民出版社出版《张仃焦墨画选》,收录作品24件。

1985年5月,辽宁美术出版社出版《张仃漫画1936—1976》,收录作品120件。

1988年12月,新加坡南洋美专出版《张仃画集》,收录作品59件。

1989年3月,四川美术出版社出版文集《被迫谈艺录》。

1992年7月,荣宝斋出版社出版《荣宝斋画谱·焦墨山水部分》,收录作品42幅。

1992年11月,山西人民出版社出版《张仃焦墨山水》。

1994年8月,河北教育出版社出版《中国漫画书系·张仃卷》,收录作品114件(组)。

1995年10月,安徽教育出版社出版《张仃谈艺录》,收录著述82篇,约23万字。

1995年11月,上海书画出版社出版《张仃山水》,收录作品142件。

1997年6月,安徽美术出版社出版《张仃线描》,收录写生作品28件。

1997年12月,陕西人民美术出版社出版《中国画各家作品精选——张仃作品集》,收录作品34件。

2000年7月,河北教育出版社出版《大山之子·画家张仃》大型画册,收录各类作品300余件。

2003年4月,中国民族摄影艺术出版社出版《张仃焦墨山水画艺术》,收录作品46件。

2005年4月,河北教育出版社出版九卷十三册《张仃画室》大型系列丛书。

此外还出版有《张仃水墨写生》《张仃水墨山水写生》《张仃漫画》等。

Introduction in English

 Zhang Di (May 19, 1917-February 21, 2010), male, from Mount Naita, Heishan, Liaoning Province; well-known contemporary Chinese painters, cartoonists, muralists, calligraphers, arts and crafts artists, art educators, art theorists; former member of the Chinese Federation of Chinese Literature, executive director of the Chinese Artists Association, China Artists Association Chairman of the Chinese Fresco Working Committee, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Arts and Crafts Association, Member of the Academy of Chinese Painting Academy, President of Huang Binhong Research Association, Professor and Dean of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts, Consultant of the Chinese Art Yearbook 1949-1989, etc.

 

Brief Introduction to Characters

 

Zhang Di, a native of Heishan, Liaoning Province, was born in 1917. In 1932, he joined the Department of Traditional Chinese Painting of Peiping Academy of Fine Arts. After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, he devoted himself to the "Anti-Japanese Propaganda Team" and used cartoons as weapons to propagate the anti-Japanese war.

 

In 1938, he went to Yan'an to teach at Lu Xun Art College, and later to the Anti-Enemy Association of Literature and Art, chairman of the Association of Artists in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region. After 1945, he was the head teacher of Pingjin Students'Class and the editor-in-chief of Northeast Picture Newspaper. He and Zhu Dan launched the New Year's Painting Movement in the Northeast Liberated Areas.

 

In 1949, we designed the emblem of the National Political Association and the commemorative stamps of the First National Political Association Meeting. We were responsible for and participated in the design of the Founding Ceremony and the National People's Congress. We also designed and renovated the Huairen Hall and the Diligence Hall. We also designed the conference hall of Tiananmen Square and the first batch of commemorative stamps in New China.

 

In 1950, he was the chairman and professor of the Department of Practical Fine Arts of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. He led the National Emblem Design Group of the Central Academy of Fine Arts to participate in the design of the National Emblem. From 1951 to 1957, he served as the chief designer of China Pavilion of World Expositions in Leipzig, Prague, Moscow and Paris. In 1955, he participated in the preparatory work of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts. In 1957, he was transferred to the first vice-president of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts. In 1981, he was the president of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts, and later retired.

 

In 1999, the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts was merged into Tsinghua University and renamed the Academy of Fine Arts of Tsinghua University. Zhang Di was glad to return to work as a doctoral tutor in the first studio of the Department of Fine Arts.

 

At 10:00 a.m. on February 21, 2010, Mr. Zhang Ding died in Beijing at the age of 94 because his treatment was ineffective.

 

He has successively been the executive secretary of the Chinese Artists Association, the executive director of the Chinese Association of Fine Arts, the director of the fresco art committee of the Chinese Association of Fine Arts, the member of the Chinese Federation of Nations, the member of the second disciplinary review group of the Academic Degree Committee of the State Council, the vice-chairman of the Chinese Arts and Crafts Association, the member of the State Academy of Painting, and the president of the Huang Binhong Research Association of China. He was responsible for the design of animated film "Na Nao Hai" and created a huge mural "Na Nao Hai" for the Capital Airport. The representative works of Jiao Mo's traditional Chinese painting include Jumu Zan and Shujiang Bi. Personal exhibitions have been held in Beijing, Hong Kong and other places. Published "Zhang Di ink landscape sketch", "Zhang Dijiao ink landscape", "Zhang Di cartoon" and so on.

 

Zhang Di's artistic career spanning more than 70 years spanning comics, practical art, art design, exhibition design, stage art, animated film, decorative painting, murals, Chinese painting, calligraphy, art criticism, art education and many other categories, with its abundant artistic passion and extraordinary artistic energy vertically and horizontally integrated in classical and modern, Eastern China. In the context of tension between Fang and the West, academies and the people, Fang has become a classic text to interpret the history of Chinese art in the 20th century. It is known as the "great artist" of China in the 20th century and the "flyover" of Chinese art in the 20th century.

Art Resume

 

Mr. Zhang Di was born in Beizhen, Liaoning Province in 1917. He joined the Department of Traditional Chinese Painting of Beiping Academy of Fine Arts in 1932. After the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan, he devoted himself to the "Anti-Japanese Propaganda Team" and used cartoons as a weapon to propagate the war. In 1938, he went to Yan'an to teach at Lu Xun Art College, and later to the Anti-Enemy Association of Literature and Art, chairman of the Association of Artists in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region.

 

In 1949, we designed the emblem of the National Political Association and the commemorative stamps of the First National Political Association Meeting. We were responsible for and participated in the design of the Founding Ceremony and the National People's Congress. We also designed and renovated the Huairen Hall and the Diligence Hall. We also designed the conference hall of Tiananmen Square and the first batch of commemorative stamps in New China.

 

In 1950, he was the chairman and professor of the Department of Practical Fine Arts of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. He led the National Emblem Design Group of the Central Academy of Fine Arts to participate in the design of the National Emblem. In 1955, he participated in the preparatory work of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts. In 1957, he was transferred to the first vice-president of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts. In 1981, he was the president of the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts, and later retired. In 1999, the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts was merged into Tsinghua University and renamed the Academy of Fine Arts of Tsinghua University. Zhang Di was glad to return to work as a doctoral tutor in the first studio of the Department of Fine Arts.

 

Mr. Zhang Ding's works cover a wide range of fields. He is good at mastering various painting forms. He is also good at cartoons, murals, stamp designs, New Year pictures, propaganda paintings and so on. Later, his creation mostly relied on Jiao Mo to make landscapes, relied on traditional brushwork, absorbed the nutrients of folk art, strong brushwork, bold composition, empty and brushwork, vigorous but moist picture, profound connotation, simple and strong style, unique; Jiao Mo in the field of Chinese painting is high and few, but Zhang Bing still insists on using this limitation. Ink painting creates landscapes and develops them into a complete set of artistic language. His series of works, such as Fangshan Shidu Jiao Ink Sketches, have created a brand-new style of Chinese landscape painting.

 

 

 

He was responsible for the design of animated film "Na Nao Nao Hai", creating a huge mural "Na Nao Hai" for the capital airport; Jiao Mo's representative works include "Ju Mu Zan" and "Shu Jiang Bi", publishing "Zhang Di ink landscape sketch", "Zhang Di Jiao ink landscape" and "Zhang Ding cartoon"; Mr. Zhang Ding is known as the "Big" of China in the 20th century. Artists and the "flyover" of Chinese art in the 20th century.

Art Activities

 

international exchange

 

After the founding of New China, Zhang Ding served as the general designer of a series of national large-scale international expositions and exhibitions, earning face for Chinese people in international exchanges. In 1952, Leipzig, Germany, held an international exposition. Zhang Di was the chief designer of the China Pavilion. Knowing that he preferred black, he explained to the design team that Zhang Di was absolutely not allowed to use black. We are the Communist Party and New China. However, Zhang Di ignored this set. In addition to the ingenious integration of Tian'anmen Gate and Chinese garden corridor into the exhibition, he also enlarged Zhang Xuan's "Tamper Map" and carved gold lines on black marble as the background of the Silk Hall. Some people disagree, but Zhang Di insists that if he disagrees with his plan, his chief designer will not do it. Under the deadlock, Premier Zhou finally gave his consent. When this black marble wall with oriental artistic conception was exposed, Europeans were amazed.

 

When preparing for the exhibition hall in Paris, Zhang Ding learned that the Central Committee would send a cultural delegation to visit France. He immediately suggested that the delegation should visit Picasso during the legal period and invite him to New China. He knew the great influence of Picasso in the West, and Picasso was a member of the Communist Party of France at that time. This was the exhibition. This is a good opportunity for the country's image.

 

With the help of Zhang Ding, the delegation came to the south of France to meet with Picasso. Zhang Ding prepared for Picasso a New Year picture of Yang Liuqing's woodcut door god and a woodcut watermarking collection of Qibaishi paintings. Zhang Di has always loved folk art. The door god New Year paintings are as big as the door panels, which he purchased specially. The New Year picture was given to Picasso as Zhang Ding's personal gift.

Little wonder, these two gifts deeply touched Picasso. Soon, when Zhang Daqian came to France, Picasso saw him and said, "I'm surprised that you Chinese came to Paris to learn what art, there is no art in Europe, art is in your China.

 

Picasso

 

In 1956, Zhang Ding was appointed to France to preside over the design of the China Pavilion of the Paris International Art Expo. When the delegation of Chinese culture and art visited France, Zhang Ding suggested to the delegation to visit Picasso in the south of France after receiving a telegram from the Ministry of Culture that the delegation would "accompany the delegation to visit all parts of France".

 

Zhang Ding recalled: "Picasso's home is a villa by the sea. When we arrived, Picasso just took a nap and came down from the upstairs in shorts and vest to welcome us warmly. I thought his studio must be very luxurious, because he was already the richest painter in the world, a work worth hundreds of thousands of dollars, but I didn't expect that in his studio, except for the paintings, almost all the furnishings were old, the walls were gray, and the sofa had springs. But Picasso seemed to be blind. His paintings were everywhere on the walls and on the ground. Unfortunately, due to the limited level of translation at that time, the two sides were unable to fully communicate. Zhang Ding pointed to a photo taken with Picasso and smiled at the reporter. "I'm short in China. We stand together quite tall. He's really too short among the generally tall Europeans." It is reported that Zhang Ding once suggested Picasso be an honorary citizen of China and invited him to visit China. In response, Picasso pondered for a moment and answered, "China is great, but he is too old to bear another big change when he comes to China." In the end, Picasso had never been to China.

 

Before the meeting, Zhang Ding knew that Picasso was very fond of folk art in Africa and other places, so he prepared two door god wood engravings with door panels. Unexpectedly, a political cadre of his colleagues prevented him from saying that the God of doors was a feudal superstition and should not be given to foreigners. But to Zhang Ding's slight relief, his other gift, the woodblock watermarking "Qibaishi Painting Collection" later gave Picasso a great influence. Shortly after the delegation visited Picasso, Zhang Daqian also came to visit. Picasso showed Zhang Daqian his imitation of Qibaishi orchid and said, "What I don't understand most is why Chinese people want to go to Paris to learn art. In fact, the real art is in the East." This passage later became a well-quoted saying. In return, Picasso gave Zhang Ding a pamphlet, which he had cherished for many years: "It happened that when we went there, Picasso had just published a small picture album on his desk. He took a red and blue pencil and took my business card and wrote"Zhang Di"on the front page, in which two Chinese characters were written. "Zhang" is blue and "Di" is red. He also painted a dove of peace with olive branches, under which he signed his name. These two slightly tender Chinese characters really represent the friendship between two masters in two countries and two cultures.

 

This meeting was the only time in Zhang Di's life and the only time he saw Picasso. Because of the special social environment at that time, there was no correspondence between them after that, until Picasso died in 1973. In the meantime, there are many people who disagree or even denounce Picasso's art. In 1983, when Picasso's original works were finally available for exhibition in China, a well-known magazine called New Observation invited Zhang Ding to talk about Picasso. Zhang Ding said: "I have been reluctant to talk about Picasso, not because of pressure. Picasso's art has infinite meaning, but the language is limited, it is difficult to express my love for Picasso. But now many people are against Picasso. I can't help saying that I don't understand Picasso's art. Just like some people who are only good at adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, they can't get into a higher level of mathematics, so Einstein has nothing to do with mathematics.

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