郭沫若

郭沫若(1892一1978),男,原名郭开贞,字鼎堂,号尚武,乳名文豹,笔名沫若、麦克昂、郭鼎堂、石沱、高汝鸿、羊易之等。 1892年11月16日出生于四川乐山沙湾,毕业于日本九州帝国大学,现代文学家、历史学家、新诗奠基人之一,中国科学院首任院长  ,中国科学技术大学首任校长、苏联科学院外籍院士。
1914年,郭沫若留学日本,在九州帝国大学学医。1921年,发表第一本新诗集《女神》。  1930年,他撰写了《中国古代社会研究》。1949年,郭沫若当选为中华全国文学艺术会主席。
曾任中国科学院哲学社会科学部主任、历史研究所第一所所长、中国人民保卫世界和平委员会主席、中日友好协会名誉会长、中国文联主席等要职,当选中国共产党第九、十、十一届中央委员,第二、第三、第五届全国政协副主席。
1978年6月12日,因病长期医治无效,在北京逝世,终年86岁。

  • 中文名郭沫若
  • 别名郭开贞
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍中国福建
  • 出生地四川省乐山县铜河沙湾
  • 出生日期1892年
  • 逝世日期1978年
  • 信仰佛教
  • 职业文学家、历史学家
  • 毕业院校九州帝国大学
  • 主要成就新诗奠基人之一 中国科学院首任院长 中国科学技术大学首任校长
  • 代表作品《郭沫若全集》《甲骨文字研究》《中国史稿》等
  • 语言汉语、俄语、德语、日语、英语
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人物生平

 早年

郭沫若是四川省乐山县人,少年曾就读于成都石室中学。父亲郭朝沛经营商业。母亲杜遨贞,是一个没落的官宦人家的女儿。1914年,郭沫若留学日本,在九州帝国大学学医。1921年发表第一本新诗集《女神》,书中洋溢着强烈的浪漫主义气息,《女神》是中国新诗的奠基之作,郭沫若也因而成为中国新诗的重要奠基人之一;同年又与郁达夫等人一同创立上海文学学社“创造社”,是新文化运动的重要旗手。1922年3月15日《创造季刊》问世。这一时期郭沫若的诗作,同胡适等人的新文化运动、五四运动作品,影响了日据时期台湾的早期新诗创作。

1926年到1927年任国立武昌中山大学筹备委员会委员。1927年他就任蒋介石总司令指挥下的北伐军总政治部副主任。安庆“三二三惨案”之后,蒋介石着手清党,郭沫若在朱德的家里,写下了声讨蒋介石的檄文《请看今日之蒋介石》,指出“蒋介石是流氓地痞、土豪劣绅、贪官污吏、卖国军阀、所有一切反动派——反革命势力的中心力量”,是“一个比吴佩孚、孙传芳、张作霖、张宗昌等还要凶顽、还要狠毒、还要狡狯的刽子手”。随后参加了八一南昌起义,加入中国共产党。蒋旋即通缉郭沫若,1928年2月郭前往日本避难。

流亡日本

郭沫若在流亡日本期间,开始研究甲骨文、金文。1930年撰写了《中国古代社会研究》,通过引用当时的历史文献资料与马克思主义关于人类社会学发展规律的论断,证明中国同样经历过原始社会、奴隶社会与封建社会(但此理论后来遭到黄现璠等人的置疑,黄曾于1979年着文提出,认为中国没有奴隶社会),郭沫若由此在中国开创了唯物史观派,该学派在此后占据了中国学术界的主流地位。随着以马克思主义为指导纲领的中国共产党走上执政舞台,该书的观点被当作今后中小学课本的参考教材之一。郭沫若凭借这一时期的甲骨文研究而与王国维、罗振玉、董作宾并称甲骨四堂,并借此于1948年当选为第一届中央研究院院士。

抗战时期

郭沫若在1937年全面抗战爆发后回国。在日期间他娶了一个日本籍妻子,这个妻子没有跟随他来中国。回国后前往南京拜谒蒋介石,然后发表了一篇《蒋委员长会见记》,对蒋介石进行颂扬,但并未请求蒋原谅从前的事情,不久拜见汪精卫。之后担任国民政府军委会政治部第三厅厅长,期间组织了声势浩大的武汉抗战文化运动,发动歌咏、话剧、电影等各界一同宣传抗战。他本人也创作了大量话剧剧本,鼓舞民心士气,包括屈原》、《虎符》、《棠棣之花》、《南冠草》、《孔雀胆》、《高渐离》六出历史悲剧作品,其中以《屈原》最受欢迎。台大历史系教授王远义认为郭沫若等人这一时期的作品,开创了一条大众形式与精英创作结合,现代性与传统民族文化共存的文学与文化道路。

内战时期

1948年 国共内战期间郭沫若因为考古学和甲骨文研究的巨大成就而当选为第一届中央研究院院士。台湾中研院近代史研究所潘光哲研究员在《知识场域的桂冠:从第一届中研院院士的选举谈起》一文叙述了这次中研院院士选举和郭沫若的当选过程。

郭沫若的历史剧《蔡文姬》《武则天》等多部诗集等作品,所着《奴隶制时代》等书,提出中国奴隶制和封建制的分期在春秋、战国之际的见解。历任中央人民政府委员、政务院副总理兼文化教育委员会主任、全国人民代表大会常务委员会副委员长,中国科学院院长、中国科学院哲学社会科学部主任、历史研究所第一所所长、中国人民保卫世界和平委员会主席、中日友好协会名誉会长、中国科学技术大学校长、中国文联主席等要职;郭沫若是中国共产党第九、十、十一届中央委员,第二、第三、第五届全国政协副主席。郭沫若的重要着作还有《两周金文辞图录考释》、《金文丛考》、《卜辞通纂》等,曾在学术界引起轰动;生平着述收有《郭沫若文集》(17卷)和《郭沫若全集》。一生主要文学着作有:诗集《女神》、《星空》、《瓶》、《前茅》、《恢复》、《蜩螗集》、《战声集》等;散文《我的幼年》、《反正前后》、《创造十年》、《北伐途次》、《沸羹集》等;戏剧《三个叛逆的女性》、《屈原》、《虎符》、《棠棣之花》、《高渐离》、《蔡文姬》、《武则天》等;另有《沫若诗词选》及翻译歌德的《浮士德》等。人民文学出版社出版有《郭沫若全集》。

郭沫若在中国现代文学史、中国历史学,考古学等领域享有崇高的地位。他是继鲁迅之后,中国文化战线上又一面光辉的旗帜。着作结集为《沫若文集》17卷本(1957~1963),新编《郭沫若全集》分文学(20卷)、历史、考古三编,1982年起陆续出版发行。许多作品已被译成日、俄、英、德、意、法等多种文字。其中《天上的街市》和《静夜》被选入七年级人教版课本。《雷电颂》被选入八年级课本。。

艺术特点

在书法艺术方面,郭沫若同样成就不凡,在现代书法史上占有重要地位。郭沫若以“回锋转向,逆入平出”为学书执笔8字要诀。其书体既重师承,又多创新,展现了大胆的创造精神和鲜活的时代特色,被世人誉为“郭体”。郭沫若以行草见长,笔力爽劲洒脱,运转变通,韵味无穷;其楷书作品虽然留存不多,却尤见功力,气贯笔端,形神兼备。郭沫若在书法艺术上的探索与实践历时70余年。青年郭沫若的书法得到社会承认,始于辛亥年间。

新中国成立以后,郭沫若在繁重的国事之余从事更为丰富的书法创作。他慷慨为人,博识广闻,为全国各地名胜古迹、工矿学校、以及社会各界、海内外友人留下难计其数的辞章墨宝。其书法作品数量之多,影响之广,少有出其右者。为纪念建国15周年而创作的巨幅书法作品是郭沫若书法作品的代表作之一。

在他的书法作品中,处处透射出一种“文”的气息,宠万端于胸中,幻化出千种思绪,从笔端涓涓流出,生成与他诗、文、史种种学问修养相融合的化境,以书法的外化形式展现给读者

人物纪念

 郭沫若文艺奖

1987年,为纪念郭沫若对中国文化艺术的卓越贡献,经中国文联批准,设立“郭沫若文奖”奖项,特别奖励在中国文艺界做出杰出贡献的艺术家。该奖项下设文学奖、书法奖、美术奖、摄影奖、舞蹈奖、音乐奖、民间文艺和戏剧八个类别,每五年评选一次。评选范围为全国及海外华人艺术界,以中青年艺术家为主要对象。

郭沫若文艺奖”的举办地设立在郭沫若的家乡乐山市,由乐山市人民政府和乐山市文学艺术界联合会作为永久性承办单位,接受中国文联的指导、审批和监督,目前已举办六届,与山花奖、骏马奖并称中国三大专业领略艺术大奖。

奖学金

1980年2月25日,国务院正式批准中国科技大学设立以郭沫若名字命名的“郭沫若奖学金”。“郭沫若奖学金”是中国科学院利用任科大校长20年之久的郭沫若院长生前交给院党组的15万元稿费设立的专项奖学金,用以激励莘莘学子努力攀登科学技术高峰。该奖学金为新中国设立最早的奖学金。

纪念邮票

1982年11月16日我国发行《J87 郭沫若同志诞辰九十周年》,纪念郭沫若先生。

纪念碑

1978年6月12日,郭沫若在北京逝世;根据其遗嘱,郭沫若的骨灰洒在山西昔阳县大寨人民公社的梯田中。大寨专门为他建了纪念碑。

故居纪念馆

重庆郭沫若旧居暨国民政府军事委员会政治部第三厅和文化工作委员会旧址,位于重庆市沙坪坝区西永镇香蕉园村(全家院子)。旧居占地面积10190平方米,建筑面积1566平方米,建筑风格为清晚期四合院,穿斗结构,小青瓦屋面,斜山式屋顶。

2000年9月,郭沫若旧居被重庆市政府列为直辖市后首批市级文物保护单位。2005年3月,旧居修复工程正式启动,6月30日旧居主体工程竣工,并于9月7日正式对外陈列开放。

English Introduction

Guo Moruo (1892 - 1978), male, formerly known as Guo Kaizhen, word dingtang, No. martialism, petname the leopard, under the name of Mo Ruo, Guo Dingtang, Shi Tuo, McKeon, Gao Ruhong, Yang Yi. Born in November 16, 1892 in Sichuan Leshan Shawan, graduated from Kyushu University in Japan, one of the modern writers and historians, the founder of new poetry, the first Dean Chinese academy, the first president of University of Science & Technology China, Soviet Academy of sciences.

In 1914, Guo Moruo study in Japan, in the Imperial University of. 1921, published the first new poetry "goddess". In 1930, he wrote the "Chinese ancient social studies". In 1949, Guo Moruo was elected chairman of the Chinese national literature and art association.

Former Chinese Academy of philosophy and Social Sciences, director of the Department of History Research Institute, the first China people to defend world peace committee chairman, honorary president of the China Japan Friendship Association, Chinese Federation Chairman and other positions, elected ninth, ten, eleven China Communist Party Central Committee, vice chairman of the second, third, fifth CPPCC National committee.

In June 12, 1978, due to illness, long-term treatment is invalid, died in Beijing, aged 86 years old.

Early years

Guo Moruo is the Sichuan province Leshan County, young attended Chengdu Shishi middle school. Father Guo Zhaopei business. Mother Du Aozhen is a decline of the courtiers daughter. In 1914, Guo Moruo study in Japan, in the Imperial University of. This new collection of poems published in 1921 the first "goddess", a book filled with a strong romantic atmosphere, "goddess" is the foundation of the Chinese poetry, Guo Moruo has thus become one of the important founders of China poetry; and in the same year with Yu Dafu and together founded the Shanghai literary agency "Creation Society", is an important bearer of new culture movement. March 15, 1922 "creation Quarterly" published. During this period, Guo Moruo's poems, with the new culture movement of Hu Shi and the 54 Movement, influenced the creation of the early New Poetry in Taiwan during the period of Japanese occupation.

From 1926 to 1927, the national Wuchang Zhongshan University preparatory committee. In 1927 he became commander in chief Jiang Jieshi under the command of the Army General Political Department Deputy director. After the "323 Anqing Massacre", Jiang Jieshi set out to the party, Guo Moruo in Zhu De's home, Jiang Jieshi wrote "please look at the official accusation against today's Jiang Jieshi", pointed out that "Jiang Jieshi is gangsters, corrupt officials, local tyrants and evil gentry, traitorous warlords, all reactionaries -- the central power" counter revolutionary forces, "a Wu Peifu, Sun Chuanfang, Zhang Zuolin, than Zhang Zongchang, but also ferocious, even vicious cunning". Then participated in the Nanchang uprising, joined the Communist Party of china. Jiang Xuan that is wanted by Guo Moruo, in February 1928, Guo went to Japan asylum.

Exile in Japan

Guo Moruo during his exile in Japan, began to study the oracle and bronze inscription. 1930 wrote "the study on the China ancient society, by referring to the historical documents and then Marx's judgment on the law of development of human society, that Chinese also experienced the primitive society, the slave society and feudal society (but this theory was that the fan Huang et al in 1979 had a yellow paper, think there is no slave society), Guo Moruo Chinese China created the historical materialism in the school, the school in the next mainstream academic China. With the Marx doctrine as the guiding principle of the Communist Party of China took to the governing stage, the book's view is regarded as the future of primary and secondary school textbooks, one of the reference materials. Guo Moruo with the oracle of this period with Luo Zhenyu, Wang Guowei, Dong Zuobin and Oracle four hall, and this was elected in 1948 as the first central academy.

the period of the war of Resistance Against Japan

Guo Moruo in 1937 after the outbreak of the war of resistance against japan. He married a Japanese wife by the date, and the wife did not follow him to China. After returning to Nanjing to pay homage to Jiang Jieshi, and published a "generalissimo credited with", praising Jiang Jieshi, but did not request to forgive the former things Jiang, see Wang Jingwei soon. After the national government military commission as director of the Political Department of the third department, organized the Wuhan Anti Japanese War Culture Movement during the great in strength and impetus, singing, drama and film launched a propaganda war from all walks of life together. He also created a lot of drama, encouraged by the morale of Qu Yuan "," "," Tang Di Hufu flower "," south "," peacock grass crown gall "," Gao Jianli "six historical tragedies, among which the most popular" Qu Yuan ". NTU professor of history Wang Yuanyi that Guo Moruo and other works of this period, created a popular form and elite novels combine modern and traditional culture, the coexistence of literary and cultural road.

during the civil war

During the civil war in 1948 Guo Moruo because the great achievements of Archaeology and research the oracle was elected as the first central research academy. Taiwan 's Pan Guangzhe researcher at the Institute of modern history "laurel knowledge field: talk about" from the first session of the Academia Sinica election paper describes the process of this election elected members of the Academia Sinica and Guo Moruo.

Guo Moruo's historical drama "Cai Wenji", "Wu Zetian" and other collections of poems and other works, such as the "slavery times" and other books, the Chinese slave and feudal system in the spring and Autumn period, the Warring States period. Served as deputy prime minister, member of the Central People's Government Administration Council and director of culture and Education Committee, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress vice chairman China, President of the Academy, Chinese Academy of philosophy and Social Sciences, director of the Department of History Research Institute, the first Chinese people defending world peace committee chairman, honorary president of the China Japan Friendship Association, University of Science & Technology China the president, chairman of the Federation China positions; Guo Moruo is ninth, ten, eleven China Communist Party Central Committee, vice chairman of the second, third, fifth CPPCC National committee. Guo Moruo's important works are "two weeks of study", "gold", "Jin Cong Kao" compile "inscriptions, has caused a sensation in the academic circles; the life of a" Guo Moruo anthology "(17 volumes) and" complete works of Guo Moruo. His main literary masterpieces: Poetry "goddess", "Star", "bottle", "vanguard", "recovery", "Tiaotang", "war" soundtrack; "my childhood" prose "," create ", anyway, before and after ten years", "Northern Expedition", "stopover the boiling soup"; drama "three rebellious women", "Qu", "", "Tang Di Hufu flower", "Gao Jianli", "Cai Wenji", "Wu Zetian"; and "Moruo Selected Poems" and Gerd's "Faust". The people's Literature Publishing House published "the complete works of Guo Moruo".

In the art of calligraphy, Guo Moruo also achieved extraordinary achievements in the history of modern calligraphy occupies an important position in the history of calligraphy and art. Guo Moruo turned to "back to front, inverse to the flat out" Book authored 8 key words. The style is heavy and innovative teachers, show the characteristics of the times, bold creative spirit and vivid, was known as "Guo". Guo Moruo known cursive strokes, cool hard clear, flexible operation, infinite charm; the script works although not retained, but especially the skill, gas penetration theory, xingshenjianbei. Guo Moruo's exploration and practice in the art of calligraphy lasted for more than 70 years. Youth Guo Moruo's calligraphy has been recognized by the society, which began in the period of.

After the founding of new China, Guo Moruo in the heavy state of more than engaged in a more rich calligraphy creation. He is generous, fully knowledgeable, remain difficult to count the number of art of calligraphy for the country, schools, and places of historic interest and scenic beauty and the community and friends at home and abroad. The number of calligraphy works, the impact of a wide, few out of its right. To commemorate the 15 anniversary of the founding of the creation of the giant calligraphy is one of the representatives of Guo Moruo's calligraphy works.

In his calligraphy works, all reflect a "text" of the atmosphere, wanduan pet in the chest, turned out thousands of thoughts, the outflow from the pen, fusion phase formation and he poetry, literature and history of various knowledge training environment, to form the calligraphy show to the readers 

Guo Moruo prize for literature and art

In 1987, to commemorate Guo Moruo's outstanding contribution to Chinese arts and culture, the Chinese Federation approved the establishment of the "Guo Moruowen Award" award, special award for outstanding contributions in literary and art circles Chinese artists. The award consists of eight categories: literature prize, calligraphy award, Art Award, Photography Award, Dance Award, music award, folk art and drama. The selection of the national and overseas Chinese art world, in order to middle-aged and young artists as the main object.

"Guo Moruo literature award" held up in Guo Moruo's hometown of Leshan City, as the permanent undertaker association by the Leshan Municipal People's government and the Leshan city of literary and art circles, accept the guidance, approval and supervision of Chinese Federation, has been held six times, and the horse, Shanhua prize award and said the three major Chinese enjoy the art awards.

Scholarship

February 25, 1980, the State Council formally approved the establishment of the University of Science and Technology of China Guo Moruo named Guo Moruo scholarship". The "Guo Moruo scholarship" is a special scholarship Chinese academy by any university president for 20 years before President Guo Moruo gave 150 thousand yuan for Party school establishment, to inspire students to climb the peak of science and technology. The scholarship for the new China to set up the first scholarship.

Commemorative stamps

November 16, 1982 China issued "the ninety anniversary of the birth of Comrade Guo Moruo", in memory of Mr. Guo Moruo.

Monument

In June 12, 1978, Guo Moruo died in Beijing; according to their wills, Guo Moruo's ashes in Dazhai Shanxi Xiyang County People's commune terrace. He built a monument dedicated to dazhai.

Memorial Hall of the former residence

The former residence of Guo Moruo and the Chongqing National Government Working Committee for the third Department of cultural and Political Department of the Military Commission site, located in the West Wing town banana garden village of Shapingba District of Chongqing city (family courtyard). House covers an area of 10190 square meters, construction area of 1566 square meters, the architectural style of the late Qing Dynasty courtyard, Chuandou structure, Xiaoqing tile roof, oblique mountain type roof.

In September 2000, the former residence of Guo Moruo by the Chongqing municipal government as a municipality directly under the central government after the first municipal cultural relics protection units. In March 2005, the former residence of the repair project officially started in June 30th, the former residence of the completion of the main project, and in September 7th officially open display.

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