关良

关良(1900--1986),字良公。生于广东番禺, 1917年赴日本学习油画,1923年回国,任上海美术专科学校教授,参加过北伐战争,任政治部艺术股长,30~40年代辗转于广州、上海、重庆等地的艺术院校任教,并于名山大川旅行写生,长于中国画、油画。曾任浙江美术学院教授、上海中国画院画师。著《关良艺事随谈》、《关良回忆录》。出版《关良京戏人物水墨画》、《关良油画集》等。

  • 中文名关良
  • 外文名Liang Guan
  • 别名良公
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 出生地广东番禺
  • 出生日期1900年12月30日
  • 逝世日期1986年11月28日
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校东京太平洋美术学院
  • 代表作品《关良京戏人物水墨画》,《关良油画集》
人物经历

 1909年 入广东南强公学。

1912年 在圣公会,金陵中学读书。

1917年 随兄东渡日本,先后入川端研究所师从画家藤岛武二,转入“太平洋画会”师从中村不折先生学习素描和油画,尤喜爱西方的凡·高和高更的绘画风格。

1923年 毕业于东京太平洋美术学院。归国后,任教于上海神州女学。

1924年 在上海宁波同乡会举办画展,声名鹊起,被郭沫若、郁达夫等激进作家组成的著名文学团体“创造社”聘为美术编辑,同时为郭沫若主编的《创造》杂志画插图和封面设计。相继担任上海师范学校、上海美术专科学校教授,1925年,“东方艺术研究会”改组为上海艺术大学,任教于该校。

1926年赴广州任教于广州美术学校、中山大学附中。

1926年 参加北伐战争,担任国民革命军总政治部宣传科艺术股股长。在上海美专任教之余常欣赏京剧艺术,偏爱画戏剧人物,并拜师学戏,增加戏剧人物画创作的生活积累。

1937年到昆明任教于国立艺专。抗日战争爆发后他辞去公职,长途跋涉去西北诸地考察石窟艺术,沿途卖画为生。

1942年在四川成都举办个人画展,引起美术界很大反响,郭沫若观赏关良的戏曲人物画后,认为是古今奇作,并撰文《关良艺术论》向社会介绍和赞扬他的绘画艺术。茅盾等为之题词称赞。后任重庆国立艺专教授。

1945年抗日战争胜利回到杭州。曾任上海中国画院画师、浙江美术学院教授、中国美术家协会理事。

1956年文化部在北京举办“关良个人画展”,数天之中观者如潮。

1957年与李可染一起赴德意民主共和国友好访问,在东柏林举办个人画展。,莱比锡“伊姆茵采尔”出版公司为他出版画册。“文化大革命”以后,大地回春,在上海举办《关良回顾展》。出版有《关良艺事随谈》、《关良回忆录》,画集有《关良京剧人物水墨画》、《关良戏剧人物水墨画册》、《关良油画集》等。

艺术风格

 关良先生是中国近现代画坛上一位不可或缺的大师,也许他最早将西方现代派的绘画理念引入中国传统的水墨画之中,创造了别具一格的戏剧人物画,在国内外享有很高的声誉;

像小孩子画的那样

不知多少次听到有人疑问———关良的画有什么好,像小孩子画的那样。这问题很难回答,有的说,许多人说好啊!连郭沫若、茅盾、老舍等大文学家都为他题画,说好!齐白石黄宾虹潘天寿等大画家都与他相互品题赠画呢!要是国人说的不算,还有,德国人主动为他出画集并付与丰厚稿酬,中国画家有这待遇的,仅有齐白石关良。你敢说不好!有人干脆就说,有名就好,值钱就好!其实,这些说法只说出了画好的结果,好在哪里还是不甚了了。还是问题本身就给出了答案———好在像孩子画的那样。

这倒不是像“老莱子娱亲”的那种让人恶心的假孩子,而是对艺术痴迷的赤子之心。可以说,关良的画是玩出来的。他17岁随二哥去日本,不学热门的化工专业,硬是报读好玩但就业机会渺茫的美术。后来从藤岛武二学画,课余就学小提琴,当然不是为了考级啦,就是贪好玩呗。“三岁定八十”这话一点也不假,关良小时候在南京,爱到“两广会馆”看京剧,这就注定了他一生玩京剧、画京剧。不是一般的票友而是拜师学戏,买回髯口、马鞭、靴子,吊嗓子、摆功架,来真的。这样画京剧和拿照相机拍几张剧照回来画的,自然是大有区别。要么不玩,玩就玩得精,深入其中,寻根究底是关良的态度。他的油画受现代派影响,不仅在技法形式上,主要还是在理论和观念上的。他说:“我们若是认识了现代绘画的理论与现代精神的话,那时是绝对不会误解现代艺术,毒骂现代艺术的。一个画家是要有充分的教养的,尤其是在现在来说,不然他是一个工匠。”这话很温和地批评了那毒骂现代艺术的大画家。关良就是这样一个有教养的好好先生,完全沉醉在艺术世界里,他的画里表现的,就是他所有教养的总和。

 

在风雨飘摇,危机四伏的中国社会,将艺术工具化去达到某种目的成了大部分画家追求的时候,关良的这种为艺术而艺术的态度是要受到质疑的。1934年他参加广州市美展的两幅油画就受到批评:《海滨》是悠闲生活的写照和理想。《母与子》是个人生活的印象,缺少了时代意识,没有看见路边的饿殍,没有听到帝国主义的炮声。只是关在与世隔绝的画室里过着梦幻的生活。我不知道关良有无读过鲁迅致李桦的信,鲁迅的意见也并非圣经,但可以帮助我们理解关良的选择。“现在有许多人,以为应该表现国民的艰苦,国民的战斗,这自然并不错的,但如自己并不在这样的漩涡中,实在无法表现,假使以意为之,那就决不能真切,深刻,也就不成为艺术。所以我的意见,以为一个艺术家,只要表现他所经验的就好了,当然,书斋外面是应该走出去的,倘不在什么漩涡中,那么,只表现些所见的平常的社会状态也好。”

关良是幸运的,抗战期间,郭沫若等一批文化人支持他在成都办京剧人物画展,卖了画有钱去考察山胜古迹。20世纪50年代,苏式美术一派独大的时候,他却有机会与李可染带着水墨画访问德国。虽然,“文革”中他也受到冲击,将自己心血之作用水泡烂冲进厕所里。但比起许多在漩涡中的画家幸运多了。

当艺术不堪功用重负的时候,艺术家就要挣脱羁绊,企图不受任何束缚,自由地表达,追求艺术的本体。显然,完全不受任何条件约束的艺术恐怕是没有的,但是,只要有艺术存在,这种没有终极目标的追求是永远不会停止的。如果我们也用孩子的眼光来看画,相信会离艺术的本质近些。

人物评价

 对关良作品的艺术价值和市场走向,笔者在20世纪90年代后期曾阐述:“人物绘画向以传神为极致,关良的独具风貌彩墨戏剧人物画是划时代的,随着人们鉴赏水平的提高,关良的作品有望成为热门收藏品,并成为市场的大黑马。”近两年,随着中国字画行情的启动,张大千傅抱石齐白石徐悲鸿等一流大师作品先后飙升,尤令人可喜的是,关良的油画涨幅较大,2003年他的油画《舞蹈》在北京华辰获价11万元,首次突破百万元大关;2005年《静物》被北京保利拍至10.8万元,同时,5万元成交的油画作品也大幅增加。从关良作品的市场走势看,他的作品价格上扬,属于价值回归,后市鉴于关良属于中国第一代著名油画家,对中国油画的发展做出了很大的贡献,并在中国油画史上有着很高的地位,所以还有很大的上升空间。

作品市场

  关良书画作品在很长一段时间内不太有市场份额,进入90年代中期,一些拍卖行陆续推出关良的作品,若与国画相比,他的油画当时没有什么行情,价格低得离谱。直到2000年后才有所表现,2001年他的油画《孙悟空三打白骨精》在嘉德获价22万元;2002年油画《灵派山》在嘉德获价28.6万元。导致关良作品价格偏低的主要原因是人们对关良作品缺乏理解。记得在关良一次画展上,画家李苦禅曾带着一批学生去参观,许多学生提出关良老师为什么不把人物画得标准些,苦禅先生说:“良公的画法叫得意忘形。”李苦禅所谓的“得意忘形”指的是“绘画之形象”,而不是“形象之绘画”。对此,关良以最理解相许。

关良作品的艺术价值和市场走向,笔者在20世纪90年代后期曾阐述:“人物绘画向以传神为极致,关良的独具风貌彩墨戏剧人物画是划时代的,他的作品现在或许还不能被人理解,若干年后,随着人们鉴赏水平的提高,关良的作品有望成为热门收藏品,并成为市场的大黑马。”近两年,随着中国字画行情的启动,张大千傅抱石齐白石徐悲鸿等一流大师作品先后飙升,尤令人可喜的是,关良的油画涨幅较大,2003年他的油画《舞蹈》在北京华辰获价110万元,首次突破百万元大关;2005年《静物》被北京保利拍至107.8万元,同时,50万元成交的油画作品也大幅增加。从目前关良作品的市场走势看,他的作品价格上扬,属于价值回归,后市鉴于关良属于中国第一代著名油画家,对中国油画的发展做出了很大的贡献,并在中国油画史上有着很高的地位,所以还有很大的上升空间。

English Introduction

 1909 Guangdong South school.

1912 in the Anglican, Jinling middle school.

1917 went to Japan with his brother, he went to study under the tutelage of end painter Toshima Takeji in Pacific Art Association with Mr. Nakamura fuestsu study of drawing and painting, especially like the western Van Gogh and Gauguin painting style.

Graduated from Academy of Fine Arts in Tokyo, Pacific, 1923. After returning to teach in Shanghai, China female school.

1924 will be held in Shanghai exhibition, Ningbo Association fame, by Guo Moruo, Yu Dafu and other radical writers composed of famous literary group "the creation society" hired as art editor, and Guo Moruo editor of the "create" magazine illustration and cover design. Shanghai normal school, Shanghai Academy of fine arts professor, in 1925, the "Oriental Art Research Institute" was reorganized into the Shanghai University of the Arts, to teach in the school.

In 1926 he went to Guangzhou at the Guangzhou art school, Middle School of Zhongshan University.

1926 to participate in the northern expedition, served as the National Revolutionary Army General Political Department of the Propaganda Department of art unit. Taught at the Shanghai Academy of fine arts I often enjoy Peking opera art, drama and painting preference, learning how to play, to increase the accumulation of life drama figure painting.

To Kunming in 1937 at the national art college. After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, he resigned from public office and traveled long distances to the northwest to investigate the art of the caves.

In 1942, Sichuan held a personal exhibition in Chengdu art circles caused great repercussions, Guo Moruo watch GuanLiang opera figures, that is ancient and modern as odd, and wrote "good art theory" to introduce social and praised his art of painting. Mao Dun as the inscription praises. He served as the Chongqing National Art College professor.

1945 victory of the war of resistance against Japan back to Hangzhou. A former director of the Shanghai China painting artist, a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zhejiang, China artists association.

In 1956 the Ministry of culture organized "Guan Liang personal exhibition" in Beijing, the number of days in the viewer.

In 1957, together with Li Keran in the Democratic Republic of Germany and Italy friendly visit, held a personal exhibition in East Berlin. Leipzig, "Edgar Yin Zermatt and his book was published. Since the "Cultural Revolution", "Guan Liang held Spring returns to the earth, a retrospective exhibition in Shanghai". The publication of "talk", "with the French Liang Guan Liang memoir", "collection contains Guan Liang opera character painting", "Guan Liang album", "drama ink painting Guan Liang" etc..

Mr. Guan Liang is China modern painting an indispensable master, perhaps he will be the first Western modernist painting concept Chinese traditional ink painting, created have a unique style of opera figure paintings, enjoys a high reputation both at home and abroad;

Like a child.

I do not know how many times I have heard some people doubt that good painting is good, like a child. This question is difficult to answer, some say, many people say yes ah! Guo Moruo, Mao Dun, Lao She and litterateurs are his paintings, say! Qi Baishi, Huang Binhong, Pan Tianshou and other major artists and the painting to do him! If people say no, and the Germans for his initiative and give out of lucrative remuneration, Chinese painter this treatment, only Qi Baishi and Guan liang. You can't say that! Some people simply say, famous is good, valuable is good! In fact, these statements only say good painting result, but still do not fully understand. Or the question itself gives the answer - fortunately, as the child draws the.

It's not like "Laolaizi Yuqin" that kind of disgusting false children, but the art obsessed with utter innocence. It can be said that the painting is good to play out. He was 17 years old with elder brother to go to Japan, do not learn popular chemical specialty, just for fun but the employment chances of art. Later, from the Toshima Takeji painting, after-school violin, of course not to test, just fun. "Three eighty" this is not false, Guan Liang child in Nanjing, to "Liangguang hall" opera, which doomed his life to play opera, opera painting. It is not a general amateur apprentice to learn to play, buy, beard or whip, boots, diaosangzi, put it off. This painting of Peking Opera and take the camera a few stills back painting, nature is a great difference. Either do not play, play it fine, the depth of which it is the attitude of Guan liang. His paintings by modern influence, not only in the form of techniques, mainly in theory and the concept of. He said: "if we understand the theory of modern painting and modern spirit, that is absolutely not the misunderstanding of modern art, modern art berascal. A painter is to be well educated, especially in the present, or he is a craftsman." This is mildly criticized the bitterness of modern art painter. Guan Liang is an educated man, completely immersed in the world of art, his paintings, he is the sum of all education.

In the precarious, the China society will be threatened by growing crises, art tools to achieve a certain purpose to pursue the most painters, Guan's art for art attitude should be challenged. Two paintings in 1934 he joined the Guangzhou City Art Criticism: "on the beach" is the portrayal of the life and leisure ideal. "Mother and son" is a personal impression of life, the lack of consciousness of the times, did not see the roadside all around, did not hear the imperialist cannon. Just had a dream of life in a secluded studio. I do not know whether or not to read Lu Xun's letter to Li Hua, Lu Xun's opinion is not the Bible, but can help us to understand the good choice. "There are a lot of people think, should be the national national hard battle, this natural and good, but if he was not in such a vortex, it cannot, if it cannot self-willed, vivid, profound, is not an art. So in my opinion, think of an artist, as long as the expression of his experience is good, of course, is outside the study should go out, if not in what the whirlpool, then only see some common social status or."

Guan Liang is lucky, during the Anti Japanese War, Guo Moruo, and a number of cultural people to support him in Chengdu to do Peking Opera figures show, sold the paintings have the money to visit the mountains and monuments. In 1950s, when the Soviet style art was one of the only time, he had the opportunity to visit Germany with Li Keran with ink painting. Although, in the cultural revolution, he was also affected by the impact of their own efforts, the role of blisters rotten into the toilet. But much more fortunate than many of the artists in the whirlpool.

When the art is the burden of the function, the artist is to break free of the fetters, in an attempt to free expression, the pursuit of art. Obviously, there is no art without any constraint on the art, but, as long as there is the existence of art, this is not the ultimate goal of the pursuit is never stopped. If we also use the child's vision of painting, we believe that the essence of the art of close.

The trend of Guan Liang artistic value and market, the author in the late 1990s was described: "figure painting to vivid extreme, Guan Liang's unique style figure painting ink drama is epoch-making, as people raise the level of appreciation, Guan Liang's works is expected to become popular collectibles, and become the market Ohguro Ma." In recent years, with the China calligraphy and painting market start, Zhang Daqian, Fu Baoshi, Qi Baishi, Xu Beihong and other first-class masters has soared, especially gratifying is that Guan Liang oil rose significantly, in 2003 his painting "dance" in Beijing Huachen won the price of 110 thousand yuan, for the first time to break the million mark in 2005; "still life" Beijing poly shot to 108 thousand yuan, 50 thousand yuan turnover at the same time, the oil painting has increased significantly. From Guan Liang works market trend, his works belong to the rise in prices, the value of the return, having given Guan Liang Chinese belongs to the first generation of the famous painter, made a great contribution to the development of China oil painting, and has a high position in the China painting history, so there is a large increase in space.

Guan Liang calligraphy works in a very long period of time do not have much market share, in mid 90s, some auction launched Guan Liang's works, if compared with traditional Chinese painting, his paintings were not what the market, ridiculously low price. Until after the 2000 performance, in 2001 his painting "Sun Wukong" three strikes in the guardian won the price of 220 thousand yuan; 2002 oil painting "inspirepad mountain" in the guardian by the price of 286 thousand yuan. The main reason for the low price of good works is the lack of understanding of the works. Remember in Guan Liang a painting, the painter Li Kuchan once with a group of students to visit, many students ask teacher Guan Liang why not put the figures standard, bitter Zen said: "good painting called dizzy with success." Li Kuchan called "dizzy with success" refers to the "image painting", and not "image painting". In this regard, Guan Liang with the most understanding of the phase.

The trend of Guan Liang artistic value and market, the author in the late 1990s was described: "figure painting to vivid extreme, Guan Liang's unique style figure painting ink drama is epoch-making, his work now might not be understood, after a few years, along with the people to raise the level of appreciation, Guan Liang the work is expected to become popular collectibles, and become the market of the big black horse." In recent years, with the China calligraphy and painting market start, Zhang Daqian, Fu Baoshi, Qi Baishi, Xu Beihong and other first-class masters has soared, especially gratifying is that Guan Liang oil rose significantly, in 2003 his painting "dance" in Beijing Huachen won the price of 1 million 100 thousand yuan, the first million yuan; 2005 was "still life" Beijing poly auction to 1 million 78 thousand yuan, 500 thousand yuan turnover at the same time, the oil painting has increased significantly. From the current market trend of Guan Liang works, his works belong to the rise in prices, the value of the return, having given Guan Liang Chinese belongs to the first generation of the famous painter, made a great contribution to the development of China oil painting, and has a high position in the China painting history, so there is still a large increase in space.

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鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信:4081532