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马改户

( 中国美术家协会会员 )

马改户,1928年出生于陕西彬县。擅长雕塑。1953年毕业于当时的西北艺术学院并留校任教,1958年从中央美术学院雕塑训练班毕业,之后便一直任教于西安美术学院,历任雕塑系系主任、教授等职务。

  • 中文名马改户
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 出生地陕西彬县
  • 居住地陕西 西安
  • 出生日期1928-07-20
  • 职业美术家
  • 擅长雕塑
艺术家马改户简介

马改户,1928年出生于陕西彬县。擅长雕塑。1953年毕业于当时的西北艺术学院并留校任教,1958年从中央美术学院雕塑训练班毕业,之后便一直任教于西安美术学院,历任雕塑系系主任、教授等职务。
马改户几十年如一日地勤奋耕耘,不仅是一位出色的艺术教育家,也是一位优秀的雕塑家,为新中国的雕塑殿堂增添了许多珍贵的艺术佳作。1956年,在学习苏联经验的风气中,文化部聘请了苏联雕塑家尼古拉·尼古拉耶维奇·克林杜霍夫在中央美院成立了雕塑训练班,招收来自全国各地的讲师、助教。马改户便是其中的一员。
《老羊倌》是马改户早期的一件代表性作品。在这件作品中,艺术家已显露出独特的艺术视角与卓越的艺术天赋。这件创作于1958年的作品,是作者两年多学习的总结。克林杜霍夫说过:“苏联艺术家的创作活动是以社会主义现实主义方法为基础的。高等艺术院校有责任帮助未来的艺术家掌握这一创作方法。”基于这一原则,这位苏联专家要求他的中国学生们熟悉生活并真实地描写生活。所以马改户就在这幅作品中表现了他的家乡陕北农村的羊倌形象。克林杜霍夫对它的评价是:“属于风俗雕塑,作者提的任务很明确,也完全达到了预期的效果。”在50年代,由于受到前苏联雕塑的影响,食洋不化的结果使许多作品有着概念倾向,在同一类题材中,人物的动态以及道具往往会大同小异。而马改户创作的一幅《老羊倌》,既没有表现工余喝水和手拿麦穗的造型,也没有纪念碑式的英勇救义的场景,而是选择了一个日常的生活场景。老羊倌任斜披一件皮袄,低头注视着抱在怀中的小羊,依偎在他怀中的小羊,似乎又在不停的呻吟。脚边昂首的老羊或许是小羊的妈妈,紧紧地盯着自己的孩子。在整件作品中,人与羊通过视线构成了一个有机的整体,生动传神,不落俗套,真正体现出艺术来源于生活的精神。
三原于右任真正的艺术家在艺术上总是不断探索,不停进取的。在这之后的创作中,通过对中西雕塑语言的进一步学习与借鉴,马改户在艺术语言上不断创新,逐渐形成了自己独特的风格。这一创作于八十年代的木雕作品《三原于右任》,体现出作者在艺术生涯中一个巨大的飞跃,也展现了中国当代雕塑艺术逐步摆脱外来影响,追求自身个性的新气象。国民党元老于右任,生于陕西三原,曾以鲜明的立场和泼辣的文风,大力宣传民族主义进步思想,鼓励民众起来革命。他追随孙中山,拥护国共合作。“西安事变”后,拥护联合抗日。抗战期间,他与中国共产党真诚合作,被周恩来赞为国民党内的有识之士。1964年病危时还写下诗句表达怀念故土和盼望祖国统一的心情。
作品不同于一般的写实性头像,而是采取半抽象化的写意手法,刻划了人物的面部,面部以下的部分则通过胡须的过渡与木材本身的形态融入一体,其寓意之深,构思之巧令人赞叹。它既体现了当代雕塑语言的特色,也透露出中国传统雕塑艺术独有的神韵。可谓当代雕塑领域中不可多得的佳作

Introduction to the artist

The horse changes door, was born in Shaanxi Bin county 1928. Be good at sculpture. Was graduated from the northwest art institute at that time to stay 1953 school teach, graduated from training class of sculpture of the academy of fine arts central 1958, teach all the time later at Xi'an academy of fine arts, having successively held the posts of sculpture to fasten is the post such as director, professor.
The horse changes an act vigorously of ground service of a few years of consistent day cultivated, it is an outstanding artistic educationist not only, also be an outstanding sculptor, the sculpture hall that is new China added a lot of precious artistic an excellent work. 1956, in the atmosphere that studies Russia experience, culture ministry invited Russia sculptor · overcomes Nigula Nigulayeweiji centrally beauty courtyard established Linduhuofu sculpture, recruit the instructor that comes from countrywide each district, assistant. The horse changes door it is a among them.
" Laoyang as hired hand in certain trades " it is the horse changes door a inchoate representative work. In this work, the artist already showed a distinctive artistic perspective and outstanding artistic talent. This creates the work 1958, it is the summary that the author learns two many years. Kelinduhuofu has said: "With socialism realistic method is a foundation the creation activity of Russia artist. The artist that responsible help did not arrive advanced and artistic school masters this to invent a method. " be based on this one principle, this Russia expert asks his Chinese students are familiar with the life and bona fide depict lives. So the horse revises the shepherd figure of a country of home town North Shaanxi that behaved him in this work. Kelinduhuofu is to its evaluation: "Belong to custom sculpture, the mission that the author carries is very clear-cut, achieved expectant result completely also. " in 50 time, as a result of the influence of sculpture of the Russia before getting, the result that feeds ocean to be not changed makes a lot of work are having notional tendency, be in same kind of subject matter is medium, the character's trends and prop often are met very much the same. And a when the horse changes a creation " Laoyang as hired hand in certain trades " , did not behave labour beyond to drink water and hand to take the modelling of ear already, the heroism that also does not have monumental type is saved justice setting, chose a daily life setting however. Old shepherd Ren Xie wraps around a fur-lined jacket, lower his head to be being looked attentively at hold the lamb in the bosom in the arms, lean close in the lamb in his bosom, appear to moan in what keep again. The Laoyang that holds his head high by the side of the foot is the mom of the lamb probably, staring at oneself child closely. In whole work, person and sheep formed an organic whole through the line of sight, vivid lifelike, do not fall convention, true system reveals art to originate the spirit of the life.
3 former at right artistically always explores a true artist ceaselessly, of ceaseless enterprising. In the creation after this, the further study that adopts languages of pair of sculpture of Chinese and Western and draw lessons from, the horse changes a ceaseless on artistic language innovation, formed oneself distinctive color gradually. This creates the woodcarving work at 80 time " 3 former at right " , body reveals an author to be in artistic career a giant leap, also showed Chinese contemporary sculptural to cast off outside influence stage by stage, go after the new atmosphere of oneself individual character. Kuomintang patriarch at right, be born at Shaanxi 3 former, ever mixed with bright footing the style of writing of forceful, publicize nationalism progress thought energetically, encourage the people to rise revolution. His follow Sun Zhongshan, support a country to cooperate in all. "The Xi'an Incident " hind, support combination to fight day. During war of resistance against aggression, he and Chinese Communist sincerity cooperate, be by Zhouenlaizan a man of insight inside Kuomintang. Line still is written down to convey yearning native land and the mood that look forward to the motherland to unite when was terminally ill 1964.
Work is different from general realistically sexual head portrait, adopt the enjoyable technique of half abstraction however, score of the character facial, the configuration of the facial and the following transition that passes beard partly and lumber itself blends in an organic whole, of its implied meaning deep, of conception make a person gasp in admiration opportunely. It reflected the distinguishing feature of contemporary sculpture language already, also show the verve with Chinese traditional particular sculptural fully. It may be said is contemporary an excellent work of the rare in sculpture domain

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