李叔同

李叔同(1880—1942),又名李息霜、李岸、李良,谱名文涛,幼名成蹊,学名广侯,字息霜,别号漱筒。
李叔同是著名音乐家、美术教育家、书法家、戏剧活动家,是中国话剧的开拓者之一。他从日本留学归国后,担任过教师、编辑之职,后剃度为僧,法名演音,号弘一,晚号晚晴老人,后被人尊称为弘一法师。
1913年受聘为浙江两级师范学校(后改为浙江省立第一师范学校)音乐、图画教师。1915年起兼任南京高等师范学校音乐、图画教师,并谱曲南京大学历史上第一首校歌。

  • 中文名李叔同
  • 别名李息霜、李岸、李良
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍浙江平湖
  • 出生地天津
  • 出生日期1880年10月23日
  • 逝世日期1942年10月13日
  • 信仰佛教
  • 职业音乐家、美术教育家、书法家、戏剧活动家
  • 主要成就中国油画、广告画的先驱之一
  • 代表作品《送别》《南京大学校歌》《三宝歌》等
人物简介

李叔同是中国新文化运动的先驱,近代史上著名的艺术家、教育家、思想家、革新家。作为中国新文化运动的早期启蒙者,他一生在音乐、戏剧、美术、诗词、篆刻、金石、书法、教育、哲学、法学等诸多文化领域中都有较高的建树,并先后培养了一大批优秀艺术人才。名画家丰子恺、音乐家刘质平等文化名人皆出其门下。
1918年,李叔同在杭州虎跑寺出家,法号弘一,法名演音。作为中国近现代佛教史上最杰出的一位著名高僧,他被尊为南山律宗大师,律宗第十一世祖,享誉海内外。赵朴初先生评价大师的一生为:“无尽奇珍供世眼 一轮圆月耀天心。”

主要作品

诗词文学
李叔同的诗词在近代中国文学史上同样占有一席之地。他年轻时,即以才华横溢引起文坛瞩目。客居上海时,他将以往所作诗词手录为《诗钟汇编初集》,在“城南文社”社友中传阅,后又结集《李庐诗钟》。出家前夕,他将清光绪二十六至三十三年(1900—1907年)间的20多首诗词自成书卷。其中就有《留别祖国并呈同学诸子》、《哀国民之心死》等不少值得称道的佳作,表现了作者对国家命运和民生疾苦的深切关注。出家前的五六年间,他还有30余首歌词问世。这些作品,通过艺术的手法表达了人们在相同境遇中大都会发生的思想情绪,曾经风靡一时,有的成为经久不衰的传世之作。
弘一法师对联语也有浓厚兴趣,并有极高的鉴赏和创作水平。尤其是出家后,大师为各地寺院和缁素撰写的诸多嵌字联语,更表现出他的奇思妙想和深厚的艺术功底。他在宣传佛法导引终生佛化过程中,将联语这一形式作为劝人为善的巧妙手段。他书写的那些内容深刻、极富哲理的名联,现也成为警示后人的一笔宝贵的文化艺术财富。

艺术成就

李叔同多才多艺,诗文、词曲、话剧、绘画、书法、篆刻无所不能。
绘画
他第一个把西洋绘画思想引进到中国,第一个在教学中开创裸体写生,他还是中广告画、中国油画和木刻的先驱。
绘画上擅长木炭素描、油画、水彩画、中国画、广告、木刻等。他是中国油画、广告画和木刻的先驱之一。他的绘画创作主要在出家以前;其后多作书法。由于战乱,作品大多散失。从留存的《自画像》、《素描头像》、《裸女》以及《水彩》、《佛画》等可窥见一斑。《自画像》估计是出国前所绘,画风细腻缜密,表情描写细致入微,类似清末融合中西的宫廷肖像画,有较高的写实能力。《素描头像》是木炭画,手法简练而泼辣。《裸女》受其师黑田清辉影响,造型准确,色彩鲜明丰富,有些接近于印象主义,近看似不经意,远看晶莹明澈。
书法
书法是李叔同毕生的爱好,青年时致力于临碑。他的书法作品有《游艺》、《勇猛精进》等。出家前的书体秀丽、挺健而潇洒;出家后则渐变为超逸、淡冶,晚年之作,愈加谨严、明净、平易、安详。李叔同的篆刻艺术,上追秦汉,近学皖派、浙派、西泠八家和吴熙载等,气息古厚,冲淡质朴,自辟蹊径。有《李庐印谱》、《晚清空印聚》存世。
音乐
李叔同是最早在中国从事乐歌创作,也是第一个向中国传播西方音乐的先驱者。他创办了中国第一本音乐刊物《音乐小杂志》,他也是第一个向中国传播西方音乐的先驱者,是中国校园歌曲创作的奠基人。  
李叔同一生写了90多首歌曲。由于他具有较为全面的中西音乐文化修养,所作乐歌大多为借景抒情之作,填配的文辞继承了中国古典诗词的隽永秀丽,意境深远;选用的多为欧美各国的通俗名曲,曲调优美动人、清新流畅;词曲的结合贴切顺达,相得益彰,达到了很高的艺术水平。因此,他的乐歌作品广为青年学生和知识分子喜爱。他创作的《春游》、 《送别》 、《悲秋》、《伤春》、《晚钟》、《西湖》、《落花》等数十首乐歌,在大江南北流行数十年,久唱不衰。像著名的《送别》,这首歌仅有十句唱词,八个乐句的歌曲,自1914年问世以来,传唱了近百年,仍然有着巨大的艺术魅力[2] 。由他自己写的词谱曲的《春游》,则是中国目前可见的最早的一首合唱歌曲。
戏剧
他早年在国内演过京剧,赴日本后,创办春柳剧社,演出话剧《茶花女》、《黑奴吁天录》、《新蝶梦》等,是中国话剧运动的创始人之一。
周恩来总理曾对曹禺说:“你们将来如要编写《中国话剧史》,不要忘记天津的李叔同,即出家后的弘一法师。他是传播西洋绘画、音乐、戏剧到中国来的先驱。”

人物评价

总评
他是中国新文化运动 的前驱,卓越的艺术家 、教育家 、思想家 、革新家,是中国传统文化 与佛教 文化相结合的优秀代表,是中国近现代佛教史上最杰出的一位高僧,又是国际上声誉甚高的知名人士。李叔同是“二十文章惊海内”的大师,集诗、词、书、画、篆刻、音乐、戏剧、文学于一身,在多个领域,开中华灿烂文化艺术之先河。同时,他在教育、哲学、法学、汉字学、社会学、广告学、出版学、环境与动植物保护、人体断食实验诸方面均有创造性发展。
他把中国古代的书法艺术推向了极致。作为高僧书法,弘一与历史上的一些僧人艺术家存有差异,如智永和怀素,尽管身披袈裟,但似乎他们的一生并未以坚定的佛教信仰和恳切实际的佛教修行为目的,他们不过是寄身于禅院的艺术家,“狂来轻世界,醉里得真知”,这完全是艺术家的气质与浪漫。
八大山人笔下的白眼八哥形象,讽刺的意味是显而易见的,他的画作实在为一种发泄,是入世的,并未超然。比之他们,弘一逃禅来得彻底,他皈依自心,超然尘外,要为律宗的即修为佛而献身,是一名纯粹的佛教大家。他是第一个向中国传播西方音乐的先驱者,所作词的《送别歌》,历经几十年传唱经久不衰,成为经典名曲。同时,他也是中国第一个开创裸体写生的教师。
卓越的艺术造诣,先后培养出了名画家丰子恺、音乐家刘质平等一些文化名人。他苦心向佛,过午不食,精研律学,弘扬佛法,普度众生出苦海,被佛门弟子奉为律宗第十一代世祖。他为世人留下了咀嚼不尽的精神财富,他的一生充满了传奇色彩,他是中国绚丽至极归于平淡的典型人物。
名家点评
鲁迅:“朴拙圆满,浑若天成。得李师手书,幸甚!”
林语堂:“李叔同是我们时代里最有才华的几位天才之一,也是最奇特的一个人,最遗世而独立的一个人。”
张爱玲:“不要认为我是个高傲的人,我从来不是的,至少,在弘一法师寺院转围墙外面,我是如此的谦卑。”
夏丏尊:“综师一生,为翩翩之佳公子,为激昂之志士,为多才之艺人,为严肃之教育者,为戒律精严之头陀,而以倾心西极,吉祥善逝。”

后世纪念

纪念馆
浙江平湖市李叔同纪念馆坐落于东湖景区大瀛洲内,建筑造型为一高雅、洁白之莲花,是东湖风景区的标志性建筑。二OO七年被评为国家AAAA级旅游景区。纪念馆主体建筑分上下两层。二楼设有七个陈列室和一个能展示上百件书画作品的环型展厅。
天津李叔同纪念馆
李叔同故居修复工程在天津市河北区海河东路与滨海路交口西侧完工。修复故居按照“前门朝东,后门朝海河,故居坐北朝南”的原则设计,占地面积4000余平方米,由故居和附设花园两部分组成,由苏州园林设计院负责设计,保持原故居的建筑规模和建筑风格。李叔同故居将按原貌恢复重建,保留下来的李叔同原故居建筑材料将被用于纪念馆工程;花园内将建弘一大师纪念亭和雕像等设施。故居修复建成后,将在故居内建“李叔同——弘一大师故居纪念馆”,并向社会免费开放。
纪录片
浙江卫视纪录大片《弘一大师》。他,是个才气横溢的艺术家,更是一代名僧。在人们心目中,他,实在是个“谜”,一个难以琢磨的谜。的确,一个家资万贯、风流倜傥的豪门公子,曾东渡扶桑,成为我国第一个赴日学西洋艺术的留学生。回国后,也曾为中国美术史、音乐史和话剧史开辟了一个新纪元,做出了开创性的贡献。然而,这样一位集诗词、篆刻、音乐、戏剧、文学于一身的艺术家居然在三十八岁盛年之时悄然皈依佛门,二十四年后又被佛门弟子奉之为律宗第十一代宗师。他,就是近代文化名人李叔同--弘一大师。
电视剧
电视剧《弘一大师》
制片国家/地区: 中国大陆
语言: 普通话/国语
首播日期: 1995
内容简介:1995年是我国近代文化名人李叔同,近代三大高僧之一弘一法师诞辰115周年。为了纪念这位曾为中国现代文化艺术及其佛教做出了巨大贡献的先辈艺术家和一代名僧,中央电视台中国电视剧制作中心创作了二十集电视连续剧《弘一法师》,并在天津杨柳青“石家大院”完成拍摄。该剧根据徐星平同名传记文学改编,以生动的情节表现了出身豪门的才子李叔同从小到大,由投身文化救国到遁入佛门的人生经历。李叔同是个才气横溢的艺术家,更是一代名僧。

English Introduction

Li Shutong is a pioneer of Chinese New Culture Movement, a famous artist, educator, thinker and innovator in modern history. As early China enlightenment of the new culture movement, his life is higher in many cultural fields of music, drama, art, poetry, calligraphy, seal carving, stone, education, philosophy, law and so on achievements, and has trained a large number of outstanding artistic talent. Famous painter Feng Zikai, musician Liu quality equal cultural celebrities are under their door.
In 1918, Li Shutong in Hangzhou Hupao Temple monks, fahao Hong Yi, Farmington speech sound. As a famous monk in modern history of Buddhism Chinese most outstanding, he was hailed as Nanshan lvzong master Lv Zongdi Khan, eleven, chicago. Mr. Zhao Puchu evaluation of master's life is: "the endless treasure of the world eye for a full moon shining day."
Poetry and Literature
Li Shutong's poetry also holds a place in the history of modern Chinese literature. When he was young, he was gifted with literary attention. When living in Shanghai, he will ever make poetry recorded for the "hand" in the first compilation of Shizhong, circulated in "South literary society" club, after the collection of "Li Lu" shizhong. On the eve of a monk, he will Guangxu twenty-six to thirty-three years (1900 - 1907) of the more than and 20 poems from the book. Among them "of the motherland and was classmates", "national mourning their dead heart" and so many commendable masterpiece, the performance of the author is deeply concerned about the fate of the country and the people's sufferings. Before five or six years, he has more than 30 words of the song came out. These works, by way of art expression of the people will take place in the same situation in the most emotional thought, have become enduring become fashionable for a time, some of the masterpieces.
Master Hong Yi also has a strong interest in the language, and have a high level of appreciation and creation. Especially after a monk, many language around the temple and adding word master in plain writing, showing his deep knowledge of art and ideas. He guided the Buddha Dharma in the propaganda of lifelong process, will be in the form of the language as a means to persuade people to do clever. He wrote those profound, highly philosophical name, and now also become a valuable cultural and artistic warning descendants.

Li Shutong versatile, poetry, drama, poetry, painting, calligraphy, seal carving equal to anything.
painting
He is the first Western painting idea is introduced into China, created the first nude painting in the teaching, he was in the pioneer posters, Chinese paintings and woodcut.
Drawing on a good charcoal sketch and oil painting, watercolor painting, China, advertising, wood and so on. He is one of the pioneers of China paintings, paintings and woodcut advertising. His paintings are mainly in the home before; thereafter for calligraphy. Because of the war, most of the works. From the retained the "self portrait", "portrait", "nude" and "watercolor", "Buddha paintings" and so we can get a glimpse of. "Self portrait" is estimated to be painted before going abroad, style and meticulous description, expression of the fusion of Chinese and Western nuanced, similar in the late Qing Dynasty Royal portrait painting, has high realistic ability. "Sketch head" is a charcoal drawing, concise and forceful way. "Nude" by his teacher Kuroda Kiyoshiki, accurate modeling, color rich, and some close to Impressionism, almost seemingly casual, far see pure crystal.
Calligraphy
Calligraphy is a lifelong love of Li Shutong, young people dedicated to the monument. His calligraphy works have "entertainment", "strong" etc.. Before the body beautiful, very healthy and handsome; after a monk is changed to comfort, light ye, old age, more precise, clear, plain, quiet. Li Shutong's carving art, chasing the Qin and Han Dynasties, Anhui, Zhejiang School, near school sent the Xiling eight and Wu Xizai, the ancient atmosphere thick, dilute the plain, since the provision of paths. A "Li Lu", "late empty yinpu printing", poly.
Music
Li Shutong is engaged in songs creation early in the Chinese, is also the first pioneers to China the spread of Western music. He founded the first China music publications "minor music magazine", he was also the first to China the spread of western music pioneer, founder of China campus songs.
Li Shutong wrote more than and 90 songs all his life. Because he has Chinese and western music culture comprehensively, made mostly by King Lyric Songs, filled with words inherited the classical poetry Chinese meaningful and beautiful, profound artistic conception; used for Europe and the United States popular songs, beautiful melody, fresh and smooth; and with appropriate Shunda, complement each other, to achieve the very high artistic level. Therefore, his music works widely for young students and intellectuals love. He created the "spring outing", "farewell", "autumn", "spring", "the bells", "West Lake", "flower" and other popular songs in dozens of song, on both sides of the Changjiang River decades long singing is not bad. Like the famous "farewell", this song is only ten lines, eight phrases of songs, since 1914, sung in the recent hundred years, there are still great artistic charm [2]. He wrote poems of the song "spring outing", is China currently visible in the earliest a duet song.
Theatre
He played in the early years of domestic opera, went to Japan, founder of Chunliu club, drama "La Traviata", "Uncle Tom", "new butterfly dream", is one of the founders of China drama movement.
Premier Zhou Enlai once said to Cao Yu: "you will like to write" China drama history ", don't forget Li Shutong in Tianjin, which become the master Hong yi. He is the pioneer of spreading Western painting, music and drama to China."

General
He was a pioneer of the new culture movement Chinese, outstanding artist, educator, thinker and innovator, is the outstanding representative of Chinese traditional culture combined with the Buddhist culture, is a monk in modern history of Buddhism Chinese most outstanding, is also very high international reputation of famous people. Li Shutong is the twenty domestic surprise "of the master, collection of poems, books, paintings, sculpture, music, drama, literature in a body, in many areas, the first Chinese brilliant culture art. At the same time, his education, philosophy, law, sociology, Chinese characters, advertising, publishing, environment and human, animal and plant protection experiments in all aspects of creative development fast.
He pushed the ancient Chinese calligraphy art to the extreme. As a monk calligraphy, some monks and artists in the history of great differences, such as the Huai Su Zhi Yong, although wearing robes, but they did not seem to life with a firm faith and sincere practice for the purpose of Buddhist practice, but they are home to the school of Zen Art, "mad to light the world, know the truth" this is completely drunk, the artist's temperament and romantic.
Eight white eyed starling image, the irony is obviously, his painting is really a vent, is joining the WTO, not detached. Compared with them, 'Zen more thoroughly, he was aloof from the heart and the outside, to the Buddha for lvzong dedication, is a pure Buddhist people. He was the first to Chinese the spread of western music pioneers, the lyrics of "farewell song", sung after enduring decades, as the classic songs. At the same time, he is also the first teacher to create nude sketch.
Outstanding artistic attainments, has developed a famous painter Feng Zikai, musician Liu quality equal some cultural celebrities. He carefully to the Buddha, NFAM, lapping temperament, Dharma, sentient beings out of Oliver, was regarded as a Buddhist disciple lvzong eleventh generation ancestor. He left the world to chew endless spiritual wealth, his life is full of legendary color, he is gorgeous Chinese to the dull typical character.
Famous Reviews
Lu Xun: "a sincere, if muddy tiancheng. Teacher Li calligraphy, good!"
Lin Yutang: "Li Shutong is one of the most gifted geniuses of our time, and one of the most extraordinary, the most isolated and independent man."
Eileen Chang: "I don't think that is a proud man, I am not, at least, to the outside walls in the great master Hongyi temple, I was so humble."
Xia Mianzun: "in life as the teacher, elegant dandy, as passionate as the talented artist, who, for serious education, strict discipline for the Dhuta, and go to the west, auspicious sugata."

Memorial Museum
Zhejiang Pinghu Li Shutong memorial hall is located in the East Lake scenic spot in the architectural style of lotus Chou, an elegant, white, is a landmark building in East Lake scenic area. Two OO was rated as the national AAAA class tourist attractions in seven. Memorial main building is divided into two layers. The two floor has seven galleries and a display of hundreds of pieces of calligraphy and painting exhibition hall of the ring.
Tianjin Li Shutong Memorial
The former residence of Li Shutong in Tianjin City, the Hebei District restoration project completed and Binhai Road junction on the west side of the Haihe River road. Repair of residence in accordance with the "Qianmen East, back toward the Haihe River, the design of residence sits" principle, covers an area of 4000 square meters, by home and garden with two parts, by the Suzhou Landscape Design Institute responsible for the design, to maintain the original residence building size and architectural style. The restoration of the former residence of Li Shutong according to the original appearance, retained the original Li Shutong residence building materials will be used for the memorial project; garden will be built within the master Memorial Pavilion and statues and other facilities. The former residence of the repair is completed, will be built in the former residence of Li Shutong - Master Hongyi Memorial ", and open to the public for free.
Documentary
Zhejiang TV movies "master" record. He is a talented artist, is a famous monk. In people's minds, he is really a mystery, an elusive mystery. Indeed, a rich, casual and elegant bearing the wealthy son, once East to Japan to become China's first went to Japan to study western art students. After returning to China, also opened a new era for Chinese art history, music history and drama history, made a pioneering contribution. However, such a collection of poetry, carving, music, drama, literature in one of the artists actually at the age of thirty-eight when prime quietly converted to Buddhism, twenty-four years later by the Buddhists to serve as the master lvzong tenth. He is Li Shutong, great master of modern cultural celebrities.
TV play
TV series "great master"
Producer countries / regions: China
Language: Mandarin / Mandarin
Premiere date: 1995
Brief introduction: 1995 is China's modern cultural celebrities Li Shutong, one of the three modern monk master Hong Yi's 115 birthday anniversary. In order to commemorate the former Chinese modern culture art and Buddhism has made great contributions to the ancestors of artists and a generation of monks, CCTV Chinese TV production center has produced twenty sets of TV series "and" master Hong Yi, "the mansion" in Tianjin Yangliuqing finished shooting. Play according to the name of Xu Xingping biography adapted, with vivid plot showing talent Li Shutong was born wealthy nation culture to join up by Dunru Buddhism life experience. Li Shutong is a talented artist, is a famous monk.

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